Abstract

Using an asymmetric color matching technique, we measured the perceived changes that occur in the saturation and hue of colored stimuli at different eccentricities within the central 25° of the human retina in nine color-normal subjects. A cone-opponent-based vector model was used to compute the activity of the LM and S(L+M) channels. The results show that a large proportion of the shifts in saturation and hue that occur with increasing retinal eccentricity are mirrored by decreased activity of the LM channel. In comparison, the contribution of the S cone-opponent system undergoes relatively little change within the central 20°. In addition, we also found that changes in saturation and hue are different from each other in terms of their variation across color space and their variation with stimulus size. Our findings suggest that perceived shifts in saturation and hue are mediated largely via the reduction in activation of the LM cone-opponent channel but that saturation and hue might be subject to different retinal and/or cortical influences that contribute to their differing size dependencies in the peripheral retina.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (2)

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, "Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina," Visual Neurosci. 23, 503-507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, "Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586-1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, "Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina," J. Neurosci. 25, 4527-4539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stanikunas, H. Vaitkevicius, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and A. Daugirdiene, "Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: a model," Perception 34, 995-1022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, "Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance," J. Vision 5, 435-443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, "Does L-M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?" Perception 34, 951-959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, "Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina," J. Physiol. (London) 566, 93-102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov and J. Gordon, "Seeing unique hues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143-2153 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, "L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina," J. Neurosci. 24, 1079-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, "Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field," Color Res. Appl. 28, 413-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Effects of light and dark adaptation of rods on specific-hue threshold," Vision Res. 43, 2905-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakurai, M. Ayama, and T. Kumagai, "Color appearance in the entire visual field: color zone map based on the unique hue component," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1997-2009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

H. Knau and J. S. Werner, "Senescent changes in parafoveal color appearance: saturation as a function of stimulus area," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 208-214 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Effects of rod activity on color perception with light adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1249-1258 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, "Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics," J. Vision 2, 531-542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, "Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque," Vision Res. 42, 2893-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, "Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception," Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field," Visual Neurosci. 19, 109-118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, "Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina," Nature 410, 933-936 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Buck, "What is the hue of rod vision?" Color Res. Appl. 26, S57-S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. M. Dacey, "Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743-775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imho, and C. J. Ayde, "Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628-634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, "Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues," Vision Res. 40, 3333-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1996 (3)

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from 'hit and miss' post-receptoral cone connections," Vision Res. 36, 1995-2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Peripheral colour vision: effects of rod intrusion at different retinal eccentricities," Vision Res. 36, 3407-3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, "Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 582-588 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Mechanisms of chromatic rod vision in scotopic illumination," Vision Res. 34, 1019-1027 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. J. Ayde, "Unique hue judgements in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration and rod contribution," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 765-765 (1993).

A. L. Nagy and J. A. Doyal, "Red-green color discrimination as a function of stimulus field size in peripheral vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1147-1156 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, "The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina," J. Neurosci. 13, 5334-5355 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992 (3)

D. M. Dacey and M. R. Peterson, "Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 582-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Whitaker, P. Makela, J. Rovamo, and K. Latham, "The influence of eccentricity on position and movement acuities as revealed by spatial scaling," Vision Res. 32, 1913-1930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, "Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195-201 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, "Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404-414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, "Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual-field," Vision Res. 31, 119-130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, and D. J. Derlacki, "Spatial properties of rod cone interactions in flicker and hue detection," Vision Res. 30, 1205-1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1984 (4)

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, "Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in the central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers," Vision Res. 24, 789-800 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Doom, and J. J. Koenderink, "Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443-450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina," Vision Res. 24, 1969-1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1-11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Paulus and A. Krogerpaulus, "A new concept of retinal color coding," Vision Res. 23, 529-540 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space," Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Colour vision in the peripheral retina under photopic conditions," Vision Res. 22, 839-844 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. R. Williams, D. I. R. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, "Foveal tritanopia," Vision Res. 21, 1341-1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to change in hue with eccentricity," Vision Res. 19, 1121-1125 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

