Abstract

We report root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error (WFE) for individual aberrations and cumulative high-order (HO) RMS WFE for the normal human eye as a function of age by decade and pupil diameter in 1mm steps from 3to7mm and determine the relationship among HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters. Subjects included 146 healthy individuals from 20to80  years of age. Ocular aberration was measured on the preferred eye of each subject (for a total of 146 eyes through dilated pupils; computed for 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7mm pupils; and described with a tenth-radial-order normalized Zernike expansion. We found that HO RMS WFE increases faster with increasing pupil diameter for any given age and pupil diameter than it does with increasing age alone. A planar function accounts for 99% of the variance in the 3-D space defined by mean log HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and pupil diameter. When physiologic pupil diameters are used to estimate HO RMS WFE as a function of luminance and age, at low luminance (9cdm2) HO RMS WFE decreases with increasing age. This normative data set details (1) the 3-D relationship between HO RMS WFE and age for fixed pupil diameters and (2) the 3-D relationship among HO RMS WFE, age, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, and L. N. Thibos, "Metrics of retinal image quality predict visual performance in eyes with 20/17 or better visual acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 635-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Camellin, F. Gambino, and S. Casaro, "Measurement of the spatial shift of the pupil center," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1719-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Alio, P. Schimchak, H. P. Negri, and R. Montes-Mico, "Crystalline lens optical dysfunction through aging," Ophthalmology 112, 2022-2029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. D. Marsack, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris, "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmol 4, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. Pardhan, "Contrast sensitivity loss with aging: sampling efficiency and equivalent noise at different spatial frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 169-175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. E. Campbell, "Matrix method to find a new set of Zernike coefficients from an original set when the aperture radius is changed," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 209-217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, K. Zhao, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, and T. Zuo, "Changes of higher order aberration with various pupil sizes in the myopic eye," J. Refract. Surg. 19, S270-S274 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (5)

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, L. A. Lott, and J. A. Brabyn, "The relation between visual acuity and other spatial vision measures," Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 653-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, "Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1697-1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, "Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 141-158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Calver, M. J. Cox, and D. B. Elliott, "Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2069-2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, C. Gonzalez, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 203-213 (1999).

1998 (2)

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

T. O. Salmon, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Comparison of the eye's wave-front aberration measured psychophysically and with the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2457-2465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

J. Xu, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, "Optical density of the human lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 953-960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang and D. R. Williams, "Aberrations and retinal image quality of the normal human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2873-2883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, Jr., B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, "Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 499-504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, J. Brabyn, M. E. Schneck, and A. Jampolsky, "The SKILL Card. An acuity test of reduced luminance and contrast. Smith-Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 207-218 (1997).

1995 (1)

T. J. van den Berg, "Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 52-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

P. Artal, M. Ferro, I. Miranda, and R. Navarro, "Effects of aging in retinal image quality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1656-1662 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

1992 (1)

D. Whitaker and D. B. Elliott, "Simulating age-related optical changes in the human eye," Doc. Ophthalmol. 82, 307-316 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. N. Charman, "Wavefront aberration of the eye: a review," Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 574-583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, "Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes," Vision Res. 30, 541-547 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, "Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering," Vision Res. 27, 257-268 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

W. N. Charman, J. A. Jennings, and H. Whitefoot, "The refraction of the eye in the relation to spherical aberration and pupil size," Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 32, 78-93 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580-582 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576-593 (1965).

Alio, J. L.

J. L. Alio, P. Schimchak, H. P. Negri, and R. Montes-Mico, "Crystalline lens optical dysfunction through aging," Ophthalmology 112, 2022-2029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, and L. N. Thibos, "Metrics of retinal image quality predict visual performance in eyes with 20/17 or better visual acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 635-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Marsack, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
[PubMed]

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

Artal, P.

Bailey, I. L.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Barnett, J. K.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benito, A.

P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berrio, E.

Bille, J. F.

