Abstract

We describe the design and performance of an adaptive optics retinal imager that is optimized for use during dynamic correction for eye movements. The system incorporates a retinal tracker and stabilizer, a wide-field line scan scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), and a high-resolution microelectromechanical-systems-based adaptive optics SLO. The detection system incorporates selection and positioning of confocal apertures, allowing measurement of images arising from different portions of the double pass retinal point-spread function (psf). System performance was excellent. The adaptive optics increased the brightness and contrast for small confocal apertures by more than 2× and decreased the brightness of images obtained with displaced apertures, confirming the ability of the adaptive optics system to improve the psf. The retinal image was stabilized to within 18μm 90% of the time. Stabilization was sufficient for cross-correlation techniques to automatically align the images.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (6)

2005 (6)

2004 (2)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, and R. H. Webb, "A line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44 (Suppl.), U289 (2003).

2002 (5)

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Le Gargasson, M. Glanc, and P. Lena, "Retinal imaging with adaptive optics," C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. 2, 1131-1138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

2000 (5)

1999 (3)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. V. Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 15, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Hartnett and A. E. Elsner, "Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging," Ophthalmology 103, 58-71 (1996).
[PubMed]

R. H. Webb, "Confocal optical microscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, "Spectral reflectance of the human eye," Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P52-P52 (1986).

Ahmad, K.

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, O.

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arsenin, V.

A. Tikhonov and V. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-posed Problems (Winston, 1977).

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S.

Beausencourt, E.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

Beck, F.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. V. Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 15, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Burns, S.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

Burns, S. A.

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, "Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence," Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Reflectometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 3697-3710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Christou, J.

Dainty, C.

Delori, F. C.

Doble, N.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A.

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubra, A.

Elsner, A. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, and M. B. Frish, "Retinal tracking for SLO image stabilization," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41 (Suppl.), S167 (2000).

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

M. E. Hartnett and A. E. Elsner, "Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging," Ophthalmology 103, 58-71 (1996).
[PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, R. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Reflectometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 3697-3710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, and R. H. Webb, "A line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44 (Suppl.), U289 (2003).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, and M. B. Frish, "Retinal tracking for SLO image stabilization," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41 (Suppl.), S167 (2000).

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Fernandez, E. J.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. C.

Frish, M. B.

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, and M. B. Frish, "Retinal tracking for SLO image stabilization," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41 (Suppl.), S167 (2000).

Gao, W.

Gee, B. P.

Glanc, M.

J. F. Le Gargasson, M. Glanc, and P. Lena, "Retinal imaging with adaptive optics," C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. 2, 1131-1138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

Gray, D. C.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, and R. H. Webb, "A line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44 (Suppl.), U289 (2003).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Hartnett, M. E.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hartnett and A. E. Elsner, "Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging," Ophthalmology 103, 58-71 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

Hughes, G. W.

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kelley, L. M.

Klingbeil, U.

A. Plesch and U. Klingbeil, "Optical characteristics of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," in Proc. SPIE 1161, 390-398 (1989).

Kunze, C.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lashkari, K.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Le Gargasson, J. F.

J. F. Le Gargasson, M. Glanc, and P. Lena, "Retinal imaging with adaptive optics," C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. 2, 1131-1138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lena, P.

J. F. Le Gargasson, M. Glanc, and P. Lena, "Retinal imaging with adaptive optics," C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. 2, 1131-1138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Lin, J.

Magill, J. C.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

Marcos, S.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara, "Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

McLellan, J. S.

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, "Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence," Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W.

Merino, D.

Miller, D. T.

Miura, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moraes, L.

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. V. Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 15, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Olivier, S. S.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, 1983), p. 796.

Pflibsen, K. P.

Plesch, A.

A. Plesch and U. Klingbeil, "Optical characteristics of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," in Proc. SPIE 1161, 390-398 (1989).

Podoleanu, A. G.

Poonja, S.

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, "Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence," Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, "Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388-1398 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

Raskauskas, P. A.

Reinholz, F.

Remky, A.

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rha, J.

Rha, J. T.

Romero-Borja, F.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Roorda, A.

Y. H. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
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A. Roorda, "Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S602-S607 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
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Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. B.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

Thibos, L. N.

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, "Spectral reflectance of the human eye," Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Tikhonov and V. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-posed Problems (Winston, 1977).

Tornambe, P. E.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trempe, C. L.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, "Adaptive-optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2142-2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

van der Kraats, J.

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. V. Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 15, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Norren, D.