C. R. Ingling and B. Tsou, "Orthogonal combinations of the three visual channels," Vision Res. 17, 1075-1082 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, "Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202-207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color mechanisms," Vision Res. 17, 1083-1089 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Rod and cone contributions to peripheral colour vision," Vision Res. 16, 1099-1104 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 440 and 550 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

P. W. Trezona, "Rod participation in the 'blue' mechanism and its effect on colour matching," Vision Res. 10, 317-332 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (2)

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, "Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966-977 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115-1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, "Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-naming method for three retina locations," Science 146, 666-668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411-510 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, "Colour perception with the peripheral retina," Opt. Acta 6, 117-151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

1931 (1)

R. Lythgoe, "Dark-adaptation and the peripheral colour sensations of normal subjects," Br. J. Ophthamol. 15, 193-210 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1919 (1)

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, "Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory," Psychol. Rev. 26, 16-41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

Aitsebaomo, P.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, "Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in the central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers," Vision Res. 24, 789-800 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, K. R.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, and D. J. Derlacki, "Spatial properties of rod cone interactions in flicker and hue detection," Vision Res. 30, 1205-1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayama, M.

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, "Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field," Color Res. Appl. 28, 413-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakurai, M. Ayama, and T. Kumagai, "Color appearance in the entire visual field: color zone map based on the unique hue component," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1997-2009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ayde, C. J.

Bechtold, J.

S. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, "Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues," Vision Res. 40, 3333-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benzschwel, T.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, "Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-naming method for three retina locations," Science 146, 666-668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brill, M. T.

Buck, S.

S. Buck, "What is the hue of rod vision?" Color Res. Appl. 26, S57-S59 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, "Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues," Vision Res. 40, 3333-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, "Rod influence on hue-scaling functions," Vision Res. 38, 3259-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buck, S. L.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, "Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception," Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, "Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics," J. Vision 2, 531-542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

Chu, W.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, "Does L-M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?" Perception 34, 951-959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohn, T. E.

Cordon, J. E.

Cruz, A.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, "Colour perception with the peripheral retina," Opt. Acta 6, 117-151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacey, D. M.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, "L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina," J. Neurosci. 24, 1079-1088 (2004).
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D. M. Dacey, "Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743-775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, "Circuitry for color coding in the primate retina," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 582-588 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Dacey, "The mosaic of midget ganglion cells in the human retina," J. Neurosci. 13, 5334-5355 (1993).
[PubMed]

D. M. Dacey and M. R. Peterson, "Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 582-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Daugirdiene, A.

R. Stanikunas, H. Vaitkevicius, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and A. Daugirdiene, "Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: a model," Perception 34, 995-1022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

den Ouden, R. J.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1-11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derlacki, D. J.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, and D. J. Derlacki, "Spatial properties of rod cone interactions in flicker and hue detection," Vision Res. 30, 1205-1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

DeValois, R. L.

Diller, L.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, "L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina," J. Neurosci. 24, 1079-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doyal, J. A.

Edens, B. W.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1-11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferree, C. E.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, "Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory," Psychol. Rev. 26, 16-41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, G.

S. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, "Rod influence on hue-scaling functions," Vision Res. 38, 3259-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Guth, S. L.

Haase, K. A.

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, "The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation," in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford Press, 2003) pp. 173-177.
[CrossRef]

Hayhoe, M. M.

D. R. Williams, D. I. R. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, "Foveal tritanopia," Vision Res. 21, 1341-1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space," Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
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Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, "Spatial and chromatic interactions in the lateral geniculate body of the rhesus monkey," J. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115-1156 (1966).
[PubMed]

Hunt, B.

S. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, "Rod influence on hue-scaling functions," Vision Res. 38, 3259-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, R. W. G.

Hurley, J. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imho, S. M.

Imhoff, S. M.

