Abstract

We have analyzed the way in which simulated textures made of random dots influence visual suprathreshold color tolerances. We considered 32 textures created by a systematic variation of the following variables: size, number, and color of the dots. Each texture was mapped on the five centers recommended by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1978 [Color Res. Appl. 3, 149 (1978) ]. A panel of five experienced observers determined the experimental tolerances using a CRT color monitor by the method of adjustment. At our observation distance, neither small differences in dot size (1 or 4  pixels) nor sparse number of dots (less than 20% of the surface of the sample) changed the tolerances found for homogeneous samples. For the textures that led to statistically significant differences with respect to homogeneous samples, the parametric factors of CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas were fitted. These simulated textures consistently reduced the color difference perceived in a pair or, equivalently, increased the tolerances, mainly (but not only) lightness tolerance. The results demonstrate that it is not simple to provide a unique set of parametric factors for all the potential textures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Khotanzad and O. J. Hernández, "Color image retrieval using multispectral random field texture model and color content features," Pattern Recogn. 36, 1679-1694 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  45. H. G. Völz, "Transformation der CIE94-Formel in einen euklidischen Farbraum," Farbe 44, 97-106 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  47. G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  48. R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2084 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

H. Mangine, K. Jakes, and C. Noel, "A preliminary comparison of CIE color differences to textile color acceptability using average observers," Color Res. Appl. 30, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, H. L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, "Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 30, 341-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, "Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

I. Fine, D. I. A. MacLeod, and G. M. Boynton, "Surface segmentation based on the luminance and color statistics of natural scenes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1283-1291 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, C. W. Cui, and M. R. Luo, "Texture effect on evaluation of colour difference," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2003 Midterm Meeting (Color Communication and Management), Bangkok, August 4-6, 2003.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, "A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling," Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Cheng and S. Y. Chen, "Image classification using color, texture and regions," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 759-776 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Khotanzad and O. J. Hernández, "Color image retrieval using multispectral random field texture model and color content features," Pattern Recogn. 36, 1679-1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Choo and Y. Kim, "Effect of color on fashion fabric image," Color Res. Appl. 28, 221-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

L. D. Griffin and A. Sepehri, "Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions," Color Res. Appl. 27, 108-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Steen and D. Dupont, "Defining a practical method of ascertaining textile color acceptability," Color Res. Appl. 27, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

A. Li and P. Lennie, "Importance of color in the segmentation of variegated surfaces," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1240-1251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Improvement to Industrial Colour-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 142-2001 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Xu, H. Yaguchi, and S. Shioiri, "Estimation of color-difference formulae at color discrimination threshold using CRT-generated stimuli," Opt. Rev. 8, 142-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee and M. Sato, "Visual perception of texture of textiles," Color Res. Appl. 26, 469-477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, "Estudio sobre el error asociado a los parámetros de color CIELAB y CIELUV," Memoria de Licenciatura (Universidad de Granada, 2001).

2000 (3)

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances," Color Res. Appl. 25, 241-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, "Usefulness of cathode ray tube color displays in chromaticity-discrimination experiments," Appl. Opt. 39, 4021-4030 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Thomsen, "A Euclidean color space in high agreement with the CIE94 color difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 25, 64-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli," Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gardner and R. B. Frenkel, "Correlation coefficients for tristimulus response value uncertainties," Metrologia 36, 477-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using large colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 356-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. G. Völz, "Transformation der CIE94-Formel in einen euklidischen Farbraum," Farbe 44, 97-106 (1998).

M. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

1997 (1)

D. H. Kim, "The influence of parametric effects on the appearance of small colour differences," Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

K. Witt, "CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 116 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).

1993 (2)

Parametric Effects in Colour-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 101 (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).

R. Carter, "Gray scale and achromatic color difference," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1380-1391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "BFD(l:c) color-difference formula. 1. Development of the formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Colorimetry, 2nd ed., CIE Publ. 15.2 (CIE Central Bureau, 1986).

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, "Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. C. Carter and E. C. Carter, "CIE L*u*v* color-difference equations for self-luminous displays," Color Res. Appl. 8, 252-253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, "CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

1972 (1)

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in AIC1972, (Association Internationale de la Couleur, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972), pp. 254-265.