Brabyn, J.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, J. Brabyn, M. E. Schneck, and A. Jampolsky, "The SKILL Card. An acuity test of reduced luminance and contrast. Smith-Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 207-218 (1997).

Brabyn, J. A.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, L. A. Lott, and J. A. Brabyn, "The relation between visual acuity and other spatial vision measures," Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 653-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, "Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 141-158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

Bullimore, M. A.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Burns, S. A.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. A. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

Calver, R. I.

Camellin, M.

M. Camellin, F. Gambino, and S. Casaro, "Measurement of the spatial shift of the pupil center," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1719-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. E.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576-593 (1965).

Casaro, S.

M. Camellin, F. Gambino, and S. Casaro, "Measurement of the spatial shift of the pupil center," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1719-1721 (2005).
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W. N. Charman, "Wavefront aberration of the eye: a review," Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 574-583 (1991).
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Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

Chylack, L. T.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Cox, I. G.

Cox, M. J.

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, "Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering," Vision Res. 27, 257-268 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
[PubMed]

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

Elliott, D.

D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, "Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes," Vision Res. 30, 541-547 (1990).
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Elliott, D. B.

R. I. Calver, M. J. Cox, and D. B. Elliott, "Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2069-2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, "Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132-1137 (1994).

D. Whitaker and D. B. Elliott, "Simulating age-related optical changes in the human eye," Doc. Ophthalmol. 82, 307-316 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferro, M.

Friend, J.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Fujikado, T.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambino, F.

M. Camellin, F. Gambino, and S. Casaro, "Measurement of the spatial shift of the pupil center," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1719-1721 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, S. K.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geraghty, E.

A. Guirao, C. Gonzalez, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 203-213 (1999).

Ginis, H. S.

H. S. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris, "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmol 4, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gonzalez, C.

A. Guirao, C. Gonzalez, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 203-213 (1999).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, "Optical and retinal factors affecting visual resolution," J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576-593 (1965).

Grimm, B.

Guirao, A.

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, L. A. Lott, and J. A. Brabyn, "The relation between visual acuity and other spatial vision measures," Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 653-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, "Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 141-158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, J. Brabyn, M. E. Schneck, and A. Jampolsky, "The SKILL Card. An acuity test of reduced luminance and contrast. Smith-Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 207-218 (1997).

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Hammond, Jr., B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, "Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 499-504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirohara, Y.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

Howland, B.

Howland, H. C.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science 193, 580-582 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, C. A.

Jampolsky, A.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, J. Brabyn, M. E. Schneck, and A. Jampolsky, "The SKILL Card. An acuity test of reduced luminance and contrast. Smith-Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 207-218 (1997).

Jennings, J. A.

W. N. Charman, J. A. Jennings, and H. Whitefoot, "The refraction of the eye in the relation to spherical aberration and pupil size," Br. J. Physiol. Opt. 32, 78-93 (1978).
[PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Zhao, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, and T. Zuo, "Changes of higher order aberration with various pupil sizes in the myopic eye," J. Refract. Surg. 19, S270-S274 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kasthurirangan, S.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, "Aging and human macular pigment density. Appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering," Vision Res. 27, 257-268 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyce, S. D.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

Kuroda, T.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leske, M. C.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Liang, J.

Loewenfeld, I. E.

I. E. Loewenfeld, The Pupil: Anatomy, Physiology, and Clinical Applications, (Butterworth/Heinemann, 1999), p. 500, figure 10-26.

Lott, L. A.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, L. A. Lott, and J. A. Brabyn, "The relation between visual acuity and other spatial vision measures," Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 653-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacVeigh, D.

D. Elliott, D. Whitaker, and D. MacVeigh, "Neural contribution to spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity decline in healthy ageing eyes," Vision Res. 30, 541-547 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, N.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, "Are changes in ocular aberrations with age a significant problem for refractive surgery?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S572-S578 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

Marsack, J. D.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, and L. N. Thibos, "Metrics of retinal image quality predict visual performance in eyes with 20/17 or better visual acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 635-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Marsack, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
[PubMed]

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, C. E.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

McCarthy, D.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

McCarty, C. A.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, M. B.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

McLellan, J. S.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Age-related changes in monochromatic wave aberrations of the human eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1390-1395 (2001).

