Abstract

Multimodal imaging (MMI) is a new imaging technique that combines an electrophysiological test (multifocal electroretinogram) with an optical coherence tomography ophthalmoscope. MMI allows the two technologies to operate simultaneously yet independently to provide accurate correlation of macular structure and function at multiple sites. Preliminary work with MMI in patients with macular holes showed that functional deficits existed beyond the geographical area of structural alterations and that macular hole size did not always correlate with the severity of functional loss. Functional information may therefore be important when assessing prognosis in these patients. We envisage that MMI may prove a useful new tool in the assessment of many macular pathologies.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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  6. A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).
  7. A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Rogers, A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Topography and volume measurements of the optic nerve using en-face optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 533-545 (2001).
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  9. A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. K. Rohrschneider and S. Bueltmann, "Correlation between fundus perimetry and multifocal ERG using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, Abstract S69 (2001).
  30. S. Ullrich, C Haritoglou, C. Gass, M. Schaumberger, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, "Macular hole size as a prognostic factor in macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 86, 390-393 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Y-J. Si, S. Kishi, and K. Aoyagi, "Assessment of macular function by multifocal electroretinogram before and after macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 420-424 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).
  34. F. Amari, K. Ohta, H. Kojima, and N. Yoshimura, "Predicting visual outcome after macular hole surgery using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry," Br. J. Ophthamol. 85, 96-98 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. Dudgeon, D. Keating, and S. Parks, "Multimodal imaging with the combined SLO/OCT and micro-multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, E-Abstract 3317 (2006).
  36. I. Daubechies, "The wavelet transform, time frequency localization and signal analysis," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961-1005 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2006

S. M. Dudgeon, D. Keating, and S. Parks, "Multimodal imaging with the combined SLO/OCT and micro-multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, E-Abstract 3317 (2006).

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, L. A. Yannuzzi, R. B. Rosen, A. G. Podoleanu, and M. G. de Smet, "Imaging of the retina by en face optical coherence tomography," Retina 26, 129-136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Drexler, "Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, M. Horiguchi, and K. Shoji, "Tomographic and multifocal electroretinographic features of idiopathic epiretinal membranes," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 122, 1462-1467 (2004).

2003

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and M. Kulhavy, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28, 1981-1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ullrich, C Haritoglou, C. Gass, M. Schaumberger, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, "Macular hole size as a prognostic factor in macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 86, 390-393 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, M. Hayashi, and S. Takeuchi, "Morphological and functional analyses of diabetic macular edema by optical coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinograms," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 239, 96-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Amari, K. Ohta, H. Kojima, and N. Yoshimura, "Predicting visual outcome after macular hole surgery using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry," Br. J. Ophthamol. 85, 96-98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Topography and volume measurements of the optic nerve using en-face optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 533-545 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. C. Hood, "Assessing retinal function with the multifocal technique," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 19, 607-646 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Keating, S. Parks, and A. L. Evans, "Technical aspects of multifocal ERG recording," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 77-98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Seeliger, K. Narfstrom, J. Reinhard, E. Zrenner, and E. Sutter, "Continuous monitoring of the stimulated area in multifocal ERG," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 167-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

1999

Y-J. Si, S. Kishi, and K. Aoyagi, "Assessment of macular function by multifocal electroretinogram before and after macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 420-424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chauhan and J. Marshall, "The interpretation of optical coherence tomography images of the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2332-2342 (1999).

1998

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993

1992

E. E. Sutter and D. Tran, "The field topography of ERG component in man. Part 1. The photopic luminance response," Vision Res. 32, 433-446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

I. Daubechies, "The wavelet transform, time frequency localization and signal analysis," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961-1005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amari, F.

F. Amari, K. Ohta, H. Kojima, and N. Yoshimura, "Predicting visual outcome after macular hole surgery using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry," Br. J. Ophthamol. 85, 96-98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, K.

Y-J. Si, S. Kishi, and K. Aoyagi, "Assessment of macular function by multifocal electroretinogram before and after macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 420-424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bechmann, M.

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Boxer, A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bueltmann, S.

K. Rohrschneider and S. Bueltmann, "Correlation between fundus perimetry and multifocal ERG using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, Abstract S69 (2001).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chauhan, D. S.

D. S. Chauhan and J. Marshall, "The interpretation of optical coherence tomography images of the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2332-2342 (1999).

Chinn, S. R.

Cucu, R. C.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daubechies, I.

I. Daubechies, "The wavelet transform, time frequency localization and signal analysis," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961-1005 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Smet, M. D.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Smet, M. G.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, L. A. Yannuzzi, R. B. Rosen, A. G. Podoleanu, and M. G. de Smet, "Imaging of the retina by en face optical coherence tomography," Retina 26, 129-136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Topography and volume measurements of the optic nerve using en-face optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 533-545 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Dolan, F. M.

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, "Ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudgeon, S. M.

S. M. Dudgeon, D. Keating, and S. Parks, "Multimodal imaging with the combined SLO/OCT and micro-multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, E-Abstract 3317 (2006).

