Abstract

Adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) permits improved imaging of microscopic retinal structures by combining the high lateral resolution of AO with the high axial resolution of OCT, resulting in the narrowest three-dimensional (3D) point-spread function (PSF) of all in vivo retinal imaging techniques. Owing to the high volumetric resolution of AO-OCT systems, it is now possible, for the first time, to acquire images of 3D cellular structures in the living retina. Thus, with AO-OCT, those retinal structures that are not visible with AO or OCT alone (e.g., bundles of retinal nerve fiber layers, 3D mosaic of photoreceptors, 3D structure of microvasculature, and detailed structure of retinal disruptions) can be visualized. Our current AO-OCT instrumentation uses spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT technology and two-deformable-mirror-based AO wavefront correction. We describe image processing methods that help to remove motion artifacts observed in volumetric data, followed by innovative data visualization techniques [including two-dimensional (2D) and 3D representations]. Finally, examples of microscopic retinal structures that are acquired with the University of California Davis AO-OCT system are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (5)

2005 (7)

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández and W. Drexler, "Influence of ocular chromatic aberration and pupil size on transverse resolution in ophthalmic adaptive optics optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 8184-8197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Laut, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6007, 60070I (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (6)

2002 (2)

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar--new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altai, P.

Anderson, D. H.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anhelt, P.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradu, A.

Brown, M. N.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Choi, S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

Choma, M. A.

Dainty, C.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández and W. Drexler, "Influence of ocular chromatic aberration and pupil size on transverse resolution in ophthalmic adaptive optics optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 8184-8197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Altai, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Altai, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E. J.

Fernández, E.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández and W. Drexler, "Influence of ocular chromatic aberration and pupil size on transverse resolution in ophthalmic adaptive optics optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 8184-8197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, E. J.

Fisher, S. K.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

Gao, W.

Gerth, C.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, B.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar--new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Altai, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. H.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Johnson, L. V.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. T.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kappel, P. J.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, B. E.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laut, S.

Laut, S. P.

S. P. Laut, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6007, 60070I (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, G. P.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar--new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merino, D.

Meuer, S. M.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Morse, L.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Park, B. H.

Park, S. S.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

Qu, J.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rha, J.

Ruttimann, U. E.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarks, J. P.

S. H. Sarks and J. P. Sarks, "Age-related maculopathy: nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration and the evolution of geographic atrophy," in Retina, A.P.Schachat, ed. (Mosby, 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 1064-1099.

Sarks, S. H.

S. H. Sarks and J. P. Sarks, "Age-related maculopathy: nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration and the evolution of geographic atrophy," in Retina, A.P.Schachat, ed. (Mosby, 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 1064-1099.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattman, H.

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhubner, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Altai, "Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scholda, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stingl, A.

Talaga, K. C.

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G. J.

Thévenaz, P.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomany, S. C.

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unser, M.

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

Unterhubner, A.

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Laut, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6007, 60070I (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiley, D. F.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Ch.

Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

P. Thévenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 27-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

P. T. Johnson, G. P. Lewis, K. C. Talaga, M. N. Brown, P. J. Kappel, S. K. Fisher, D. H. Anderson, and L. V. Johnson, "Drusen-associated degeneration in the retina," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4481-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar--new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (3)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-46 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alam, R. J. Zawadzki, S. Choi, C. Gerth, S. S. Park, L. Morse, and J. S. Werner, "Clinical application of rapid serial Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for macular imaging," Ophthalmology 113, 1425-31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Klein, B. E. Klein, S. C. Tomany, S. M. Meuer, and G. H. Huang, "Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam eye study," Ophthalmology 109, 1767-79 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367-376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, Ch. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fernández and W. Drexler, "Influence of ocular chromatic aberration and pupil size on transverse resolution in ophthalmic adaptive optics optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 8184-8197 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, M. Zhao, D. F. Wiley, S. S. Choi, B. A. Bower, B. Hamann, J. A. Izatt, and J. S. Werner, "3D OCT imaging in clinical settings: toward quantitative measurements of retinal structures," Proc. SPIE 6138, 1-11 (2006).

S. P. Laut, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 6007, 60070I (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, "Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye," Proc. SPIE 4956, 65-72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

E. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattman, P. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Anhelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. H. Sarks and J. P. Sarks, "Age-related maculopathy: nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration and the evolution of geographic atrophy," in Retina, A.P.Schachat, ed. (Mosby, 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 1064-1099.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of AO-OCT system. “R” and “P” denote retinal and pupil planes, respectively. DM1, bimorph deformable mirror (AOptix); DM2, MEMS DM (Boston Micromachines) are optically conjugated [by sets of the spherical-mirror—(Mn)-based telescopes] with the subject’s eye pupil, X Y scanners and the H-S wavefront sensor. The reference arm of the AO-OCT system is designed to match the path length of the sample arm. A fixation point is used to set the retinal location of the imaged structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Top) Example traces of the wavefront RMS in micrometers; (bottom) PSF Strehl ratio reconstructed from H-S centroid displacements (measured on a healthy volunteer’s eye) plotted as a function of time for two-DM AO system operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AO-OCT B-scans and corresponding averaged frame intensity profiles of the healthy retina acquired at 5 ° temporal retina. These frames have been picked arbitrarily from a movie acquired during the starting sequence of our AO system (an example is presented in Fig. 2). (Top) B-scan before correction, (middle) B-scan with DM1 correction only, (bottom) B-scan with DM1 on hold and DM2 active. Note increased intensity of photoreceptor layers and decrease in the depth of focus for improved wavefront error correction. Scale bar on the B-scans is 100 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Orientation of fast- and slow-axis scans used for AO-OCT volume acquisition, and location of the cutting planes used in presentation of the volumetric data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of the B-scan self-registration algorithm performance presented on original B-scans (top), on reconstructed slow-axis B-scans (middle), and C-scans (bottom). Registered and unregistered axes are denoted by black and gray arrows, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Screen shot from IDAV volume renderer for visualizing retinal data. Small images on the left provide access to three independent planes that can be moved through the volume by a cursor; large image on the right shows the reconstructed volume.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

C-scan of microvasculature reconstructed from retinal volume ( 1 m × 1 m ) with intensity calculated by axial averaging. Each image illustrates averaging of different numbers of C-scans (0, 4, 16, or 64 frames). The foveolar center is located at the upper left corner.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

C-scan visualization of retinal capillaries and foveal avascular zone (1.5° nasal, 1.5° inferior retina). Square in fundus photo shows estimated location of the retinal volume in the panel below. The three figures on the right each show identical B-scans with a white line to illustrate the position of the corresponding C-scan.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed slow-axis B-scans and C-scans from two retinal volumes acquired with the focus set on photoreceptor layers (left column) and on upper retinal layers (right column). Arrow in each panel denotes estimated focus position. Rows show C-scan reconstruction of the same retinal layer (denoted by abbreviations) with the exact position indicated by a white line on the B-scan. Retinal layers in C-scans from top to bottom are nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner/outer segment junction (I/OS), Verhoeff’s membrane (VM), and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Scale bars = 100 μm (vertical and horizontal).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Visualization of a microscopic druse in a patient with age-related macular degeneration. Details of the volume renderer as in Fig. 6.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Volume Acquisition Modes of AO-OCT System versus Those of Current Clinical FD-OCT Systems

Metrics