Abstract

A technique capable of calculating near-field, continuous phase diffractive optics (or phase plates) without phase dislocations and with optional far-field, speckle-spectrum control is introduced. The design technique improves upon a standard phase-retrieval method by adding convergence enhancements, phase continuity control, and far-field, speckle-spectrum control. The convergence enhancements improve the algorithm’s efficiency. Phase continuity control eliminates phase dislocations and mitigates damaging retroreflections and transmissions. Specifying an optional constraint controls the far-field speckle spectrum. Application of these phase plates on the OMEGA and National Ignition Facility laser systems would produce well-controlled far-field spot shapes. High-pass phase-plate designs are compared with designs where the far-field spectrum is not controlled.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (3)

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, 'Polarization beam smoothing for inertial confinement fusion,' J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3654-3662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, 'Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157-2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, 'A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617-619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

'Angular spectrum representation of pulsed laser beams with two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion,' LLE Rev. 78, 62-81 (1999). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-295. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

1998 (2)

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. Epstein, 'Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation,' J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2123-2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, 'Comparison of beam-smoothing methods for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1664-1671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

'Distributed-phase-plate design using simulated annealing algorithms,' LLE Rev. 64, 170-174 (1995). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-99. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

Y. Lin, T. J. Kessler, and G. N. Lawrence, 'Distributed phase plates for super-Gaussian focal-plane irradiance profiles,' Opt. Lett. 20, 764-766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, 'National Ignition Facility would boost US industrial competitiveness,' Laser Focus World 30, 75-77 (1994).

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, 'The role of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342-2349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. P. Verdon, 'High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,' Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, 'Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774-2777 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

'Phase conversion using distributed polarization rotation,' LLE Rev. 45, 1-12 (1990). (NTIS document DOE/DP40200-149. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

R. Epstein and S. Skupsky, 'Anticipated improvement in laser beam uniformity using distributed phase plates with quasirandom patterns,' J. Appl. Phys. 68, 924-931 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

F. Wyrowski and O. Bryngdahl, 'Speckle-free reconstruction in digital holography,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 1171-1174 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

M. S. Scivier, T. J. Hall, and M. A. Fiddy, 'Phase unwrapping using the complex zeros of a band-limited function and the presence of ambiguities in two dimensions,' Opt. Acta 31, 619-623 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, 'Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,' Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 925-929 (1981).

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, 'A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,' Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

1969 (1)

'Two-dimensional SSD on OMEGA,' LLE Rev. 69, 1-10. (1969). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-152. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

1962 (1)

E. Wolf, 'Is a complete determination of the energy spectrum of light possible from measurements of the degree of coherence?' Proc. Phys. Soc. 80, 1269-1272 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1926 (1)

E. C. Titchmarsh, 'The zeros of certain integral functions,' Proc. London Math. Soc. 25, 283-302 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Aagedal, H.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Afeyan, B. B.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. J.

T. J. Kessler, Y. Lin, J. J. Armstrong, and B. Velazquez, 'Phase conversion of lasers with low-loss distributed phase plates,' in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell and T. J. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 95-104 (1993).

Baranova, N. B.

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, 'Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,' Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 925-929 (1981).

Bennett, G. R.

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, 'A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617-619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beth, T.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Betti, R.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bodner, S. E.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T. R.

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V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
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J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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Jacobs, S. D.

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Jin, S.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, unpublished notes from work at LLE, 1984. (Contact John. A. Marozas at jimijam@lle.rochester.edu.)

Keck, R. L.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. H.

Kessler, T.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, T. J. Kessler, and G. N. Lawrence, 'Design of continuous surface-relief phase plates by surface-based simulated annealing to achieve control of focal-plane irradiance,' Opt. Lett. 21, 1703-1705 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, T. J. Kessler, and G. N. Lawrence, 'Distributed phase plates for super-Gaussian focal-plane irradiance profiles,' Opt. Lett. 20, 764-766 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kessler, Y. Lin, J. J. Armstrong, and B. Velazquez, 'Phase conversion of lasers with low-loss distributed phase plates,' in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell and T. J. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 95-104 (1993).

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, 'Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), p. 354.

Kilkenny, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kremens, R. L.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumpan, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, 'National Ignition Facility would boost US industrial competitiveness,' Laser Focus World 30, 75-77 (1994).

Lawrence, G. N.

Lee, J.-C.

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, 'Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), p. 354.

Lehmberg, R. H.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lerche, R. A.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. K.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Lindl, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loucks, S. J.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

J. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, 'National Ignition Facility would boost US industrial competitiveness,' Laser Focus World 30, 75-77 (1994).