McNeil, J. J.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medina, J. P.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, J. P. Medina, and H. C. Howland, "Effect of pupillary dilation on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 116, 1053-1062 (1998).

Mihashi, T.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Miranda, I.

Montes-Mico, R.

J. L. Alio, P. Schimchak, H. P. Negri, and R. Montes-Mico, "Crystalline lens optical dysfunction through aging," Ophthalmology 112, 2022-2029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

Negri, H. P.

J. L. Alio, P. Schimchak, H. P. Negri, and R. Montes-Mico, "Crystalline lens optical dysfunction through aging," Ophthalmology 112, 2022-2029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninomiya, S.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Zhao, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, and T. Zuo, "Changes of higher order aberration with various pupil sizes in the myopic eye," J. Refract. Surg. 19, S270-S274 (2003).
[PubMed]

Norrby, S.

A. Guirao, C. Gonzalez, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 203-213 (1999).

Oshika, T.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owsley, C.

Pallikaris, A.

H. S. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris, "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmol 4, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pardhan, S.

Pesudovs, K.

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
[PubMed]

Phillips, N. J.

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, "Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 1132-1137 (1994).

Piers, P.

Plainis, S.

H. S. Ginis, S. Plainis, and A. Pallikaris, "Variability of wavefront aberration measurements in small pupil sizes using a clinical Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," BMC Ophthalmol 4, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

Porter, J.

Prieto, P. M.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramos, R.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Redondo, M.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, and P. Artal, "Optical aberrations of the human cornea as a function of age," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1697-1702 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, C. Gonzalez, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Average optical performance of the human eye as a function of age in a normal population," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 203-213 (1999).

Robman, L. D.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero-Borja, F.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sagawa, K.

Salmon, T. O.

Sarver, E. J.

W. J. Donnelly III, K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Quantifying scatter in Shack-Hartmann images to evaluate nuclear cataract," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S515-S521 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schimchak, P.

J. L. Alio, P. Schimchak, H. P. Negri, and R. Montes-Mico, "Crystalline lens optical dysfunction through aging," Ophthalmology 112, 2022-2029 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneck, M. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, L. A. Lott, and J. A. Brabyn, "The relation between visual acuity and other spatial vision measures," Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 653-662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, M. E. Schneck, and J. A. Brabyn, "Seeing into old age: vision function beyond acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 141-158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, J. Brabyn, M. E. Schneck, and A. Jampolsky, "The SKILL Card. An acuity test of reduced luminance and contrast. Smith-Kettlewell Institute Low Luminance," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 207-218 (1997).

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J. Schwiegerling, "Blue-light-absorbing lenses and their effect on scotopic vision," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 32, 141-144 (2006).
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J. Schwiegerling, "Scaling Zernike expansion coefficients to different pupil sizes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1937-1945 (2002).
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Singer, D. M.

L. T. Chylack Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, "The Lens Opacities Classification System III. The longitudinal study of cataract study group," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831-836 (1993).

Sloane, M. E.

Smith, V. C.

Snodderly, D. M.

B. R. Hammond, Jr., B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, "Density of the human crystalline lens is related to the macular pigment carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 499-504 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, H.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
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P. Artal, A. Benito, and J. Tabernero, "The human eye is an example of robust optical design," J. Vision 6, 1-7 (2006).
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Takahashi, Y.

Tano, Y.

T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Tano, T. Oshika, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, "Age-related changes in ocular and corneal aberrations," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 143-146 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, and L. N. Thibos, "Metrics of retinal image quality predict visual performance in eyes with 20/17 or better visual acuity," Optom. Vision Sci. 83, 635-640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Marsack, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance," J. Vision 4, 322-328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. J. Donnelly III, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity--mesopic or photopic conditions, and high or low contrast letters?" J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-S514 (2004).
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L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329-2348 (2002).
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T. O. Salmon, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Comparison of the eye's wave-front aberration measured psychophysically and with the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2457-2465 (1998).
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Thomas, A. P.

