Abstract

A method is described for recording interference images from the full thickness of the precorneal tear film (PCTF). Simultaneous images are recorded by two video cameras. One camera responds to broadband spectral illumination and records interference from the superficial lipid layer of the tear film. The other camera uses narrowband illumination and records interference from both the lipid layer and the full thickness of the PCTF. Thus the full-thickness interference fringes are derived from the difference between, or ratio of, narrowband broadband images. This method has the potential for evaluating the role of both tear film flow and evaporation in tear film thinning and breakup. It therefore may be applied to the analysis of dry eye disease.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Maurice, "The Charles Prentice award lecture 1989: the physiology of tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 391-399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. I. Brown, "Further studies on the pathophysiology of keratitis sicca of Rollet," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 83, 542-547 (1970).
  4. D. R. Korb and J. P. Herman, "Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations," J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 50, 36l-367 (1979).
  5. R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).
  6. E. Wolff, "Mucocutaneous junction of lid-margin and distribution of tear fluid," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 66, 291-308 (1946).
  7. S. Mishima and D. M. Maurice, "The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39-45 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).
  9. I. K. Gipson, "Distribution of mucins at the ocular surface," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 379-388 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1976), pp. 289, 294.
  11. P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Green, B. R. Frueh, and J. M. Shapiro, "Corneal thickness measured by interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 119-123 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).
  14. P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).
  15. N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. Nichols and P. E. King-Smith, "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 68-77 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Hamano and H. E. Kaufman, The Physiology of the Cornea and Contact Lens Applications (Churchill Livingstone, 1987), pp. ix, 100, and [104] of plates.
  21. T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. P. Guillon, "Tear film structure and contact lenses," in The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear, F.J.Holly, ed. (Dry Eye Institute, 1986), pp. 914-939.
  23. M. G. Doane, "An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 383-388 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Olsen, "Reflectometry of the precorneal film," Aeronaut. Q. 63, 432-438 (1985).
  25. J. M. Tiffany, "Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids," Curr. Eye Res. 5, 887-889 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1995).
    [PubMed]
  28. C. Enroth-Cugell and J. Robson, "The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517-552 (1966).
  29. D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).
  30. S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. P. Gilbard, "Dry eye disorders," in Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, D.M.Albert and F.A.Jacobiec, eds. (Saunders, 1994), pp. 257-276.

2005 (1)

J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Gipson, "Distribution of mucins at the ocular surface," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 379-388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. J. Nichols and P. E. King-Smith, "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 68-77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

1999 (2)

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

1995 (2)

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. P. Gilbard, "Dry eye disorders," in Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, D.M.Albert and F.A.Jacobiec, eds. (Saunders, 1994), pp. 257-276.

Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).

1990 (1)

D. Maurice, "The Charles Prentice award lecture 1989: the physiology of tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 391-399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. G. Doane, "An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 383-388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. Hamano and H. E. Kaufman, The Physiology of the Cornea and Contact Lens Applications (Churchill Livingstone, 1987), pp. ix, 100, and [104] of plates.

1986 (2)

J. P. Guillon, "Tear film structure and contact lenses," in The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear, F.J.Holly, ed. (Dry Eye Institute, 1986), pp. 914-939.

J. M. Tiffany, "Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids," Curr. Eye Res. 5, 887-889 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

T. Olsen, "Reflectometry of the precorneal film," Aeronaut. Q. 63, 432-438 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).

1979 (1)

D. R. Korb and J. P. Herman, "Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations," J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 50, 36l-367 (1979).

1976 (1)

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1976), pp. 289, 294.

1975 (1)

1970 (1)

S. I. Brown, "Further studies on the pathophysiology of keratitis sicca of Rollet," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 83, 542-547 (1970).

1966 (1)

C. Enroth-Cugell and J. Robson, "The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517-552 (1966).

1961 (1)

S. Mishima and D. M. Maurice, "The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39-45 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

E. Wolff, "Mucocutaneous junction of lid-margin and distribution of tear fluid," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 66, 291-308 (1946).

Begley, C.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

Benedetto, D. A.

D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).

Bradley, A.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

Brown, S. I.