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, "The spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color mechanisms," Vision Res. 17, 1083-1089 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling and B. Tsou, "Orthogonal combinations of the three visual channels," Vision Res. 17, 1075-1082 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, G. H.

Kingdom, F. A. A.

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field," Visual Neurosci. 19, 109-118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from 'hit and miss' post-receptoral cone connections," Vision Res. 36, 1995-2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinney, J. A. S.

Klein, S. A.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, "Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in the central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers," Vision Res. 24, 789-800 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knau, H.

Knight, R.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, "Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception," Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Buck, R. Knight, and J. Bechtold, "Opponent-color models and the influence of rod signals on the loci of unique hues," Vision Res. 40, 3333-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Buck, R. Knight, G. Fowler, and B. Hunt, "Rod influence on hue-scaling functions," Vision Res. 38, 3259-3263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, J. J.

J. A. Van Esch, E. E. Koldenhoff, A. J. Van Doom, and J. J. Koenderink, "Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443-450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1-11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koldenhoff, E. E.

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space," Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krogerpaulus, A.

W. Paulus and A. Krogerpaulus, "A new concept of retinal color coding," Vision Res. 23, 529-540 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulikowski, J. J.

R. Stanikunas, H. Vaitkevicius, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and A. Daugirdiene, "Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: a model," Perception 34, 995-1022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumagai, T.

Latham, K.

D. Whitaker, P. Makela, J. Rovamo, and K. Latham, "The influence of eccentricity on position and movement acuities as revealed by spatial scaling," Vision Res. 32, 1913-1930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. B.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, "Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina," J. Neurosci. 25, 4527-4539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, "Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque," Vision Res. 42, 2893-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, "Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina," Nature 410, 933-936 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennie, P.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Lerea, C. L.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, D. M.

D. M. Levi, S. A. Klein, and P. Aitsebaomo, "Detection and discrimination of the direction of motion in the central and peripheral vision of normal and amblyopic observers," Vision Res. 24, 789-800 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lie, I.

I. Lie, "Dark adaptation and the photochromatic interval," Doc. Ophthalmol. 17, 411-510 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lythgoe, R.

R. Lythgoe, "Dark-adaptation and the peripheral colour sensations of normal subjects," Br. J. Ophthamol. 15, 193-210 (1931).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. R.

D. R. Williams, D. I. R. MacLeod, and M. M. Hayhoe, "Foveal tritanopia," Vision Res. 21, 1341-1356 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makela, P.

D. Whitaker, P. Makela, J. Rovamo, and K. Latham, "The influence of eccentricity on position and movement acuities as revealed by spatial scaling," Vision Res. 32, 1913-1930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, P. R.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, "Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina," J. Neurosci. 25, 4527-4539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, "Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque," Vision Res. 42, 2893-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, "Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina," Nature 410, 933-936 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massof, R. W.

McGraw, P. V.

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, "Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina," J. Physiol. (London) 566, 93-102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKeefry, D. J.

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, "Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586-1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, "Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina," Visual Neurosci. 23, 503-507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Vakrou, D. Whitaker, P. V. McGraw, and D. J. McKeefry, "Functional evidence for cone-selective connectivity in the human retina," J. Physiol. (London) 566, 93-102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, M. J.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, "L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina," J. Neurosci. 24, 1079-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milam, A. H.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland and A. Cruz, "Colour perception with the peripheral retina," Opt. Acta 6, 117-151 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, "Peripheral colour vision," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/4 of Visual Psychophysics, J.Jameson and L.M.Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 517-536.

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, "Does L-M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?" Perception 34, 951-959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Differential distributions of red-green and blue-yellow cone opponency across the visual field," Visual Neurosci. 19, 109-118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Losses in peripheral colour sensitivity predicted from 'hit and miss' post-receptoral cone connections," Vision Res. 36, 1995-2000 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, "Color vision as a post-receptoral specialization of the central visual-field," Vision Res. 31, 119-130 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, I. J.