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, "Spectral reflectance of the human eye," Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Venkateswaran, K.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, C. R.

Walker, J. P.

Webb, R.

Webb, R. H.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, "Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A , 24, 1250-1265 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 42, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, and R. H. Webb, "A line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44 (Suppl.), U289 (2003).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, and M. B. Frish, "Retinal tracking for SLO image stabilization," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41 (Suppl.), S167 (2000).

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

R. H. Webb, "Confocal optical microscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, "Confocal scanninglaser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 26, 1492-1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, P52-P52 (1986).

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

White, M. A.

Williams, D. R.

Willsky, A. S.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, 1983), p. 796.

Wing, G. L.

Wolfing, J. I.

Young, I. T.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, 1983), p. 796.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

Zhao, M. T.

Zhou, Q.

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (4)

C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. (1)

J. F. Le Gargasson, M. Glanc, and P. Lena, "Retinal imaging with adaptive optics," C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser IV: Phys., Astrophys. 2, 1131-1138 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Remky, E. Beausencourt, M. E. Hartnett, C. L. Trempe, O. Arend, and A. E. Elsner, "Infrared imaging of cystoid macular edema," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 237, 897-901 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. E. Elsner, Q. Zhou, F. Beck, P. E. Tornambe, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and A. W. Dreher, "Detecting AMD with multiply scattered light tomography," Int. Ophthalmol. 23, 245-250 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (6)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO): initial human subject testing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43 (Suppl.), U1260 (2002).

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, A. E. Elsner, R. H. Webb, and M. B. Frish, "Retinal tracking for SLO image stabilization," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41 (Suppl.), S167 (2000).

R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. B. Frish, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "The tracking SLO second generation retinal imaging performance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42 (Suppl.), S4255 (2001).

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, and R. H. Webb, "A line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44 (Suppl.), U289 (2003).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

A. Roorda, "Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy," J. Refract. Surg. 16, S602-S607 (2000).
[PubMed]

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

A. E. Elsner, A. Dreher, E. Beausencourt, S. Burns, Q. Zhou, and R. H. Webb, "Multiply scattered light tomography: vertical cavity surface emitting laser array used for imaging subretinal structures," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 8, 193-202 (1998).

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (2)

M. E. Hartnett and A. E. Elsner, "Characteristics of exudative age-related macular degeneration determined in vivo with confocal and indirect infrared imaging," Ophthalmology 103, 58-71 (1996).
[PubMed]

C. Kunze, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, L. Moraes, M. E. Hartnett, and C. L. Trempe, "Spatial extent of pigment epithelial detachments in age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 106, 1830-1840 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. T. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging," Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahmad, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Vogel, "Retinal motion estimation in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 487-497 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, and L. M. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Image stabilization for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 1542-1549 (2002).
[PubMed]

D. T. Miller, L. N. Thibos, and X. Hong, "Requirements for segmented correctors for diffraction-limited performance in the human eye," Opt. Express 13, 275-289 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, L. M. Kelley, J. P. Walker, G. L. Wing, P. A. Raskauskas, D. C. Fletcher, Q. Zhou, and A. W. Dreher, "Multiply scattered light tomography and confocal imaging: detecting neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 7, 95-106 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R. H. Webb, "Confocal optical microscopy," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427-471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Retina (1)

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, E. Beausencourt, C. Kunze, M. E. Hartnett, K. Lashkari, and C. L. Trempe, "Grading of infrared confocal scanning laser tomography and video displays of digitized color slides in exudative age-related macular degeneration," Retina 22, 300-308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (5)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, J. J. Weiter, and F. C. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, "Spectral reflectance of the human eye," Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van der Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. V. Norren, "The pathways of light measured in fundus reflectometry," Vision Res. 15, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, "Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence," Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

R. D. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, and D. R. Williams,"Tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Proc. SPIE 6138, 232-240(2006).

ANSI, "American National Standards for safe use of lasers," in ANSI 136.1-1993 (revision of ANSI 136.1-1986) ANSI (1993).

A. Plesch and U. Klingbeil, "Optical characteristics of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," in Proc. SPIE 1161, 390-398 (1989).