S. I. Brown, "Further studies on the pathophysiology of keratitis sicca of Rollet," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 83, 542-547 (1970).

Chen, H. B.

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

Clinch, T. E.

D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).

Craig, J. P.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dana, M. R.

D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Danjo, Y.

Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).

Doane, M. G.

M. G. Doane, "An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 383-388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Enroth-Cugell, C.

C. Enroth-Cugell and J. Robson, "The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517-552 (1966).

Fink, B. A.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fogt, N.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonn, D.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frueh, B. R.

Gilbard, J. P.

J. P. Gilbard, "Dry eye disorders," in Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, D.M.Albert and F.A.Jacobiec, eds. (Saunders, 1994), pp. 257-276.

Gipson, I. K.

I. K. Gipson, "Distribution of mucins at the ocular surface," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 379-388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, E.

S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

Guillon, J. P.

J. P. Guillon, "Tear film structure and contact lenses," in The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear, F.J.Holly, ed. (Dry Eye Institute, 1986), pp. 914-939.

Hamano, H.

H. Hamano and H. E. Kaufman, The Physiology of the Cornea and Contact Lens Applications (Churchill Livingstone, 1987), pp. ix, 100, and [104] of plates.

Hamano, T.

Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).

Herman, J. P.

D. R. Korb and J. P. Herman, "Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations," J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 50, 36l-367 (1979).

Hill, R. M.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1976), pp. 289, 294.

Jones, L.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kasprzak, H. T.

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. E.

H. Hamano and H. E. Kaufman, The Physiology of the Cornea and Contact Lens Applications (Churchill Livingstone, 1987), pp. ix, 100, and [104] of plates.

King-Smith, P. E.

J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Nichols and P. E. King-Smith, "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 68-77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelling, K. W.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korb, D. R.

D. R. Korb and J. P. Herman, "Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations," J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 50, 36l-367 (1979).

Kowalik, W.

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laibson, P. R.

D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).

Licznerski, T. J.

T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, D.

D. Maurice, "The Charles Prentice award lecture 1989: the physiology of tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 391-399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, D. M.

S. Mishima and D. M. Maurice, "The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39-45 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishima, S.

S. Mishima and D. M. Maurice, "The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39-45 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, G. L.

J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).

Nichols, J. J.

J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Nichols and P. E. King-Smith, "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 68-77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, K. K.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

Ohno, S.

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

Olsen, T.

T. Olsen, "Reflectometry of the precorneal film," Aeronaut. Q. 63, 432-438 (1985).

Ou, B.

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

Patel, S.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robson, J.

C. Enroth-Cugell and J. Robson, "The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517-552 (1966).

Schaumberg, D. A.

D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. M.

Shimazaki, J.

S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimmura, S.

S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, P. A.

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. L.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, D. A.

D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

Thibos, L. N.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

Tiffany, J. M.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
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J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
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S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
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H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

Tuell, G.

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutt, R.

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1976), pp. 289, 294.

Wilson, G. S.

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

Wolff, E.

E. Wolff, "Mucocutaneous junction of lid-margin and distribution of tear fluid," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 66, 291-308 (1946).

Yamabayashi, S.

H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

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D. A. Schaumberg, D. A. Sullivan, and M. R. Dana, "Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 506 (Pt B), 989-998 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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T. Olsen, "Reflectometry of the precorneal film," Aeronaut. Q. 63, 432-438 (1985).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Shimmura, E. Goto, J. Shimazaki, and K. Tsubota, "Viscosity-dependent fluid dynamics of eyedrops on the ocular surface," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 386-388 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

D. A. Benedetto, T. E. Clinch, and P. R. Laibson, "In vivo observation of tear dynamics using fluorophotometry," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 410-412 (1984).

S. I. Brown, "Further studies on the pathophysiology of keratitis sicca of Rollet," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 83, 542-547 (1970).

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J. M. Tiffany, "Refractive index of meibomian and other lipids," Curr. Eye Res. 5, 887-889 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, R. M. Hill, K. W. Koelling, and J. M. Tiffany, "The thickness of the tear film," Curr. Eye Res. 29, 357-368 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Mishima and D. M. Maurice, "The oily layer of the tear film and evaporation from the corneal surface," Exp. Eye Res. 1, 39-45 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Gipson, "Distribution of mucins at the ocular surface," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 379-388 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. B. Chen, S. Yamabayashi, B. Ou, Y. Tanaka, S. Ohno, and S. Tsukahara, "Structure and composition of rat precorneal tear film. A study by an in vivo cryofixation," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 381-387 (1997).