1970 (1)

1965 (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

1963 (1)

Alman, D. H.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Balononrosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, "Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances," Color Res. Appl. 25, 241-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli," Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. M.

Carter, E. C.

R. C. Carter and E. C. Carter, "CIE L*u*v* color-difference equations for self-luminous displays," Color Res. Appl. 8, 252-253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carter, R.

Carter, R. C.

R. C. Carter and E. C. Carter, "CIE L*u*v* color-difference equations for self-luminous displays," Color Res. Appl. 8, 252-253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

Y. C. Cheng and S. Y. Chen, "Image classification using color, texture and regions," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 759-776 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. C. Cheng and S. Y. Chen, "Image classification using color, texture and regions," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 759-776 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choo, S.

S. Choo and Y. Kim, "Effect of color on fashion fabric image," Color Res. Appl. 28, 221-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, "Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coates, E.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C. W.

B. Han, C. W. Cui, and M. R. Luo, "Texture effect on evaluation of colour difference," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2003 Midterm Meeting (Color Communication and Management), Bangkok, August 4-6, 2003.

Cui, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

del Barco, L. J.

Díaz, J. A.

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and L. J. del Barco, "Optimizing the constant-channel chromaticity and color gamut of CRT color displays by control of brightness and contrast levels," Appl. Opt. 35, 1711-1718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupont, D.

D. Steen and D. Dupont, "Defining a practical method of ascertaining textile color acceptability," Color Res. Appl. 27, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

El Moraghi, A.

Fairchild, M.

M. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

Fine, I.

Fong, K. Y.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frenkel, R. B.

J. L. Gardner and R. B. Frenkel, "Correlation coefficients for tristimulus response value uncertainties," Metrologia 36, 477-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. L.

J. L. Gardner and R. B. Frenkel, "Correlation coefficients for tristimulus response value uncertainties," Metrologia 36, 477-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, L. D.

L. D. Griffin and A. Sepehri, "Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions," Color Res. Appl. 27, 108-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using large colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 356-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

B. Han, C. W. Cui, and M. R. Luo, "Texture effect on evaluation of colour difference," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2003 Midterm Meeting (Color Communication and Management), Bangkok, August 4-6, 2003.

Hernández, O. J.

A. Khotanzad and O. J. Hernández, "Color image retrieval using multispectral random field texture model and color content features," Pattern Recogn. 36, 1679-1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, "Usefulness of cathode ray tube color displays in chromaticity-discrimination experiments," Appl. Opt. 39, 4021-4030 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and L. J. del Barco, "Optimizing the constant-channel chromaticity and color gamut of CRT color displays by control of brightness and contrast levels," Appl. Opt. 35, 1711-1718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huertas, R.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2084 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, "Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, "Estudio sobre el error asociado a los parámetros de color CIELAB y CIELUV," Memoria de Licenciatura (Universidad de Granada, 2001).

Jakes, K.

H. Mangine, K. Jakes, and C. Noel, "A preliminary comparison of CIE color differences to textile color acceptability using average observers," Color Res. Appl. 30, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, J. R.

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez, E. Hita, and L. J. del Barco, "Optimizing the constant-channel chromaticity and color gamut of CRT color displays by control of brightness and contrast levels," Appl. Opt. 35, 1711-1718 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiménez del Barco, L.

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khotanzad, A.

A. Khotanzad and O. J. Hernández, "Color image retrieval using multispectral random field texture model and color content features," Pattern Recogn. 36, 1679-1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, "The influence of parametric effects on the appearance of small colour differences," Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 1997).

Kim, Y.

S. Choo and Y. Kim, "Effect of color on fashion fabric image," Color Res. Appl. 28, 221-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. C.

J. H. Xin, H. L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, "Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 30, 341-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

W. Lee and M. Sato, "Visual perception of texture of textiles," Color Res. Appl. 26, 469-477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

Li, A.

Luo, M. R.

B. Han, C. W. Cui, and M. R. Luo, "Texture effect on evaluation of colour difference," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2003 Midterm Meeting (Color Communication and Management), Bangkok, August 4-6, 2003.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using large colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 356-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "BFD(l:c) color-difference formula. 1. Development of the formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Mangine, H.

