Abstract

An integrated optical switch is proposed and designed based on a weak-anchoring liquid-crystal (LC) cell with a substrate integrating planar lightwave circuits. It consists of a polarization splitter, two switchable polarization converters and a polarization combiner. The polarization splitter/combiner is a directional coupler with an etched slot and filled-in LC covering layer. The switchable polarization converters are straight waveguides with a designed length and covering LC. The proposed configuration is superior to the existing integrated LC switches, as it works for both the TE and TM modes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Design of integrated polarization beam splitter with liquid crystal covering layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1349-1352 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Modeling liquid-crystal devices with the three-dimensional full-vector beam propagation method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2014-2019 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

C. Vazquez, J. M. S. Peña, and A. L. Aranda, "Broadband 1×2 polymer optical fiber switches using nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 224, 57-62 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, and G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 298-304 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

1995 (1)

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Aranda, A. L.

C. Vazquez, J. M. S. Peña, and A. L. Aranda, "Broadband 1×2 polymer optical fiber switches using nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 224, 57-62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asquini, R.

Assanto, G.

Berthele, P.

Breglio, G.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, and G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 298-304 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chuang, W.

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

Coppola, G.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, and G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 298-304 (2003).
[Crossref]

d'Alessandro, A.

de B. de la Tocnaye, J.

Dovgalets, S.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

Farrell, G.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Design of integrated polarization beam splitter with liquid crystal covering layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1349-1352 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Modeling liquid-crystal devices with the three-dimensional full-vector beam propagation method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2014-2019 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fracasso, B.

Fratalocchi, A.

He, S.

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, N.

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. Y.

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. S.

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

McMahon, D. H.

Noguchi, K.

Panarin, Y.

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peña, J. M. S.

C. Vazquez, J. M. S. Peña, and A. L. Aranda, "Broadband 1×2 polymer optical fiber switches using nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 224, 57-62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Semenova, Y.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Modeling liquid-crystal devices with the three-dimensional full-vector beam propagation method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2014-2019 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Design of integrated polarization beam splitter with liquid crystal covering layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1349-1352 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sirleto, L.

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, and G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 298-304 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

Vazquez, C.

C. Vazquez, J. M. S. Peña, and A. L. Aranda, "Broadband 1×2 polymer optical fiber switches using nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 224, 57-62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Modeling liquid-crystal devices with the three-dimensional full-vector beam propagation method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2014-2019 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Design of integrated polarization beam splitter with liquid crystal covering layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1349-1352 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, and Y. Semenova, "Design of integrated polarization beam splitter with liquid crystal covering layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1349-1352 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. Noguchi, "Optical free-space multichannel switches composed of liquid crystal light-modulator arrays and birefringent crystals," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1473-1481 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Lee, J. S. Lin, K. Lee, and W. Chuang, "SSFLC optical directional coupler switch with a short device length: A proposal," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2236-2243 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, and G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 298-304 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. Semenova, Y. Panarin, G. Farrell, and S. Dovgalets, "Liquid crystal based optical switches," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 2521-2534 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Vazquez, J. M. S. Peña, and A. L. Aranda, "Broadband 1×2 polymer optical fiber switches using nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 224, 57-62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

Q. Wang, S. He, F. Yu, and N. Huang, "Iterative finite-difference method for calculating the distribution of a liquid-crystal director," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 40, 2552-2557 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the integrated LC switch: (a) OFF state, (b) ON state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light propagation routines of the proposed switch: (a) OFF state, (b) ON state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plots of eigenmodes of the waveguide with the LC cladding: (a) E x of the TE mode, (b) E y of the TM mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light propagation within the polarization splitter: (a) E x for the TE mode input, (b) E y for the TM mode input.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Director profile for the weakly anchoring LC cell under different applied voltages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized power of TE and TM mode while propagating along the waveguide for different applied voltages.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light propagation within the optical switch in the OFF state: (a) E x for the TE mode input, (b) E y for the TM mode input.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light propagation within the optical switch for the ON state: (a) E x for the TE mode input, (b) E y for the TE mode input, (c) E y for the TM mode input, (d) E x for the TM mode input.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Insertion Loss for the Two Ports at OFF and ON States (dB)

Metrics