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, "Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586-1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, "Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina," Visual Neurosci. 23, 503-507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Stanikunas, H. Vaitkevicius, J. J. Kulikowski, I. J. Murray, and A. Daugirdiene, "Colour matching of isoluminant samples and backgrounds: a model," Perception 34, 995-1022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, A. L.

Neitz, J.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, "Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics," J. Vision 2, 531-542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, M.

J. Carroll, M. Neitz, and J. Neitz, "Estimates of L:M cone ratio from ERG flicker photometry and genetics," J. Vision 2, 531-542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nerger, J. L.

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, "Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance," J. Vision 5, 435-443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, S. M. Imho, and C. J. Ayde, "Effect of the short-wavelength-sensitive cone mosaic and rods on the locus of unique green," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 628-634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, C. J. Ayde, and S. M. Imhoff, "Effect of the S cone mosaic and rods on red/green equilibria," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2816-2826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, "Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225-1232 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. J. Ayde, "Unique hue judgements in the peripheral retina as a function of stimulus size, duration and rod contribution," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 765-765 (1993).

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, "The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation," in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford Press, 2003) pp. 173-177.
[CrossRef]

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, "Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-naming method for three retina locations," Science 146, 666-668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noorlander, C.

C. Noorlander, J. J. Koenderink, R. J. den Ouden, and B. W. Edens, "Sensitivity to spatiotemporal colour contrast in the peripheral visual field," Vision Res. 23, 1-11 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packer, O. S.

L. Diller, O. S. Packer, J. Verweij, M. J. McMahon, D. R. Williams, and D. M. Dacey, "L and M cone contributions to the midget and parasol ganglion receptive fields of macaque monkey retina," J. Neurosci. 24, 1079-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parry, N. R. A.

I. J. Murray, N. R. A. Parry, and D. J. McKeefry, "Cone opponency in the near peripheral retina," Visual Neurosci. 23, 503-507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. A. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, "Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586-1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, W.

W. Paulus and A. Krogerpaulus, "A new concept of retinal color coding," Vision Res. 23, 529-540 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peachey, N. S.

N. S. Peachey, K. R. Alexander, and D. J. Derlacki, "Spatial properties of rod cone interactions in flicker and hue detection," Vision Res. 30, 1205-1210 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, M. R.

D. M. Dacey and M. R. Peterson, "Dendritic field size and morphology of midget and parasol ganglion cells of the human retina," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 582-588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. A.

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht and J. L. Nerger, "Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance," J. Vision 5, 435-443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 440 and 550 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, G.

C. E. Ferree and G. Rand, "Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory," Psychol. Rev. 26, 16-41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Rovamo, J.

D. Whitaker, P. Makela, J. Rovamo, and K. Latham, "The influence of eccentricity on position and movement acuities as revealed by spatial scaling," Vision Res. 32, 1913-1930 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rüttiger, L.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, "Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina," J. Neurosci. 25, 4527-4539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, "Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque," Vision Res. 42, 2893-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, "Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina," Nature 410, 933-936 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakurai, M.

K. T. Mullen, M. Sakurai, and W. Chu, "Does L-M cone opponency disappear in the human periphery?" Perception 34, 951-959 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ayama and M. Sakurai, "Changes in hue and saturation of chromatic lights in the peripheral visual field," Color Res. Appl. 28, 413-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakurai, M. Ayama, and T. Kumagai, "Color appearance in the entire visual field: color zone map based on the unique hue component," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1997-2009 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

R. M. Boynton, W. Schafer, and M. E. Neun, "Hue-wavelength relationship measured by color-naming method for three retina locations," Science 146, 666-668 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. A. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, "Distribution and morphology of the human photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin," J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, "Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 440 and 550 nm," Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, S. G.