H. Mangine, K. Jakes, and C. Noel, "A preliminary comparison of CIE color differences to textile color acceptability using average observers," Color Res. Appl. 30, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, "Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Melgosa, M.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, "Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2084 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, "Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, "Usefulness of cathode ray tube color displays in chromaticity-discrimination experiments," Appl. Opt. 39, 4021-4030 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montag, E. D.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, "A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling," Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances," Color Res. Appl. 25, 241-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli," Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Noel, C.

H. Mangine, K. Jakes, and C. Noel, "A preliminary comparison of CIE color differences to textile color acceptability using average observers," Color Res. Appl. 30, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oleari, C.

Pérez, M. M.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, "Usefulness of cathode ray tube color displays in chromaticity-discrimination experiments," Appl. Opt. 39, 4021-4030 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reche, J. F.

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reniff, L.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "BFD(l:c) color-difference formula. 1. Development of the formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, "Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, M. J.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

Robertson, A. R.

A. R. Robertson, "CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

W. Lee and M. Sato, "Visual perception of texture of textiles," Color Res. Appl. 26, 469-477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, W.

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in AIC1972, (Association Internationale de la Couleur, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972), pp. 254-265.

Semmelroth, C. C.

Sepehri, A.

L. D. Griffin and A. Sepehri, "Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions," Color Res. Appl. 27, 108-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H. L.

J. H. Xin, H. L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, "Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 30, 341-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shioiri, S.

H. S. Xu, H. Yaguchi, and S. Shioiri, "Estimation of color-difference formulae at color discrimination threshold using CRT-generated stimuli," Opt. Rev. 8, 142-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steen, D.

D. Steen and D. Dupont, "Defining a practical method of ascertaining textile color acceptability," Color Res. Appl. 27, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, Y.

Thomsen, K.

K. Thomsen, "A Euclidean color space in high agreement with the CIE94 color difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 25, 64-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Völz, H. G.

H. G. Völz, "Transformation der CIE94-Formel in einen euklidischen Farbraum," Farbe 44, 97-106 (1998).

Wilber, D. C.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, "A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling," Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, "CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wright, H.

Xin, J. H.

J. H. Xin, H. L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, "Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 30, 341-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. S.

H. S. Xu, H. Yaguchi, and S. Shioiri, "Estimation of color-difference formulae at color discrimination threshold using CRT-generated stimuli," Opt. Rev. 8, 142-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

H. S. Xu, H. Yaguchi, and S. Shioiri, "Estimation of color-difference formulae at color discrimination threshold using CRT-generated stimuli," Opt. Rev. 8, 142-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yebra, A.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (20)

K. Thomsen, "A Euclidean color space in high agreement with the CIE94 color difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 25, 64-65 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, "Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula," Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Griffin and A. Sepehri, "Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions," Color Res. Appl. 27, 108-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Steen and D. Dupont, "Defining a practical method of ascertaining textile color acceptability," Color Res. Appl. 27, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Choo and Y. Kim, "Effect of color on fashion fabric image," Color Res. Appl. 28, 221-226 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Mangine, K. Jakes, and C. Noel, "A preliminary comparison of CIE color differences to textile color acceptability using average observers," Color Res. Appl. 30, 288-294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, "CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

K. Witt, "CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances," Color Res. Appl. 25, 241-249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, "The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000," Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee and M. Sato, "Visual perception of texture of textiles," Color Res. Appl. 26, 469-477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, "Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli," Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Pérez, "Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?" Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balononrosen, "Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis," Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, H. L. Shen, and C. C. Lam, "Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation," Color Res. Appl. 30, 341-347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, "A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling," Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, and E. Hita, "Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors," Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Carter and E. C. Carter, "CIE L*u*v* color-difference equations for self-luminous displays," Color Res. Appl. 8, 252-253 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, "Investigation of parametric effects using large colour differences," Color Res. Appl. 24, 356-368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comput. J. (1)

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308-313 (1965).