L. D. Robman, C. A. McCarty, S. K. Garrett, H. Stephenson, A. P. Thomas, J. J. McNeil, and H. R. Taylor, "Comparison of clinical and digital assessment of nuclear optical density," Ophthalmic Res. 31, 119-126 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, K.

Y. Yang, K. Thompson, and S. A. Burns, "Pupil location under mesopic, photopic, and pharmacologically dilated conditions," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2508-2512 (2002).

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T. J. van den Berg, "Analysis of intraocular straylight, especially in relation to age," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 52-59 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, K.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilupuru, A. S.

H. Cheng, J. K. Barnett, A. S. Vilupuru, J. D. Marsack, S. Kasthurirangan, R. A. Applegate, and A. Roorda, "A population study on changes in wave aberrations with accommodation," J. Vision 4, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, K. Zhao, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, and T. Zuo, "Changes of higher order aberration with various pupil sizes in the myopic eye," J. Refract. Surg. 19, S270-S274 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relationship among physiologic pupil diameter, age, and luminance derived from the data of Winn et al.[24]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HO RMS WFE as a function of pupil diameter for the decade of the 50s. All other decades between 20 and 80 are well represented by an exponential function, as can be seen in Table 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional graphs illustrating HO RMS WFE as a function of age and pupil diameter: (A) third–sixth-order HO RMS WFE; (B) third radial-order RMS WFE; (C) fourth radial-order RMS WFE; (D) ratio of third-order RMS WFE to fourth-order RMS WFE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean HO RMS WFE as a function of age for each pupil diameter, where each pupil diameter is fit with an exponential function the parameters detailed in Table 6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean log HO RMS WFE as a function of pupil diameter and age defines a plane ( R 2 = 0.99 ) . Solid circles are the mean log HO RMS WFE for each decade and pupil diameter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean RMS WFE as a function of mean age by decade and pupil diameter for (A) coma, (B) trefoil, (C) spherical aberration, (D) tetrafoil, and (E) secondary astigmatism. Panel (F) plots the ratio of trefoil RMS WFE to coma RMS WFE.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Estimated relationship among HO RMS WFE (third–sixth radial orders) age, and luminance through the physiologic pupil.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Slope, Intercept, and Coefficient of Determination ( R 2 ) of the Linear Regression Describing How Pupil Diameter Changes as a Function of Age for Five Luminance Levels for 91 Subjects a

Tables Icon

Table 2 For Six Different Age Groups, Parameters (a and b), and Coefficient of Determination ( R 2 ) of the Exponential Regression ( HO RMS WFE = a exp b x ) Describing the Relationship among the Mean HO RMS WFE and Any Given Pupil Diameter ( x ) and the Corresponding Coefficient of Determination ( R 2 )

Tables Icon

Table 3 Label for Each Age Range, Age Range Forming Each Group, Mean Age, Standard Deviation (SD), and Minimum and Maximum Age

Tables Icon

Table 4 LOCS-III Mean Score and Standard Deviation (SD) by Decade for NO, NC, C, and P

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean HO RMS WFE (Third–Sixth Radial Order), Standard Deviation, Minimum and Maximum HO RMS WFE, and Number of Eyes Grouped by Age and Pupil Diameter a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Parameters (a and b) of the Exponential Function ( HO RMS WFE = a exp b x ) Describing the Mean HO RMS WFE for Each Age Group for a Given Pupil Diameter a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Mean and Standard deviation (SD) of the RMS WFE is Displayed for Trefoil, a Coma, b Tetrafoil, c Secondary Astigmatism (2nd Astig.), d and Spherical Aberration (Sph. Ab.) e for Each Decade and Pupil Diameter

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

log mean HO RMS WFE = 0.0063 × mean Age + 0.2374 × Pupil Diameter 2.1233 .

Metrics