Abstract

A nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is investigated as a structure that offers improved sensor performance. The results calculated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis on a model using a hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) indicate that the resonant coupling between localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of nanowires affects the sensitivity enhancement substantially, while the LSP resonance in a single nanowire also contributes. SPR characteristics change significantly by applying a SAM, which can give rise to zero sensitivity for a given SAM. The results suggest that a properly designed nanowire-based SPR biosensor can enhance sensitivity by an order of magnitude with reasonable detection properties.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2003

S. Park, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C. H. Oh, and P. S. Kim, "Resonant coupling of surface plasmons to radiation modes by use of dielectric gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 1870-1872 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, D. Emi, C. Hafner, and R. Vahldieck, "Multiple multipole method with automatic multipole setting applied to the simulation of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 101-111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon resonances spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 73, 299-304 (2001).

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hall, "Use of optical biosensors for the study of mechanically concerted surface adsorption processes," Anal. Biochem. 288, 109-125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

2000

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Mehan and A. Mansingh, "Study of tarnished films formed on silver by exposure to H2S with the surface-plasmon resonance technique," Appl. Opt. 39, 5214-5220 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: Particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1843-1851 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing," Anal. Chem. 70, 5177-5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1988

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

1986

1985

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

1983

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978

I. Pockrand, "Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings," Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, "Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study," Opt. Commun. 18, 395-399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Phys. 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1956

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Aussenegg, F. R.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

Benkovic, S. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, R.

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Phys. 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Byun, K. M.

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cesario, J.

Cha, S.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-J.

Chien, F. C.

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emi, D.

Enoch, S.

Feldmann, J.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Franzl, T.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gotschy, W.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, C.

Haggans, C. W.

Hall, D.

D. Hall, "Use of optical biosensors for the study of mechanically concerted surface adsorption processes," Anal. Biochem. 288, 109-125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. G.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

Hulteen, J. C.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T. R.

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

Keating, C. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, L.

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, P. S.

Kim, S. J.

Klar, T. A.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon resonances spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 73, 299-304 (2001).

Koudela, I.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kowarik, S.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kürzinger, K.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, Ph.

Lamprecht, B.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, A.

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

Lee, K. C.

Leitner, A.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lermé, J.

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Lin, G. Y.

Liu, J.-F.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-C.

Lyon, L. A.

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: Particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing," Anal. Chem. 70, 5177-5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mansingh, A.

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon resonances spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 73, 299-304 (2001).

McFarland, A. D.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mehan, N.

Moharam, M. G.

Moon, S.

Moreno, E.

Mulvaney, P.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Musick, M. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing," Anal. Chem. 70, 5177-5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: Particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing," Anal. Chem. 70, 5177-5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicewarner, S. R.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nichtl, A.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C. H.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Park, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Pena, D. J.

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: Particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, "Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings," Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, "Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study," Opt. Commun. 18, 395-399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, "Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study," Opt. Commun. 18, 395-399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Phys. 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, G.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, D.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Sai, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

Salinas, F. G.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. T.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, S. H.

Sönnichsen, C.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahldieck, R.

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

D. Hall, "Use of optical biosensors for the study of mechanically concerted surface adsorption processes," Anal. Biochem. 288, 109-125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing," Anal. Chem. 70, 5177-5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. (N.Y.)

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon resonances spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 73, 299-304 (2001).

Y. Kanamori, K. Hane, H. Sai, and H. Yugami, "100nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Appl. Phys. (N.Y.) 78, 142-143 (2001).

Eur. Phys. J. D

J. Lermé, "Introduction of quantum finite-size effects in the Mie's theory for a multilayered metal sphere in the dipolar approximation: application to free and matrix-embedded noble metal clusters," Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 265-277 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, "Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance for ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9071-9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1471-1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, "A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 10596-10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Schider, J. R. Krenn, W. Gotschy, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of Ag and Au nanowire gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3825-3830 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Cluster Sci.

T. R. Jensen, L. Kelley, A. Lazarides, and G. C. Schatz, "Electrodynamics of noble metal nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters," J. Cluster Sci. 10, 295-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, M. T. Smith, J. C. Hulteen, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Angle-resolved nanosphere lithography: manipulation of nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing," J. Phys. Chem. 106, 1898-1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

L. A. Lyon, D. J. Pena, and M. J. Natan, "Surface plasmon resonance of Au colloid-modified Au films: Particle size dependence," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 5826-5831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J.-F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, "Role of substrate metal in gold nanoparticle enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 8-12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, "Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films," Langmuir 14, 5636-5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

G. Raschke, S. Kowarik, T. Franzl, C. Sönnichsen, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. Nichtl, and K. Kürzinger, "Biomolecular recognition based on single gold nanoparticle light scattering," Nano Lett. 3, 935-938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. McFarland and R. P. Van Duyne, "Single silver nanoparticles as real-time optical sensors with zeptomole sensitivity," Nano Lett. 3, 1057-1062 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

I. Pockrand and H. Raether, "Surface plasma oscillations in silver films with wavy surface profiles: a quantitative experimental study," Opt. Commun. 18, 395-399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, "Surface-plasmon dispersion relation: shifts induced by the interaction with localized plasma resonances," Phys. Rev. B 27, 7765-7768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, "Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 077402/1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, I. Koudela, and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

S. M. Rytov, "Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium," Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466-475 (1956).

Surf. Sci.