Lund, L. D.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marozas, J. A.

Marshall, F. J.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, 'A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617-619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCrory, R. L.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKenty, P. W.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Marozas, S. P. Regan, J. H. Kelly, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, 'Laser beam smoothing caused by the small-spatial-scale B integral,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 7-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moran, M. J.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
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J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
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K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
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K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
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K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
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K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
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Nichols, J. D.

Inspired by Anishinaabe words Zhizhoo', meaning 'spreads someone using something,' and zhizhoo'an, meaning 'spreads something using something,' just as the phase plate spreads out the diffraction-limited, far-field spot to match the far-field objective. Resource: J. D. Nichols and E. Nyholm, A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe (U. Minnesota Press, 1995).

Nyholm, E.

Inspired by Anishinaabe words Zhizhoo', meaning 'spreads someone using something,' and zhizhoo'an, meaning 'spreads something using something,' just as the phase plate spreads out the diffraction-limited, far-field spot to match the far-field objective. Resource: J. D. Nichols and E. Nyholm, A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe (U. Minnesota Press, 1995).

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S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
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V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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Perry, M. D.

Petrasso, R. D.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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Phillips, L.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. W.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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Pilipetsky, N. F.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, 'Dislocations of wavefront,' in Principles of Phase Conjugation, J.M.Enoch, D.L.MacAdam, A.L.Schawlow, K.Shimoda, and T.Tamir, eds., Vol. 42 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1985), Sec. 3.5.

Powell, H. T.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
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S. N. Dixit, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, and H. T. Powell, 'Designing fully continuous phase screens for tailoring focal-plane irradiance profiles,' Opt. Lett. 21, 1715-1717 (1996).
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W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1988).

Pritt, M. D.

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Radha, P. B.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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Regan, S. P.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
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P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Marozas, S. P. Regan, J. H. Kelly, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, 'Laser beam smoothing caused by the small-spatial-scale B integral,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 7-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Remington, B. A.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
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Roberts, S.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
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J. E. Rothenberg, 'Comparison of beam-smoothing methods for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1664-1671 (1997).
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Sangster, T. C.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, 'A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,' Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

Schmid, G. J.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, A. J.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scivier, M. S.

M. S. Scivier and M. A. Fiddy, 'Phase ambiguities and the zeros of multidimensional band-limited functions,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 693-697 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Scivier, T. J. Hall, and M. A. Fiddy, 'Phase unwrapping using the complex zeros of a band-limited function and the presence of ambiguities in two dimensions,' Opt. Acta 31, 619-623 (1984).
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Séguin, F. H.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Marozas, S. P. Regan, J. H. Kelly, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, 'Laser beam smoothing caused by the small-spatial-scale B integral,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 7-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J. D.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, V. V.

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, 'Dislocations of wavefront,' in Principles of Phase Conjugation, J.M.Enoch, D.L.MacAdam, A.L.Schawlow, K.Shimoda, and T.Tamir, eds., Vol. 42 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1985), Sec. 3.5.

Short, R. W.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shvarts, D.

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Marozas, S. P. Regan, J. H. Kelly, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, and S. Skupsky, 'Laser beam smoothing caused by the small-spatial-scale B integral,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 7-17 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, 'Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157-2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein and S. Skupsky, 'Anticipated improvement in laser beam uniformity using distributed phase plates with quasirandom patterns,' J. Appl. Phys. 68, 924-931 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, 'Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), p. 354.

Smalyuk, V. A.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, R. S. Craxton, J. H. Kelly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, D. Jacobs-Perkins, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, W. Seka, V. A. Smalyuk, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, 'Performance of 1-THz-bandwidth, two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing of high-power, solid-state laser beams,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 998-1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Regan, J. A. Marozas, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, and V. A. Smalyuk, 'Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483-1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, 'Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), p. 354.

Sorce, C.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorem, M. S.

J. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, 'National Ignition Facility would boost US industrial competitiveness,' Laser Focus World 30, 75-77 (1994).

Soures, J. M.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Teiwes, S.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thorp, K. A.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Titchmarsh, E. C.

E. C. Titchmarsh, 'The zeros of certain integral functions,' Proc. London Math. Soc. 25, 283-302 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Town, R. P. J.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsubakimoto, K.

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Velazquez, B.

T. J. Kessler, Y. Lin, J. J. Armstrong, and B. Velazquez, 'Phase conversion of lasers with low-loss distributed phase plates,' in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell and T. J. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 95-104 (1993).

Verdon, C. P.

