Abstract

An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification is a color-difference formula in a nonuniform space. First, the BFD (Bradford University) ellipses are considered in the OSA-UCS space, and their very high regularity suggests a new and very simple color-difference formula at constant luminance. Then the COM (combined) data set used for the development of the CIEDE2000 formula is considered in the OSA-UCS space, and the color-difference formula is extended to sample pairs with a different luminance factor. The value of the performance factor PF/3 for the proposed OSA-UCS-based formula shows that the formula performs like the more complex CIEDE2000 formula for small-medium color differences.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.
  2. Improvement to Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publication 142 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).
  3. D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement (Springer-Verlag, 1985), pp. 165-177.
  4. D. L. MacAdam, "Uniform color scales," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1691-1702 (1974).
  5. D. L. MacAdam, "Colorimetric data for samples of OSA uniform color scales," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 121-130 (1978).
  6. R. G. Kuehni, "Towards an improved uniform color space," Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).
  7. C. Oleari, "Comparison between color-space scales, uniform color-scales atlases and color-difference formulae," Color Res. Appl. 26, 351-361 (2001).
  8. M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors," Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
  9. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
  10. D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, "New weightings functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula," in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour 97) (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.
  11. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
  12. K. Witt, "Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).
  13. S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
  14. A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).
  15. J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).
  16. G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).
  17. T. Seim and A. Valberg, "Towards a uniform color space: a better formula to describe the Munsell and OSA color scales," Color Res. Appl. 11, 11-24 (1986).
  18. C. Oleari, "Color opponencies in the system of the uniform color scales of the Optical Society of America," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677-682 (2004).
  19. M. Kobayasi and K. Yosiki, "Effective conversion algorithm from OSA-UCS to CIEXYZ," in 9th Congress of the International Color Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds., Proc. SPIE 4421, 848-851 (2002).
  20. E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
  21. W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in Colour Metrics, Proceedings of the Helmholtz Memorial Symposium, J.J.Vos. L.F. C.Friele, and P.L. Walraven, eds. (Association Internationale de la Couleur (AIC), 1971), pp. 254-265.

2005 (1)

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).

M. Kobayasi and K. Yosiki, "Effective conversion algorithm from OSA-UCS to CIEXYZ," in 9th Congress of the International Color Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds., Proc. SPIE 4421, 848-851 (2002).

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

2001 (3)

C. Oleari, "Comparison between color-space scales, uniform color-scales atlases and color-difference formulae," Color Res. Appl. 26, 351-361 (2001).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).

Improvement to Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publication 142 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

1999 (3)

R. G. Kuehni, "Towards an improved uniform color space," Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).

K. Witt, "Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).

1997 (1)

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, "New weightings functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula," in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour 97) (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

1986 (2)

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors," Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).

T. Seim and A. Valberg, "Towards a uniform color space: a better formula to describe the Munsell and OSA color scales," Color Res. Appl. 11, 11-24 (1986).

1985 (1)

D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement (Springer-Verlag, 1985), pp. 165-177.

1981 (1)

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).

1978 (1)

1974 (1)

1971 (1)

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in Colour Metrics, Proceedings of the Helmholtz Memorial Symposium, J.J.Vos. L.F. C.Friele, and P.L. Walraven, eds. (Association Internationale de la Couleur (AIC), 1971), pp. 254-265.

1965 (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Alman, D. H.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

Coates, E.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).

Cui, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).

Fong, K. Y.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).

Huertas, R.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, "New weightings functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula," in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour 97) (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

Kobayasi, M.

M. Kobayasi and K. Yosiki, "Effective conversion algorithm from OSA-UCS to CIEXYZ," in 9th Congress of the International Color Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds., Proc. SPIE 4421, 848-851 (2002).

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, "Towards an improved uniform color space," Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).

Luo, M. R.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors," Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).

MacAdam, D. L.

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Melgosa, M.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Nobbs, J. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, "New weightings functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula," in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour 97) (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

Oleari, C.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.

C. Oleari, "Color opponencies in the system of the uniform color scales of the Optical Society of America," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677-682 (2004).

C. Oleari, "Comparison between color-space scales, uniform color-scales atlases and color-difference formulae," Color Res. Appl. 26, 351-361 (2001).

Pérez, M. M.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

Reniff, L.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors," Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).

Schultze, W.

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in Colour Metrics, Proceedings of the Helmholtz Memorial Symposium, J.J.Vos. L.F. C.Friele, and P.L. Walraven, eds. (Association Internationale de la Couleur (AIC), 1971), pp. 254-265.

Seim, T.

T. Seim and A. Valberg, "Towards a uniform color space: a better formula to describe the Munsell and OSA color scales," Color Res. Appl. 11, 11-24 (1986).

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

Valberg, A.

T. Seim and A. Valberg, "Towards a uniform color space: a better formula to describe the Munsell and OSA color scales," Color Res. Appl. 11, 11-24 (1986).

Witt, K.

K. Witt, "Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).

Yebra, A.

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

Yosiki, K.

M. Kobayasi and K. Yosiki, "Effective conversion algorithm from OSA-UCS to CIEXYZ," in 9th Congress of the International Color Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds., Proc. SPIE 4421, 848-851 (2002).

Color Res. Appl. (9)

R. G. Kuehni, "Towards an improved uniform color space," Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).

C. Oleari, "Comparison between color-space scales, uniform color-scales atlases and color-difference formulae," Color Res. Appl. 26, 351-361 (2001).

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors," Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).

K. Witt, "Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).

A. Yebra, R. Huertas, M. M. Pérez, and M. Melgosa, "On the relationship between tilt of a*b* tolerance ellipses in blue region and tritanopic confusion lines," Color Res. Appl. 27, 180-184 (2002).

T. Seim and A. Valberg, "Towards a uniform color space: a better formula to describe the Munsell and OSA color scales," Color Res. Appl. 11, 11-24 (1986).

Comput. J. (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Dyers Colour. (1)

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).

Other (7)

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in Colour Metrics, Proceedings of the Helmholtz Memorial Symposium, J.J.Vos. L.F. C.Friele, and P.L. Walraven, eds. (Association Internationale de la Couleur (AIC), 1971), pp. 254-265.

M. Kobayasi and K. Yosiki, "Effective conversion algorithm from OSA-UCS to CIEXYZ," in 9th Congress of the International Color Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds., Proc. SPIE 4421, 848-851 (2002).

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, and B. Rigg, "Crispening effect on lightness differences," in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association, R.Chung and A.Rodrigues, eds. Proc. SPIE 4421, 634-637 (2002).

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "A new colour-difference formula defined in the OSA-UCS space," in Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour, 2005), pp. 1071-1074.

Improvement to Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publication 142 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

D. L. MacAdam, Color Measurement (Springer-Verlag, 1985), pp. 165-177.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, "New weightings functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula," in Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC Colour 97) (Association Internationale de la Couleur, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

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