A. Tikhonov and V. Arsenin, Solution of Ill-posed Problems (Winston, 1977).

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signals and Systems, Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series (Prentice-Hall, 1983), p. 796.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical layout of the AOSLO. Details are provided in the text. Inset: To compensate for the cumulative astigmatism from the off-axis relay mirrors, the final pair of mirrors (SM6, SM7) are offset vertically, adding vertical astigmatism, which cancels the horizontal astigmatism from the rest of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Partition of imaging system control between systems. Dashed lines represent the three major control subsystems, the wide-field imaging/tracking system (left), the high-resolution imaging system (center), and the AO control system (right). The high-resolution imaging system controls standard operational parameters of the other two systems via IP (double black arrows).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of predicted (left column) and measured (right column) wavefronts for the optical system. Calculations were performed for both on-axis (top row) and 5 deg off-axis (bottom row) field positions. Measurements were made by placing a target between L1 and L2 (Fig. 1) and using the SH WFS to measure the aberrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging data from a 56-year-old male with an epiretinal membrane. Left: Near IR ( 920 nm ) view of the retina, obtained from the wide-field imaging system. The boxes show the approximate locations of high-resolution retinal montage (center and right). The short arrow shows the location of the fovea. Retinal traction due to the epiretinal membrane is visible in the center of the field. Center: An 840 nm AO retinal montage generated by using the tracking mirrors in the AO system to offset the retinal location being imaged. Data were generated in about 2 min , once the subject was aligned and the AO was adjusted. Individual frames were aligned manually offline. Confocal aperture was 2.6 × the diameter of the Airy disc. The scale bars represent 100 μ m . Right: AO images, gathered in the same way as the center image but for a different region of the the retina. These frames show detail of the region along the outer edge of the epiretinal membrane with stria in the lower right corner. The scale bars represent 100 μ m . The confocal aperture was 2.6 × the diameter of the Airy disc.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of eye tracker compensation for small saccadic movements. In the middle frame a saccade was initiated, and the retina began to slew (right moving then left moving blur in top and middle of frame). The eye tracker compensates, with a slight delay, and by the bottom of the middle frame the correct retinal position is again achieved, and the third frame is well aligned to the first. Residual small motions remain as described in the text. Scale bar is 100 μ m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Accuracy of retinal image stabilization was measured using the AO system. A short video sequence was recorded in a normally sighted subject with low fixation stability (left panel). Cross correlation was then used to measure the shift in location of eight points within a frame, over about 10 s of video. This includes two small saccades and considerable eye drift. The center graph shows the histogram of the displacements measured (using the average position as the standard). The right graph shows the cumulative probability for a given location to move. During untracked epoch, this procedure could not be used, since the frame had numerous excursions larger than the image region. This means the eye movements were often greater than 100 μ m .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the imaging performance of the AO system. All images are single frames of video. A, Uncorrected, best-focus image of the retina of a 43-year-old female subject. B, Same region of retina, but with the AO control loop activated. Note the increased contrast of the cones, with all cones within the field now resolved. C, Image of the retina of a 56-year-old male with recurrent central serous retinopathy, with AO control activated. C, System is focused at the level of the cone photoreceptors, showing areas of strong cone light return and areas with poor cone light return. The white bar represents 100 μ m . D, Same region of the retina, focused at the nerve fiber layer. Small retinal vessels are visible, and the continuous nature of the inner retinal surface is evident. White arrows show corresponding retinal locations for images C and D.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of the effect of displacing the confocal aperture: A, AO control active, aperture aligned; B, AO control active, aperture displaced 2 × the Airy disc radius.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of the interaction of displacement of the confocal aperture with adaptive optics control. Images A–C were obtained with the AO system activated and with successively larger displacements of the aperture from the peak of the Airy disc. A, Aligned aperture, 2.6 × the Airy disc diameter, centered on the Airy disc. This image has been scaled down in intensity by 2 × to allow it to be printed at the same level as the other five images. B, Same aperture, displaced one radius of the aperture, that is, with the circumference of the aperture on the center of the Airy disc. C, Same aperture, but now displaced by 1 diameter. D–F, Same positions of the apertures as A–C, respectively, but now with the AO control system off. While the AO system increases the intensity for the aligned aperture, it decreases intensity for the misaligned aperture.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images from a 54-year-old Caucasian male showing the effect of confocal aperture size on imaging performance of the AO system. Images A–C were obtained using an aperture 2.6 × the size of the Airy disc, focused at different retinal layers ranging from just above the photoreceptors (A) to the level of the outer capillaries (C). Image D was obtained with an aperture 26 × the size of the Airy disc. Images E and F are from a 56-year-old male with an epiretinal membrane. The images are obtained with the AO system active and with the focus adjusted to the surface of the membrane. Here we see the rough surface and fold of the membrane in image E. Image F, obtained with a large confocal aperture, shows increased scattering from several structures within the membrane.

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