Abstract

Multiconjugate adaptive optics is one of the major challenges in adaptive optics. It requires the measurement of the volumic distribution of the turbulence. Two wavefront sensing (WFS) concepts have been proposed to perform the wavefront analysis for such systems: the star-oriented and layer-oriented approaches. We give a performance analysis and a comparison of these two concepts in the framework of the simplest of the multi-guide-star adaptive optics systems, that is, ground layer adaptive optics. A phase-related criterion is proposed to assess analytically the performance of both concepts. This study highlights the main advantages and drawbacks of each WFS concept and shows how it is possible to optimize the concepts with respect to the signal to noise ratio on the phase measurement. A comparison of their optimized versions is provided and shows that one can expect very similar performance with the two optimized concepts.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Fried, "Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52-61 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Beckers, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13-62 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 39-61 (1996).
  5. M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, "Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009-1018 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605-615 (1975).
  7. J. M. Beckers, "Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693-703.
  8. R. Ragazzoni, "No laser guide stars for adaptive optics in giant telescopes," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 136, 205-209 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Rigaut, "Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for the ELTs," in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, R.Ragazzoni and S.Esposito, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2001).
  11. J. Vernin and C. Munoz-Tunon, "Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory. 2: Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope," Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311-318 (1994).
  12. R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence profiles with generalized SCIDAR at San Pedro Mártir Observatory and isoplanatism studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Tokovinin, S. Baumont, and J. Vasquez, "Statistics of turbulence profile at Cerro Tololo," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 52-58 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Tallon, R. Foy, and J. Vernin, "3-d wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, M.H.Ulric, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 517-521.
  15. R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, "Modal tomography for adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).
  16. T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptative optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).
  19. B. L. Ellerbroek, "First-order performance evaluation of adaptive-optics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783-805 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).
  22. G. Rousset, "Wave-front sensors," in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F.Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 5, pp. 91-130.
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Chassat, "Calcul du domaine d'isoplanétisme d'un système d'optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique," J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13-23 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

2006

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, "Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, S. Baumont, and J. Vasquez, "Statistics of turbulence profile at Cerro Tololo," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 52-58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Rigaut, "Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for the ELTs," in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, R.Ragazzoni and S.Esposito, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2001).

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Rousset, "Wave-front sensors," in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F.Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 5, pp. 91-130.
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, "Modal tomography for adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

R. Ragazzoni, "No laser guide stars for adaptive optics in giant telescopes," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 136, 205-209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence profiles with generalized SCIDAR at San Pedro Mártir Observatory and isoplanatism studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 39-61 (1996).

1994

J. Vernin and C. Munoz-Tunon, "Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory. 2: Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope," Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311-318 (1994).

B. L. Ellerbroek, "First-order performance evaluation of adaptive-optics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783-805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. M. Beckers, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Tallon, R. Foy, and J. Vernin, "3-d wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, M.H.Ulric, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 517-521.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptative optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

1989

F. Chassat, "Calcul du domaine d'isoplanétisme d'un système d'optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique," J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13-23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. M. Beckers, "Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693-703.

1982

1975

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605-615 (1975).

Avila, R.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence profiles with generalized SCIDAR at San Pedro Mártir Observatory and isoplanatism studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baumont, S.

A. Tokovinin, S. Baumont, and J. Vasquez, "Statistics of turbulence profile at Cerro Tololo," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 52-58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications," Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13-62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, "Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, 1988), pp. 693-703.

Bello, D.

D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Blanc, A.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Chassat, F.

F. Chassat, "Calcul du domaine d'isoplanétisme d'un système d'optique adaptative fonctionnant à travers la turbulence atmosphérique," J. Opt. (Paris) 20, 13-23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, S.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence profiles with generalized SCIDAR at San Pedro Mártir Observatory and isoplanatism studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Derrière, S.