Farbe (1)

H. G. Völz, "Transformation der CIE94-Formel in einen euklidischen Farbraum," Farbe 44, 97-106 (1998).

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

Y. C. Cheng and S. Y. Chen, "Image classification using color, texture and regions," Image Vis. Comput. 21, 759-776 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Soc. Dyers Colour. (3)

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, and B. Rigg, "Uniform lightness scales," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179-183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, "BFD(l:c) color-difference formula. 1. Development of the formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, "Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula," J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

J. L. Gardner and R. B. Frenkel, "Correlation coefficients for tristimulus response value uncertainties," Metrologia 36, 477-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. S. Xu, H. Yaguchi, and S. Shioiri, "Estimation of color-difference formulae at color discrimination threshold using CRT-generated stimuli," Opt. Rev. 8, 142-147 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. (1)

A. Khotanzad and O. J. Hernández, "Color image retrieval using multispectral random field texture model and color content features," Pattern Recogn. 36, 1679-1694 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

Improvement to Industrial Colour-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 142-2001 (CIE Central Bureau, 2001).

W. Schultze, "The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances," in AIC1972, (Association Internationale de la Couleur, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972), pp. 254-265.

D. H. Kim, "The influence of parametric effects on the appearance of small colour differences," Ph.D. thesis (University of Leeds, 1997).

Colorimetry, 2nd ed., CIE Publ. 15.2 (CIE Central Bureau, 1986).

R. Huertas, "Estudio sobre el error asociado a los parámetros de color CIELAB y CIELUV," Memoria de Licenciatura (Universidad de Granada, 2001).

Parametric Effects in Colour-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 101 (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).

Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 116 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).

B. Han, C. W. Cui, and M. R. Luo, "Texture effect on evaluation of colour difference," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2003 Midterm Meeting (Color Communication and Management), Bangkok, August 4-6, 2003.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, A. Yebra, M. M. Pérez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, "Investigation of simulated texture effect on perceived color differences," presented at the International Color Association (AIC) 2004 Interim Meeting (Color and Paints), Porto Alegre, Brazil, November 2-5, 2004.

M. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models (Addison-Wesley, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of sample pairs in the MOA on a CRT monitor as used in our experiment (distances are in millimeters).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of some simulated textures mapped over different background samples. The upper row corresponds to absolute textures (type E), while the lower row corresponds to relative textures (types A, B, C, and D).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean visual tolerances for centers and coordinates. All variables except center and coordinate are averaged. The error bars indicate confidence intervals at 95%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean visual tolerances for different covered surfaces and types of texture. All variables except surface and type are averaged. The error bars (not all included for simplicity) indicate confidence intervals at 95%. The square in 0% indicates the reference tolerance (homogeneous samples).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fitted parametric factors for the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas, corresponding to the textures with statistically significant differences with respect to homogeneous samples.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Color Coordinates of the Anchor Pair, Background, and Surround a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Proposed and Measured Color Coordinates of the Five CIE 1978 Centers

Tables Icon

Table 3 Synopsis of Our Simulated Textures a

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Table 4 Visual Tolerances for the Homogeneous Five CIE Centers a

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Table 5 Visual Tolerances for Textures with Statistically Significant Differences regarding Reference Tolerances a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Performance Factor PF/3 for Some of the Most Recent Color-Difference Formulas

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E 00 = [ ( Δ L S L k L ) 2 + ( Δ C S C k C ) 2 + ( Δ H S H k H ) 2 + R T ( Δ C S C k C ) ( Δ H S H k H ) ] 1 / 2 .
log 10 ( γ ) = [ 1 N i = 1 N [ log 10 ( Δ E i Δ V i ) log 10 ( Δ E i Δ V i ) ¯ ] 2 ] 1 / 2 .
V A B = [ 1 N i = 1 N ( Δ E i F Δ V i ) 2 Δ E i F Δ V i ] 1 / 2 ,
F = [ i = 1 N Δ E i / Δ V i i = 1 N Δ V i / Δ E i ] 1 / 2 ,
C V = 100 [ 1 N i = 1 N ( Δ E i f Δ V i ) 2 ( Δ E ¯ ) 2 ] 1 / 2 , f = i = 1 N Δ E i Δ V i i = 1 N Δ V i 2 .
PF / 3 = 100 [ ( γ 1 ) + V A B + C V 100 ] 3 .
σ 2 ( V ) = ( V α ) 2 σ 2 ( α ) + ( V β ) 2 σ 2 ( β ) + 2 r α β ( V α ) ( V β ) σ ( α ) σ ( β ) ,

Metrics