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, 'The role of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342-2349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Verdon, 'High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,' Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, 'Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774-2777 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wackerman, C. C.

Weber, S. V.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, 'Is a complete determination of the energy spectrum of light possible from measurements of the degree of coherence?' Proc. Phys. Soc. 80, 1269-1272 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wozniak, M.

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wryrowski, F.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

Yaakobi, B.

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zel'dovich, B. Ya.

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, 'Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,' Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 925-929 (1981).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, 'Dislocations of wavefront,' in Principles of Phase Conjugation, J.M.Enoch, D.L.MacAdam, A.L.Schawlow, K.Shimoda, and T.Tamir, eds., Vol. 42 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1985), Sec. 3.5.

Zuegel, J. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

C. P. Verdon, 'High-performance direct-drive capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility,' Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 38, 2010 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

R. Epstein, 'Reduction of time-averaged irradiation speckle nonuniformity in laser-driven plasmas due to target ablation,' J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2123-2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, and J. M. Soures, 'Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,' J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456-3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Boehly, V. A. Smalyuk, D. D. Meyerhofer, J. P. Knauer, D. K. Bradley, R. S. Craxton, M. J. Guardalben, S. Skupsky, and T. J. Kessler, 'Reduction of laser imprinting using polarization smoothing on a solid-state fusion laser,' J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3444-3447 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, 'Polarization beam smoothing for inertial confinement fusion,' J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3654-3662 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Epstein and S. Skupsky, 'Anticipated improvement in laser beam uniformity using distributed phase plates with quasirandom patterns,' J. Appl. Phys. 68, 924-931 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wryrowski, 'Theory of speckles in diffractive optics and its application to beam shaping,' J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409-1421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Laser Focus World (1)

J. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, 'National Ignition Facility would boost US industrial competitiveness,' Laser Focus World 30, 75-77 (1994).

LLE Rev. (4)

'Angular spectrum representation of pulsed laser beams with two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion,' LLE Rev. 78, 62-81 (1999). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-295. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

'Distributed-phase-plate design using simulated annealing algorithms,' LLE Rev. 64, 170-174 (1995). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-99. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

'Phase conversion using distributed polarization rotation,' LLE Rev. 45, 1-12 (1990). (NTIS document DOE/DP40200-149. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

'Two-dimensional SSD on OMEGA,' LLE Rev. 69, 1-10. (1969). (NTIS document DOE/SF/19460-152. Copies may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161.)

Opt. Acta (1)

M. S. Scivier, T. J. Hall, and M. A. Fiddy, 'Phase unwrapping using the complex zeros of a band-limited function and the presence of ambiguities in two dimensions,' Opt. Acta 31, 619-623 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, 'Initial performance results of the OMEGA laser system,' Opt. Commun. 133, 495-506 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, M. Nakatsuka, H. Nakano, T. Kanabe, T. Jitsuno, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of interference speckles produced by a random phase plate, using a polarization control plate,' Opt. Commun. 91, 9-12 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsubakimoto, T. Jitsuno, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, and S. Nakai, 'Suppression of speckle contrast by using polarization property on second harmonic generation,' Opt. Commun. 103, 185-188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, 'A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,' Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237-246 (1972).

Phys. Plasmas (6)

F. J. Marshall, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu. Glebov, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, R. L. Kremens, and M. Cable, 'Direct-drive, hollow-shell implosion studies on the 60-beam, UV OMEGA laser system,' Phys. Plasmas 7, 1006-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. W. McKenty, T. C. Sangster, M. Alexander, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, L. Elasky, R. Epstein, A. Frank, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, S. Jin, J. P. Knauer, R. L. Keck, S. J. Loucks, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, F. J. Marshall, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. P. Regan, P. B. Radha, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, J. M. Soures, K. A. Thorp, M. Wozniak, J. A. Frenje, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, F. H. Séguin, K. A. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, J. A. Koch, R. A. Lerche, M. J. Moran, T. W. Phillips, G. J. Schmid, and C. Sorce, 'Direct-drive cryogenic target implosion performance on OMEGA,' Phys. Plasmas 11, 2790-2797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky and R. S. Craxton, 'Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157-2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bodner, D. G. Colombant, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, L. Phillips, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, R. L. McCrory, W. Seka, C. P. Verdon, J. P. Knauer, B. B. Afeyan, and H. T. Powell, 'Direct-drive laser fusion: status and prospects,' Phys. Plasmas 5, 1901-1918 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Delettrez, D. K. Bradley, and C. P. Verdon, 'The role of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-driven burnthrough experiments,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 2342-2349 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, and C. P. Verdon, 'A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,' Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379-1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. K. Bradley, J. A. Delettrez, and C. P. Verdon, 'Measurements of the effect of laser beam smoothing on direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2774-2777 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Smalyuk, T. R. Boehly, D. K. Bradley, V. N. Goncharov, J. A. Delettrez, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, and D. Shvarts, 'Saturation of the Rayleigh-Taylor growth of broad-bandwidth laser-imposed nonuniformities in planar targets,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5342-5345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. London Math. Soc. (1)