A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dialaiti, E.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, "Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing and their correction," Astron. J. 198, 605-615 (1975).

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Farinato, J.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, and J. Vernin, "3-d wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, M.H.Ulric, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 517-521.

Fried, D. L.

Fusco, T.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptative optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Hubin, N.

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, "Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Jenkins, C. R.

R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 39-61 (1996).

Kirkman, D.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

M. Le Louarn and N. Hubin, "Wide-field adaptive optics for deep-field spectroscopy in the visible," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1009-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, "Modal tomography for adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

Michau, V.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Mugnier, L. M.

Munoz-Tunon, C.

J. Vernin and C. Munoz-Tunon, "Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory. 2: Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope," Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311-318 (1994).

Nicolle, M.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Picaud, S.

A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, "Modal tomography for adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

R. Ragazzoni, "No laser guide stars for adaptive optics in giant telescopes," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 136, 205-209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raggazzoni, R.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reylé, C.

A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, "Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for the ELTs," in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, R.Ragazzoni and S.Esposito, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2001).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, "Modal tomography for adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, "Laser guide star in adaptative optics: the tilt determination problem," Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Robin, A.

A. Robin, C. Reylé, S. Derrière, and S. Picaud, "A synthetic view on structure and evolution of the Milky Way," Astron. Astrophys. 409, 523-540 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, A. Blanc, J.-L. Beuzit, and J.-M. Conan, "Wavefront sensing issues in MCAO," C. R. Phys. 6, 1049-1058 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and V. Michau, "Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2743-2745 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Bello, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, and R. Ragazzoni, "Signal to noise ratio of layer oriented measurements for multiconjugate adaptive optics," Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1101-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier, and V. Michau, "Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Rousset, "Wave-front sensors," in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, F.Roddier, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), Chap. 5, pp. 91-130.
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, A. Blanc, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, G. Rousset, J.-L. Beuzit, and N. Hubin, "Improvement of sky coverage estimation for MCAO systems: strategies and algorithms," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published).

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, and J. Vernin, "3-d wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, M.H.Ulric, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 517-521.

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, S. Baumont, and J. Vasquez, "Statistics of turbulence profile at Cerro Tololo," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 52-58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tordi, M.

R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
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R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 39-61 (1996).

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R. Raggazzoni, E. Dialaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, M. Tordi, and D. Kirkman, "Multiple field of view layer-oriented adaptive optics. Nearly whole sky coverage on 8 m class and beyond," Astron. Astrophys. 396, 731-744 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin and C. Munoz-Tunon, "Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory. 2: Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope," Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311-318 (1994).

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A. Tokovinin, S. Baumont, and J. Vasquez, "Statistics of turbulence profile at Cerro Tololo," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340, 52-58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wilson and C. R. Jenkins, "Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 39-61 (1996).

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Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, and S. Cuevas, "Turbulence profiles with generalized SCIDAR at San Pedro Mártir Observatory and isoplanatism studies," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106-1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Tallon, R. Foy, and J. Vernin, "3-d wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics," in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, M.H.Ulric, ed. (European Southern Observatory, 1992), pp. 517-521.

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M. Nicolle, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, A. Blanc, and J.-L. Beuzit, "Ground layer adaptive optics: analysis of the wavefront sensing issue," in Advancements in Adaptive Optics, D.B.Calia, B.L.Ellerbroek, and R.Ragazzoni, eds., in Proc. SPIE 5490, 858-869 (2004).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SO and LO WFS concepts for GLAO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Mean number of GSs in the simulated star fields with respect to the considered limiting magnitude for various galactic latitudes, (b) integrated flux with respect to the limiting magnitude.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of SO, LO, and NLO performance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of SO, LO, and NLO performance for high galactic latitudes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the OSO performance with the “classical” and NLO performance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain brought by dimming the brightest GS for the LO approach.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dispersion of the flux of the GSs available in a star field around the mean flux per GS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of LO and OLO performance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of OSO and OLO performance.