Duker, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dunne, S.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutton, G. N.

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. L.

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Keating, S. Parks, and A. L. Evans, "Technical aspects of multifocal ERG recording," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 77-98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and M. Kulhavy, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, Y.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source," Opt. Lett. 22, 340-342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Garcia, P.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, P. M.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gass, C.

S. Ullrich, C Haritoglou, C. Gass, M. Schaumberger, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, "Macular hole size as a prognostic factor in macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 86, 390-393 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaudric, A.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentile, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grall, Y.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guez, J.-E.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halfyard, A. S.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Haritoglou, C.

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, M.

S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, M. Hayashi, and S. Takeuchi, "Morphological and functional analyses of diabetic macular edema by optical coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinograms," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 239, 96-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M.

Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hikichi, T.

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and M. Kulhavy, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hood, D. C.

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, "Assessing retinal function with the multifocal technique," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 19, 607-646 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horiguchi, M.

D. Li, M. Horiguchi, and K. Shoji, "Tomographic and multifocal electroretinographic features of idiopathic epiretinal membranes," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 122, 1462-1467 (2004).

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Huang, D.

E.A.Swanson, J. Izatt, M. Hee, D. Huang, C. Lin, J. Schuman, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishiko, S.

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jackson, D.

Jackson, D. A.

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Kalpadakis, P.

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kampik, A.

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ullrich, C Haritoglou, C. Gass, M. Schaumberger, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, "Macular hole size as a prognostic factor in macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 86, 390-393 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keating, D.

S. M. Dudgeon, D. Keating, and S. Parks, "Multimodal imaging with the combined SLO/OCT and micro-multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, E-Abstract 3317 (2006).

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Keating, S. Parks, and A. L. Evans, "Technical aspects of multifocal ERG recording," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 77-98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Parks and D. Keating, "The multifocal electroretinogram," in Disorders of Visual Processing, G.Celesia, ed. (Elsevier, 2005), Chap. 5.

Kishi, S.

Y-J. Si, S. Kishi, and K. Aoyagi, "Assessment of macular function by multifocal electroretinogram before and after macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 420-424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, H.

F. Amari, K. Ohta, H. Kojima, and N. Yoshimura, "Predicting visual outcome after macular hole surgery using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry," Br. J. Ophthamol. 85, 96-98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Kulhavy, M.

Le Gargasson, J.-F.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Li, D.

D. Li, M. Horiguchi, and K. Shoji, "Tomographic and multifocal electroretinographic features of idiopathic epiretinal membranes," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 122, 1462-1467 (2004).

Lin, C.

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmor, M. F.

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

D. S. Chauhan and J. Marshall, "The interpretation of optical coherence tomography images of the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2332-2342 (1999).

Massin, P.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Mori, F.

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

Muldoon, T.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narfstrom, K.

M. W. Seeliger, K. Narfstrom, J. Reinhard, E. Zrenner, and E. Sutter, "Continuous monitoring of the stimulated area in multifocal ERG," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 167-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieto, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohta, K.

F. Amari, K. Ohta, H. Kojima, and N. Yoshimura, "Predicting visual outcome after macular hole surgery using scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry," Br. J. Ophthamol. 85, 96-98 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Orlock, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parks, S.

S. M. Dudgeon, D. Keating, and S. Parks, "Multimodal imaging with the combined SLO/OCT and micro-multifocal ERG," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, E-Abstract 3317 (2006).

F. M. Dolan, S. Parks, D. Keating, G. N. Dutton, and A. L. Evans, "Multifocal electroretinographic features of central retinal vein occlusion," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4954-4959 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Keating, S. Parks, and A. L. Evans, "Technical aspects of multifocal ERG recording," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 77-98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Parks and D. Keating, "The multifocal electroretinogram," in Disorders of Visual Processing, G.Celesia, ed. (Elsevier, 2005), Chap. 5.

Podoleanu, A. G.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, L. A. Yannuzzi, R. B. Rosen, A. G. Podoleanu, and M. G. de Smet, "Imaging of the retina by en face optical coherence tomography," Retina 26, 129-136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Topography and volume measurements of the optic nerve using en-face optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 533-545 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Puliafito, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

Reinhard, J.

M. W. Seeliger, K. Narfstrom, J. Reinhard, E. Zrenner, and E. Sutter, "Continuous monitoring of the stimulated area in multifocal ERG," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 167-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigaudiere, F.

J.-E. Guez, J.-F. Le Gargasson, P. Massin, F. Rigaudiere, Y. Grall, and A. Gaudric, "Functional assessment of macular hole surgery by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Ophthalmology 105, 694-699 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Rogers, A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. Jackson, and F. Fitzke, "Topography and volume measurements of the optic nerve using en-face optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 533-545 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohrschneider, K.

K. Rohrschneider and S. Bueltmann, "Correlation between fundus perimetry and multifocal ERG using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, Abstract S69 (2001).