R. Tutt, A. Bradley, C. Begley, and L. N. Thibos, "Optical and visual impact of tear break-up in human eyes," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 4l, 4117-4123 (2000).

J. J. Nichols, G. L. Mitchell, and P. E. King-Smith, "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 2353-2361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Nichols and P. E. King-Smith, "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 68-77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, N. Fogt, K. K. Nichols, R. M. Hill, and G. S. Wilson, "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3348-3359 (2000).

J. Wang, D. Fonn, T. L. Simpson, and L. Jones, "Precorneal and pre- and postlens tear film thickness measured indirectly with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2524-2528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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D. R. Korb and J. P. Herman, "Corneal staining subsequent to sequential fluorescein instillations," J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 50, 36l-367 (1979).

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T. J. Licznerski, H. T. Kasprzak, and W. Kowalik, "Application of Twyman-Green interferometer for evaluation of in vivo breakup characteristic of the human tear film," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 176-l82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis (1)

N. Fogt, P. E. King-Smith, and G. Tuell, "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Opt. Image Sci. Vis 15, 268-275 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Enroth-Cugell and J. Robson, "The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat," J. Physiol. (London) 187, 517-552 (1966).

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Y. Danjo, M. Nakamura, and T. Hamano, "Measurement of the human precorneal tear film with a noncontact optical interferometry film thickness measurement system," Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 260-266 (1994).

Optom. Vision Sci. (4)

M. G. Doane, "An instrument for in vivo tear film interferometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 66, 383-388 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Craig, P. A. Simmons, S. Patel, and A. Tomlinson, "Refractive index and osmolality of human tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 718-724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. King-Smith, B. A. Fink, and N. Fogt, "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film," Optom. Vision Sci. 76, 19-32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Maurice, "The Charles Prentice award lecture 1989: the physiology of tears," Optom. Vision Sci. 67, 391-399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. (1)

E. Wolff, "Mucocutaneous junction of lid-margin and distribution of tear fluid," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 66, 291-308 (1946).

Other (5)

J. P. Gilbard, "Dry eye disorders," in Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, D.M.Albert and F.A.Jacobiec, eds. (Saunders, 1994), pp. 257-276.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1976), pp. 289, 294.

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1995).
[PubMed]

J. P. Guillon, "Tear film structure and contact lenses," in The Preocular Tear Film in Health, Disease and Contact Lens Wear, F.J.Holly, ed. (Dry Eye Institute, 1986), pp. 914-939.