Equations (26)

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Φ to be estim. ( r ) = 1 S D * D * ϕ ( r , α ) d 2 α ,
Φ to be estim. ( r ) = 1 K * k = 1 K * ϕ ( r , α k ) ,
{ ϕ meas. , k ( r ) = ϕ k ( r , α k ) + Noise ( r , N k ) } k [ 1 , K * ] ,
k , ϕ meas. , k ( r ) = p = 2 P max a p meas. , k Z p ( r ) , a p meas. , k = a p k + n p k ,
Φ SO ( r ) = 1 K * k = 1 K * [ ϕ k ( r ) + Noise ( r , N k ) ] .
Φ LO = k = 1 K * N k ϕ k N tot + Noise ( N tot ) ,
Φ to be rec. ( r ) = 1 K * k = 1 K * p = 1 P max a p k Z p ( r ) ,
QC ( SO LO ) = P [ Φ to be rec. ( r ) Φ ( SO LO ) ( r ) ] 2 d 2 r turb. .
QC SO = P 1 K * 2 { k = 1 K * ϕ k ( r ) k = 1 K * [ ϕ k ( r ) + Noise k ( r ) ] } 2 d 2 r turb. .
QC SO = 1 K * 2 k = 1 K * σ Noise k 2 ,
σ Noise k 2 = ζ k N k + ξ k σ RON k 2 N k 2 ,
QC LO = P [ k = 1 K * ( 1 K * N k N tot ) ϕ k ( r ) Noise ( r , N tot ) ] 2 d 2 r turb. .
QC LO , no turb. term = ζ N tot + ξ σ RON 2 N tot 2 .
Φ NLO = 1 N tot k = 1 K * N k ( ϕ k + Noise k ) .
QC NLO = 1 N tot 2 j = 1 K * k = 1 K * Δ j Δ k C j k + ζ N tot + K * ( ξ σ RON 2 N tot 2 ) .
QC LO = K * σ φ alt 2 Δ l 2 GS N tot 2 + ζ N tot + ξ σ RON 2 N tot 2 ,
QC NLO = K * σ φ alt 2 Δ l 2 GS N tot 2 + ζ N tot + K * ξ σ RON 2 N tot 2 .
Φ OSO ( r ) = 1 K * k = 1 K * p = 1 P max η p k a p meas. , k Z p ( r ) ,
QC OSO = 1 K * 2 [ j = 1 K * k = 1 K * p = 1 P max q = 1 P max ( 1 η p k ) ( 1 η q j ) a p k a q j P Z p ( r ) Z q ( r ) d 2 r + k = 1 K * p = 1 P max ( η p k ) 2 ( σ p k ) 2 ] ,
QC OSO = p = 1 P max QC OSO , p ,
QC OSO , p = ( 1 K * ) 2 [ j = 1 K * k = 1 K * ( 1 η p j ) ( 1 η p k ) a p j a p k + k = 1 K * ( η p k ) 2 ( σ p k ) 2 ] .
QC OSO , p = ( 1 η p ) t C p ( 1 η p ) + η p t N p η p ,
k 1 N k 1 N min k = 1 K * 1 N k K * N min ζ K * 1 N k GS ζ K * N min .
Φ OLO ( r ) = p = 1 P max η p OLO [ ( k = 1 K * λ k N k l = 1 K * λ l N l a p k ) + n p ( l = 1 K * λ l N l ) ] Z p ( r ) .
QC OLO = p = 1 P max QC OLO , p ,
QC OLO , p = j = 1 K * k = 1 K * ( 1 K * η p OLO λ j N j l = 1 K * λ l N l ) ( 1 K * η p OLO λ k N k l = 1 K * λ l N l ) a p j a p k + ( η p OLO ) 2 [ ζ p l = 1 K * λ l N l + ξ p σ RON 2 ( l = 1 K * λ l N l ) 2 ] .

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