Rosen, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. C. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, "Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 86-93 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R. B.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, L. A. Yannuzzi, R. B. Rosen, A. G. Podoleanu, and M. G. de Smet, "Imaging of the retina by en face optical coherence tomography," Retina 26, 129-136 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, G.

G. Rudolph, P. Kalpadakis, M. Bechmann, C. Haritoglou, and A. Kampik, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope-evoked multifocal ERG (SLO-mfERG) in patients with macular holes and normal individuals," Eye 17, 801-808 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, E.

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

Schaumberger, M.

S. Ullrich, C Haritoglou, C. Gass, M. Schaumberger, M. W. Ulbig, and A. Kampik, "Macular hole size as a prognostic factor in macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 86, 390-393 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlingemann, R. O.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Ophthamol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J.

Schuman, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography of Ocular Diseases (Slack, 2004).

Seeger, M.

A. G. Podoleanu, M. Seeger, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, and F. W. Fitzke, "Transversal and longitudinal images from the retina of the living eye using low coherence reflectometry," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 12-20 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, M. Seeger, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, F. W. Fitzke, and A. S. Halfyard, "Low coherence interferometry for en-face imaging of the retina," Lasers Light 8, 187-192 (1998).

Seeliger, M. W.

M. F. Marmor, D. C. Hood, D. Keating, M. Kondo, M. W. Seeliger, and Y. Miyake, "Guidelines for basic multifocal electroretinography (mfERG)," Doc. Ophthalmol. 106, 105-15 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Seeliger, K. Narfstrom, J. Reinhard, E. Zrenner, and E. Sutter, "Continuous monitoring of the stimulated area in multifocal ERG," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 167-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, K.

D. Li, M. Horiguchi, and K. Shoji, "Tomographic and multifocal electroretinographic features of idiopathic epiretinal membranes," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 122, 1462-1467 (2004).

Si, Y-J.

Y-J. Si, S. Kishi, and K. Aoyagi, "Assessment of macular function by multifocal electroretinogram before and after macular hole surgery," Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 420-424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, E.

M. W. Seeliger, K. Narfstrom, J. Reinhard, E. Zrenner, and E. Sutter, "Continuous monitoring of the stimulated area in multifocal ERG," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 167-184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, E. E.

E. E. Sutter and D. Tran, "The field topography of ERG component in man. Part 1. The photopic luminance response," Vision Res. 32, 433-446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source," Opt. Lett. 22, 340-342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Imaging macular diseases with optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 102, 217-229 (1995).
[PubMed]

E.A.Swanson, J. Izatt, M. Hee, D. Huang, C. Lin, J. Schuman, C. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, "In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 18, 1864-1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamiya, A.

T. Hikichi, S. Ishiko, A. Takamiya, E. Sato, and F. Mori, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope correlations with biomicroscopic findings and foveal function after macular hole closure," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 193-197 (2000).

Takeuchi, S.

S. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, M. Hayashi, and S. Takeuchi, "Morphological and functional analyses of diabetic macular edema by optical coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinograms," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 239, 96-101 (2001).
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Tanikawa, A.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MMI setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multifocal ERG stimulus patterns. (A) The WF-mfERG stimulus consists of 61 empirically scaled hexagonal elements covering 90 ° of the visual field. (B) The central 7 elements of the WF-mfERG stimulus cover 22 ° of the field, approximately the same field covered by (C), the micro-mfERG stimulus. Note that the micro-mfERG stimulus pattern is composed of 19 empirically scaled hexagonal elements and therefore stimulates at approximately 3 times higher resolution than the WF-mfERG. The gray circles overlying the stimulus pattern in (B) and (C) illustrate the difference in hexagon size with retinal eccentricity for the WF- and micro-mfERG stimuli, respectively. In the WF-mfERG, ring 1 (the central element) stimulates the central 6 ° of the visual field, and ring 2 stimulates the central 22 ° . Ring 1 (the central element) in the micro-mfERG stimulates the central 2.6 ° of the visual field, ring 2 stimulates 10 ° , and ring 3 stimulates 20 ° .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Annotated (A) confocal scanning ophthalmoscope image of the fundus, (B) OCT C-scan and (C) OCT B-scan from a patient with full thickness macular hole. FTMH, full thickness macular hole; IRF, intraretinal fluid; PVD, posterior vitreous detachment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

61-element multifocal ERG trace array with a close-up of one of the waveforms showing the N1, P1, and N2 components of the response.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of (left to right) confocal scanning ophthalmoscope image of the fundus, OCT C-scan, OCT B-scan, micro-mfERG trace array, schematic diagram of stimulated areas with normal (white), delayed only (gray) or delayed and reduced in amplitude (black) responses, and overlay of micro-mfERG stimulus on the C-scan image. The top row is from a healthy control subject. Rows 2–6 are from patients 1–5, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Patient Details a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Number of Stimulated Areas with Abnormal Amplitude or Latency of WF-mfERG and Micro-mfERG Responses in Five Patients with Macular Hole a

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