Abstract

We demonstrate that a highly bend-resistant fiber can be realized. It is shown theoretically that, by introducing both depressed and elevated rings into the cladding, bending loss can be reduced significantly. A fiber based on this design has been fabricated and characterized as a first step toward achieving this goal. The results show that a multiple-cladding fiber is highly bend resistant when compared with the standard telecom single-mode fiber.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, "Cavity-ring-down principle for fiber-optic resonators: experimental realization of bending loss and evanescent-field sensing," Appl. Opt. 41, 3567-3575 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Weling and H. Wehr, "Properties of multiple clad fibres: experimental and numerical predictions," Appl. Opt. 26, 4852-4856 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. G. Allard and G. L. Yip, "Bending-loss studies of a single-mode triangular-index fiber with a depressed cladding ring with a vector-mode method," Appl. Opt. 33, 7725-7732 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), Chap. 23.
  9. T. Tamir, Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 53-54.
  10. K. F. Brennan and C. J. Summers, "Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure: an Airy function approach," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 614-623 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. R. Hadley, "Transparent boundary condition for beam propagation method," Opt. Lett. 16, 624-626 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Rao and R. M. Osgood, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830-883 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Measurements Methods and Test Procedures--Cut-Off Wavelength, 1st ed., IEC 60793-1-44 (IEC, 2001).
  14. A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend loss measurements on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as a function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 34-40 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Morgan, J. S. Barton, P. G. Harper, and J. D. C. Jones, "Wavelength dependence of bending loss in monomode optical fibers: effect of the fiber buffer coating," Opt. Lett. 15, 947-949 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544-551 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, "Cavity-ring-down principle for fiber-optic resonators: experimental realization of bending loss and evanescent-field sensing," Appl. Opt. 41, 3567-3575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Measurements Methods and Test Procedures--Cut-Off Wavelength, 1st ed., IEC 60793-1-44 (IEC, 2001).

2000 (1)

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. S. Rao and R. M. Osgood, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 53-54.

1987 (2)

K. F. Brennan and C. J. Summers, "Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure: an Airy function approach," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 614-623 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. Weling and H. Wehr, "Properties of multiple clad fibres: experimental and numerical predictions," Appl. Opt. 26, 4852-4856 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend loss measurements on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as a function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), Chap. 23.

Allard, P. G.

Ankiewicz, A.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Beltran-Perez, G.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, K. F.

K. F. Brennan and C. J. Summers, "Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure: an Airy function approach," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 614-623 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Camas-Anzueto, J.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Castle, P. F.

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend loss measurements on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as a function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Damsgaard, H.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edvold, B.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, L.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Harper, P. G.

Harris, A. J.

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend loss measurements on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as a function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Knudsen, S. N.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuzin, E. A.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, C. C.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), Chap. 23.

Magnussen, D.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marquez-Lucero, A.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R.

Osgood, R. M.

H. S. Rao and R. M. Osgood, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, H. S.

H. S. Rao and R. M. Osgood, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), Chap. 23.

Spirin, V. V.

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

K. F. Brennan and C. J. Summers, "Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure: an Airy function approach," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 614-623 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 53-54.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veng, T.

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

von Lerber, T.

Wehr, H.

Weling, V.

Yip, G. L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Low-loss single mode waveguide and fibre bends," Electron. Lett. 38, 220-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, J. D. Love, and A. Ankiewicz, "Effect of additional layers on bend loss in buried channel waveguides," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 150, 259-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. S. Rao and R. M. Osgood, "A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. F. Brennan and C. J. Summers, "Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure: an Airy function approach," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 614-623 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, "Bend loss measurements on high numerical aperture single-mode fibers as a function of wavelength and bend radius," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 34-40 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Renner, "Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544-551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Beltran-Perez, E. A. Kuzin, J. Camas-Anzueto, R. Lopez, V. V. Spirin, and A. Marquez-Lucero, "Fiber bend losses produced by soft and swellable materials for hydrocarbon detection," Opt. Commun. 204, 145-150 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

L. Grüner, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, "Dispersion compensating fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 164-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

Measurements Methods and Test Procedures--Cut-Off Wavelength, 1st ed., IEC 60793-1-44 (IEC, 2001).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983), Chap. 23.

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1988), pp. 53-54.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive index profile of the fiber and (b) top view of the structure used for the design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power as a function of index difference, n d n c l = n c l n e .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Preform refractive index profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental measurement of the bend loss with a bend radius of 5 mm for the SMF (dashed curve) and for the multiple-clad fiber (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured bend loss of the BLR fiber (square at 1310 nm and asterisk at 1553 nm ) and SMF (triangle at 1310 nm and diamond at 1553 nm ) as a function of the bend radius.

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