H. Hamano and H. E. Kaufman, The Physiology of the Cornea and Contact Lens Applications (Churchill Livingstone, 1987), pp. ix, 100, and [104] of plates.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of the PLTF (21-year-old white female, daily disposable, soft lens); eyelashes of the upper lid are seen at the top of each image. (A) Image taken with broadband illumination (see Section 2), showing the distribution of the lipid layer. (B) Image taken simultaneously with narrowband illumination, showing full-thickness fringes from the PLTF, superimposed on the lipid layer interference pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system for recording simultaneous broadband and narrowband images. S, 6 V , 20 W , tungsten halogen source; L 1 L 8 , lenses [ L 3 , L 4 , L 5 , L 6 , and L 8 are multielement lenses; L 3 is an f 0.8 custom-designed lens of focal length 50 mm ; L 4 and L 5 , are near-infrared lenses f 1.9 , focal length 35 mm (Schneider Optics, Bad Kreuznach, Germany); L 6 and L 8 are close focus lenses]; PB 1 PB 3 , polarizing beam splitters (Edmund’s Industrial Optics, Barrington, New Jersey); F B , broadband filter, RG780 (Schott, Duryea, Pennsylvania); F N , 850 nm interference filter; D, neutral filter, chosen to approximately equalize responses to broadband and narrowband beams; P 1 and P 2 , wire-grid polarizers (Moxtek, Orem, Utah) to reduce cross talk from the broadband light source to the narrowband camera; M 1 M 3 , front-surfaced mirrors; S , image of S; B 1 B 3 , glass plate beam splitters ( B 3 is used to project a fixation target for the subject; the rest of this optical system is not shown); V 1 V 4 , monochrome video sensors [ V 1 and V 2 are in Basler A301fm cameras (Ahrensburg, Germany) transmitting to a computer via IEEE 1394 connections, whereas V 3 and V 4 are in Watec 502A cameras (Tsuruoka-Shi, Japan) connected to monitors]; the dashed line from L 3 to video camera L 6 V 3 indicates that they are both mounted on the same platform so that focusing by movement of L 3 causes the same movement of camera L 6 V 3 . L 6 V 3 receives light reflected from the subject’s nose (source not shown). See text for further details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Dotted and thick-dashed curves give spectral weighting functions of broadband and narrowband filters; curves have been scaled so that areas under the curves are equal. The thick solid curve is the difference between these weighting functions, i.e., a weighting function for a “difference” image. The thin dashed curve shows spectral oscillations for a lipid thickness of 146 nm . The thin solid curve shows spectral oscillations for a tear thickness of 3.19 μ m . (B) Calculated relative response of the difference image to different tear thicknesses, based on Eq. (12). The squares mark maxima and minima of this curve. (C) Solid, dashed, and dotted curves give the MTFs, as a function of thickness, for the difference image, and narrowband and broadband images, respectively. (D) Phase difference between interference fringes for the broadband and narrowband images. See text for further details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous images of the PCTF (22-year-old Asian female). Contrast has been enhanced by a factor of 8 in all three images. (A) Broadband image showing interference pattern from the lipid layer. (B) Narrowband image showing full-thickness fringes superimposed on the lipid pattern. (C) “Ratio image” [Eq. (11)] shows full-thickness fringes with minimal interference from the lipid layer pattern. (D) “Difference image” calculated from Eq. (10).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Additional ratio images of full-thickness fringes from the PCTF. (A) Horizontal wavy fringes similar to the pattern in Fig. 4(C) (29-year-old white female); average of five images. (B) Quite different pattern for the same subject in another video recording; average of seven images. (Dark regions near the edge were caused by misalignment of the eye.) (C) Image for another subject (27-year-old white male) showing steep gradients of PCTF thickness associated with inferior regions of breakup; average of five images. The lower lid has moved upward, perhaps due to irritation from the PCTF breakup.

Equations (12)

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m ( d , ϕ , λ ) = 2 n ( λ ) d cos ( ϕ ) λ ,
R = R 0 { 1 + C cos [ 2 π m ( d , ϕ , λ ) + ψ ] } ,
m ( d , λ ) = 2 n ( λ ) d λ .
R ( d ) = R 0 { 1 + C W ( λ ) cos [ 2 π m ( d , λ ) + ψ ] d λ W ( λ ) d λ } ,
W ( λ ) = P ( λ ) S ( λ ) .
R B = r L 2 = r 1 2 + r 2 2 + 2 r 1 r 2 cos ( 4 π n L d L λ ) .
R N = r L 2 + r 3 2 + 2 r L r 3 cos [ 4 π ( n L d L + n A d A ) λ + ϕ ] R B + 2 r L r 3 cos [ 4 π ( n L d L + n A d A ) λ + ϕ ] = R B + R F ,
R N R B { 1 + 2 ( r 3 r L ) cos [ 4 π ( n L d L + n A d A ) λ + ϕ ] } = R B ρ F .
z B ( x , y ) = k B ( x , y ) R B ( x , y ) , z N ( x , y ) = k N ( x , y ) R N ( x , y ) ,
R F ( x , y ) = R N ( x , y ) R B ( x , y ) = z N ( x , y ) k N ( x , y ) z B ( x , y ) k B ( x , y ) .
ρ F ( x , y ) = R N ( x , y ) R B ( x , y ) = [ z N ( x , y ) k N ( x , y ) ] [ z B ( x , y ) k B ( x , y ) ] .
W D ( λ ) cos [ 2 π m ( d , λ ) + ψ ] d λ W D ( λ ) d λ

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