E. C. Titchmarsh, 'The zeros of certain integral functions,' Proc. London Math. Soc. 25, 283-302 (1926).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

E. Wolf, 'Is a complete determination of the energy spectrum of light possible from measurements of the degree of coherence?' Proc. Phys. Soc. 80, 1269-1272 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. J. Marshall and G. R. Bennett, 'A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 617-619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, 'Dislocations of the wave-front surface and zeros of the amplitude,' Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 925-929 (1981).

Other (10)

A. B. Carlson, Communication Systems: An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication, McGraw-Hill Electrical and Electronic Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, 1968), pp. 153-154.

W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1988).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

B. Ya. Zel'dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, 'Dislocations of wavefront,' in Principles of Phase Conjugation, J.M.Enoch, D.L.MacAdam, A.L.Schawlow, K.Shimoda, and T.Tamir, eds., Vol. 42 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1985), Sec. 3.5.

Inspired by Anishinaabe words Zhizhoo', meaning 'spreads someone using something,' and zhizhoo'an, meaning 'spreads something using something,' just as the phase plate spreads out the diffraction-limited, far-field spot to match the far-field objective. Resource: J. D. Nichols and E. Nyholm, A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe (U. Minnesota Press, 1995).

T. J. Kessler, Y. Lin, J. J. Armstrong, and B. Velazquez, 'Phase conversion of lasers with low-loss distributed phase plates,' in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell and T. J. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 95-104 (1993).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1988).

Y. Kato, unpublished notes from work at LLE, 1984. (Contact John. A. Marozas at jimijam@lle.rochester.edu.)

T. E. Gunderman, J.-C. Lee, T. J. Kessler, S. D. Jacobs, D. J. Smith, and S. Skupsky, 'Liquid crystal distributed polarization rotator for improved uniformity of focused laser light,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), p. 354.