S. G. Solomon, B. B. Lee, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and P. R. Martin, "Chromatic organization of ganglion receptive fields in peripheral retina," J. Neurosci. 25, 4527-4539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, A. J. R. White, L. Rüttiger, and B. B. Lee, "Modulation sensitivity of ganglion cells in peripheral retina of macaque," Vision Res. 42, 2893-2898 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Martin, B. B. Lee, A. J. White, S. G. Solomon, and L. Rüttiger, "Chromatic sensitivity of ganglion cells in the peripheral primate retina," Nature 410, 933-936 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spillmann, L.

Stabell, B.

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, "Effects of light and dark adaptation of rods on specific-hue threshold," Vision Res. 43, 2905-2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, "Effects of rod activity on color perception with light adaptation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1249-1258 (2002).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Section of the CIE (1931) chromaticity diagram showing the direction of changes that occur across color space when hue and saturation are altered. The concentric circles indicate the nominal vector length of unity together with higher and lower values (1.5 and 0.5). The black circles depict the background chromaticity ( x = 0.31 , y = 0.316 ) and the 0° (cardinal red) stimulus ( x = 0.382 , y = 0.287 ). To match saturation, the stimulus was changed by moving along the 0° vector. To match hue, the stimulus was rotated in color space while keeping the vector length constant. The location of the cardinal L M and S ( L + M ) cone-opponent axes are also indicated. Note that all probe stimuli were presented with a vector length of 0.5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnitude of activation generated by the probe stimuli in the L M and S ( L + M ) cone-opponent as well as the ( L + M ) nonopponent (luminance) mechanisms. The values of activation were calculated using Eq. (1) (see methods).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Group-averaged results for perceived hue and saturation shifts measured as a function of probe chromaticity. The data were obtained for a 3° diameter stimulus at an eccentricity of 18°. Saturation changes (black curve) are expressed in terms of saturation ratio (see methods) as indicated on the right-hand y axis. Error bars depict + 1 S.D. of the mean. Hue changes (gray curve) are measured in terms of the magnitude of rotation (degrees) in color space necessary for the peripheral test stimulus to match the central probe, as shown on the left-hand y axis. (b) Individual data from all nine subjects upon which the average in (a) is based.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Group-averaged data showing the levels of activation generated in the L M (a) and S ( L + M ) (b) cone-opponent systems generated by peripherally matched test stimuli compared with the central probe stimuli. (c) Difference plots of the data in (a) and (b) for the L M and S ( L + M ) cone-opponent systems. Error bars depict 95% confidence intervals. d) Scatter plots showing the correlation between test and probe for L M and S ( L + M ) . Individual data points represent the value obtained for the peripheral test target plotted against the value for the 1° probe for all viewing conditions and all subjects.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Saturation and hue shifts as a function of test stimulus size. The first column plots the hue and saturation shifts for a particular stimulus size as a function of probe chromatic axis. The second column plots the locus of the central probe (gray circle) and the matched peripheral test stimuli (black curves) in terms of their 1931 CIE chromaticity coordinates. The last two columns plot the activations produced by the peripherally matched test stimuli in the L M and S ( L + M ) cone-opponent mechanisms calculated using Eq. (1). Data shown are for two subjects, DMcK (a) and NRAP (b), for test stimuli at a constant retinal (nasal) eccentricity of 18°.

Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6(a)

Caption appears on following page.

Fig. 6(b)
Fig. 6(b)

Saturation and hue shifts as a function of retinal eccentricity. Data are presented in the same format as for Fig. 5 and show the hue and saturation shifts, the location of probe and matched test stimuli in CIE space, and the L M and S ( L + M ) cone-opponent activations generated for peripheral test stimuli of increasing eccentricity and constant diameter (3°). Data shown are for three subjects, DMcK (a), NRAP (b), and IJM (c).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ L + M L M S ( L + M ) ] = [ 0.63 0.395 0 2.21 2.6 0 0.35 0.35 1.02 ] [ L M S ] .
e ϕ = V test V probe ,
Σ e 2 n ,

Metrics