I. Pockrand, "Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings," Surf. Sci. 72, 577-588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

R. Bruns and H. Raether, "Plasma resonance radiation from non-radiative plasmons," Z. Phys. 237, 98-106 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of nanowire-based multilayer model. A beam ( λ = 632.8 nm ) propagating in a BK7 glass prism is incident at an angle θ on an attachment layer of chromium, a gold film supporting SPPs, one-dimensional gold nanowires of a rectangular profile, and a 1 nm thick HDT SAM. The thicknesses of the gold film ( d f ) and nanowires ( d NW ) are fixed, respectively, at 40 nm and 20 nm . Dielectric constants of each layer are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectance of a conventional SPR structure with d f = 40 nm and 60 nm is compared with that of a nanowire-based structure with d f = 40 nm and d NW = 20 nm at W NW = 25 nm and Λ = 50 nm . A SAM is assumed absent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of θ sp with VF at Λ = 50 nm and 100 nm . (b) Comparison of θ sp calculated by RCWA and Fresnel equations with an effective permittivity for nanowires. A SAM is not considered in the calculation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance curves of a nanowire-based SPR structure (no SAM) at Λ = 50 nm as VF is varied. VF = ( a ) 0.15, (b) 0.3, (c) 0.5, (d) 0.7, (e) 0.85. Note that curves for nearly b and c overlap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Variation of SEF with respect to VF at Λ = 50 nm and 100 nm . (b) Minimum reflectance at resonance ( R min ) versus VF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) θ sp with the nanowire period at VF = 0.1 , 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9. (b) Variation of surface plasmon wave number ( K SP ) with the grating vector ( K G = 2 π Λ ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEF respect to nanowire period at VF = 0.1 , 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Product of SEF and CT versus nanowire period at VF = 0.1 , 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9.

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SEF = Δ θ NWSPR Δ θ SPR = θ NWSPR ( target analyte ) θ NWSPR ( no analyte ) θ SPR ( target analyte ) θ SPR ( no analyte ) ,
K SP ( 0 ) = w c ( ε 1 ε 2 , eff ε 1 + ε 2 , eff ) 1 2 = K 0 sin θ sp m K G .
( ε 1 ε 2 , eff ε 1 + ε 2 , eff ) 1 2 + m λ Λ = n s sin θ sp ,
Re ( K SP ( 0 ) ) w c ( ε 1 ε 2 , eff ε 1 + ε 2 , eff ) 1 2 ,
Im ( K SP ( 0 ) ) w c ( ε 1 ε 2 , eff ε 1 + ε 2 , eff ) 3 2 ε 1 2 ( ε 1 ) 2 ,
ε TM ( 2 ) = ε TM ( 0 ) + π 2 3 VF 2 ( 1 VF ) 2 ( 1 ε 1 1 ) 2 ε TM ( 0 ) 3 ε TE ( 0 ) ( Λ λ ) 2 ,
ε TE ( 0 ) = VF ε 1 + ( 1 VF ) ,
ε TM ( 0 ) = ε 1 VF + ( 1 VF ) ε 1 ,
R = 1 4 Γ i Γ r [ K i sin θ Re ( K SP ( 2 ) ) ] 2 + ( Γ i + Γ r ) 2
K SP ( 2 ) = K SP ( 0 ) + K xc ( 1 ) + K xr ( 1 ) + K xc ( 2 ) + K xr ( 2 ) + K xcr ( 2 ) .
Γ i = lm { K SP ( 0 ) + K xc ( 1 ) + K xc ( 2 ) } ,
Γ r = lm { K xr ( 1 ) + K xr ( 2 ) + K xcr ( 2 ) } .
K xc ( 1 ) = w c ( ε 2 ε 3 ε 2 ) ( ε 1 ε 3 ε 1 + ε 3 ) 2 ( ε 2 ε 1 ε 3 ε 1 ) ( ε 1 ε 3 ) 1 2 ( 2 π d NW λ ) ,
K xr ( 1 ) = w c r 01 ( 2 ε 3 ε 1 ) ( ε 1 ε 3 ε 1 + ε 3 ) 3 2 exp [ 4 π d f λ ε 1 ( ε 1 ε 3 ) 1 2 ] ,
K xc ( 2 ) = K c ( 1 ) { 1 2 K c ( 1 ) Re [ K SP ( 0 ) ] ( 2 2 ε 3 2 ε 2 2 ε 3 ( ε 3 ε 2 ) ε 1 + ε 3 ε 3 ) 1 2 j ε 1 ε 1 } ,
K xr ( 2 ) = K r ( 1 ) { 1 2 K r ( 1 ) Re [ K SP ( 0 ) ] ( 2 ε 1 + ε 3 ε 3 ) j ε 1 ε 1 ε 3 }
K xcr ( 2 ) = K c ( 1 ) K r ( 1 ) Re [ K SP ( 0 ) ] ( ε 1 ε 3 + 2 ε 3 ε 3 ε 2 + ε 2 2 ε 3 ) ,
r 01 = ( K z 0 ε 0 K z 1 ε 1 ) ( K z 0 ε 0 + K z 1 ε 1 ) ,
K zi = [ ε i ( w c ) 2 K 0 2 sin 2 θ ] 1 2 i = 0 , 1 ,
Δ θ sp = Im { K SP ( 2 ) } n s ( w c ) cos θ sp = Γ i + Γ r n s ( w c ) cos θ sp .
Δ θ sp = 2 n s cos θ sp ( ε 1 ε 2 , eff ε 1 + ε 2 , eff ) 3 2 ε 1 2 ( ε 1 ) 2 ,
R min = 1 4 Γ i Γ r ( Γ i + Γ r ) 2 = ( Γ i Γ r Γ i + Γ r ) 2 .
C T = 1 R min 1 + R min = 2 Γ i Γ r Γ i 2 + Γ r 2 ,

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