J. W. Goodman, 'Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,' in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed., Vol. 9 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1984), Chap. 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Facsimile of the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics logo is reproduced here in the far field by illuminating a continuous phase plate generated by Zhizhoo’. (a) No additional aberrations were applied to generate this speckled intensity image. The color map was saturated by 50% to enhance the speckle contrast. (b) The speckle is removed by calculating the asymptotic smoothing levels due to 1 THz , 2-D SSD[14] but with the divergence derated by one fifth to retain the image detail.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flow diagram depicting the iterative process employed in the standard phase-retrieval technique. The idea behind this technique has a long history dating back to Wolf[35] in 1962. Gerchberg, Saxton, and Fienup extended this idea to two dimensions, and the basic error-reduction scheme is shown in this figure.[32, 33] This iterative technique is at the core of the proposed phase-plate design technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow diagram depicting the iterative process employed in the proposed phase-plate design technique and used in the code Zhizhoo’. Initialized near-field phase and far-field objective functions are fed into the iterative process. The standard phase-retrieval block (see Fig. 2) is executed first, followed by the 2-D phase unwrap and phase filter. Next, the speckled far field E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) is recalculated on the basis of the latest unwrapped and filtered phase plate. Finally, the updated far field E obj ( x ff , y ff ) is compared with the far-field objective E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) to test for convergence and maximum number of iterations reached to determine whether to proceed. If proceeding, then the far-field objective functions are modified to maintain correlation with the latest iteration of the near-field phase. The modifications include a convergence enhancement, which is applied to the far-field objective. The second optional modification alters the far-field objective’s power spectrum by high-pass filtering before continuing back into the standard phase-retrieval block. The dashed boxes denote optional blocks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Continuous phase plate calculated by Zhizhoo’. This phase plate is designed to produce a super-Gaussian of order sg = 8 with r 0 = 432 μ m in the far field. Full-aperture illumination of this phase plate produces the intensity patterns in the far field shown in this figure and Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Speckled far-field intensity pattern produced by the full-aperture illumination (no additional phase aberrations applied) of the continuous phase plate shown in Fig. 4. (a) The color map of the speckled intensity pattern in the image has been saturated by 50% to enhance the speckle contrast. Application of an optimal filter extracts the envelope of this speckled image. (b) The 90%, 50%, and 5% intensity contours (relative to the peak) of the envelope (solid contours) are plotted against the corresponding contours of the sg = 8 objective function (dashed contours). A small amount of wobble in the contours is apparent but is easily smoothed when the phase plate is illuminated by the smoothing operations used on the OMEGA laser; see Fig. 5. (c) An azimuthal average of the speckle intensity (thick curve) is plotted against the sg = 8 objective function (thin curve). The dashed vertical line indicates the 95% enclosed energy contour, which is at r = 463 μ m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Smoothed far-field intensity pattern produced by the full-aperture illumination (using 2-D SSD and PS in the asymptotic limit; no additional phase aberrations applied) of the continuous phase plate shown in Fig. 4. (a) The smoothed far-field pattern features a fine weavelike structure that is an artifact of 2-D SSD. (b) The 90%, 50%, and 5% intensity contours (relative to the peak) of the smoothed intensity pattern (solid contours) are plotted against a best-fit super-Gaussian of order sg = 5.5 and r 0 = 450 μ m (dashed contours). The effect of the weavelike structure is evident in the 90% contour. Notice that the wobble seen in Fig. 5b has been removed. (c) An azimuthal average of the smoothed intensity pattern (thick curve) is plotted against the sg = 8 objective function (thin curve). The diffusive nature of 2-D SSD and PS causes this deviation from the objective. Designing for a super-Gaussian of higher order than the desired shape compensates for this effect.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Azimuthally integrated, single-beam, far-field power spectrum (normalized to the total energy) resulting from the high-pass phase plate (thick curves) for OMEGA is compared with the power spectrum of the standard phase plate (thin curves). The upper curves represent the instantaneous speckled far field without SSD or PS applied, and the lower curves represent the smoothed power spectrum that results from 1 THz , 2-D SSD with PS in the asymptotic limit. Phase aberrations have not been applied. PSD stands for power spectral density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Benefit Γ realized by the high-pass phase plate is plotted as a function of the phase-aberration strength β for the OMEGA laser. The smoothing applied is 1 THz , 2-D SSD in the asymptotic limit with PS. Four l-mode ranges are covered (as labeled on the plot): 11 l 25 , 15 l 40 , 30 l 75 , and 75 l 200 .

Equations (11)

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E ̃ ( x ff , y ff ) = E ( x nf , y nf ) exp [ i 2 π λ UV f ( x ff x nf + y ff y nf ) ] d x nf d y nf = F { E ( x nf , y nf ) } ,
E ( x nf , y nf ) = 1 ( λ UV f ) E ̃ ( x ff , y ff ) exp { + i 2 π λ UV f [ x ff , x nf + y ff y nf ] } d x ff d y ff = F 1 { E ̃ ( x ff , y ff ) } ,
Φ ̂ DPP ( x nf , y nf ) = a R { F 1 { F { ζ ( x nf , y nf ) } exp [ ln ( 2 ) ( k nf k 0 DPP ) 20 ] } } ,
E ̃ ̂ 0 ( x ff , y ff ) = F { E 0 ( x nf , y nf ) exp [ i Φ ̂ DPP ( x nf , y nf ) ] } .
I ff env ( x ff , y ff ) = R { F 1 { Ψ ̃ opt ( k x ff , k y ff ) F { E ̃ ̂ 0 ( x ff , y ff ) 2 } } } ,
Ψ ̃ opt ( k x ff , k y ff ) = [ I ̃ ff ( k x ff , k y ff ) 2 Ξ ( k x ff , k y ff ) ] I ̃ ff ( k x ff , k y ff ) 2 ,
Λ ( x ff , y ff ) { [ I ff obj ( x ff , y ff ) I ff env ( x ff , y ff ) ] 1 2 I ff env ( x ff , y ff ) 0 0 otherwise ] ,
Φ DPP ( x nf , y nf ) = R { F 1 { Ψ ̃ Φ ( k x nf , k y nf ) F { Φ DPP ( x nf , y nf ) } } } ,
α = { α > 1 ; Λ ( x ff , y ff ) > 1 1 ; Λ ( x ff , y ff ) = 1 α < 1 ; Λ ( x ff , y ff ) < 1 .
σ ff = { [ E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) ] 2 d x ff d y ff [ E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) ] 2 d x ff d y ff } 1 2 ,
E ̃ obj ( x ff , y ff ) 2 = I ff env ( x ff , y ff ) [ 1 + spec ( x ff , y ff ) ] ,

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