Abstract

Most natural objects have a texture on their surface, so the segregation between shading and texture is crucial for the robust perception of three-dimensional structure: The visual system has to decide whether shading or texture evoked the luminance change. We found that the contextual pop-out that results from shading was not suppressed, but was even facilitated, when random texture was added to the luminance of the entire stimulus, indicating the functional segregation and facilitative interaction between shading and texture cues. The local contrast evoked by random texture within a figure or at a boundary was a major factor in the facilitation, suggesting the crucial role of early vision in the interaction between the cues.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doom, A. M. L. Kappers, S. F. te Pas, and S. C. Pont, "Illumination direction from texture shading," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 987-995 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Langer and H. H. Bülthoff, "A prior for global convexity in local shape-from-shading," Perception 30, 403-410 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. A. A. Kingdom, "Color brings relief to human vision,"Nat. Neurosci. 6, 641-644 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. H. Bülthoff, "Shape from X: psychophysics and computation," in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M.S.Landy and J.A.Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, 1991).
  6. W. Curran and A. Johnston, "Integration of shading and texture cues: testing the linear model," Vision Res. 34, 1863-1874 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Georgeson and A. J. Schofield, "Shading and texture: separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?" Spatial Vis. 16, 59-76 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. G. Christou and J. J. Koenderink, "Light source dependence in shape from shading," Vision Res. 37, 1441-1449 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Shapley and J. Gordon, "Nonlinearity in the perception of form," Percept. Psychophys. 37, 84-88 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Nature (London) 331, 163-166 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Sci. Am. 259, 58-65 (1988b).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).
  13. S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski, "Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 240, 251-278 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Kleffner and V. S. Ramachandran, "On the perception of shape from shading," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 18-36 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Aks and J. T. Enns, "Visual search for direction of shading is influenced by apparent depth," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 63-74 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Hanazawa and H. Komatsu, "Influence of the direction of elemental luminance gradients on the responses of V4 cells to textured surfaces," J. Neurosci. 21, 4490-4497 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  18. P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  19. G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. H. Finkel and P. Sajda, "Constructing visual perception," Am. Sci. 82, 224-237 (1994).
  22. M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. Sakai and H. Nishimura, "Surrounding suppression and facilitation in the determination of border ownership," J. Cogn Neurosci. 18, 562-579 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Sakai and L. H. Finkel, "Characterization of the spatial-frequency spectrum in the perception of shape from texture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1208-1224 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Sakai and T. Momma, "Ambiguous contours in shape-from-shading," Abstract of Asian Conference on Vision, Hayama, Japan, July 30-31, 2001, p. 37.
  27. K. Sakai and N. Aoki, "Effects of in-figure and boundary contrast on shape-from-shading," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 31, S44 (2004).

2006 (1)

K. Sakai and H. Nishimura, "Surrounding suppression and facilitation in the determination of border ownership," J. Cogn Neurosci. 18, 562-579 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Sakai and N. Aoki, "Effects of in-figure and boundary contrast on shape-from-shading," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 31, S44 (2004).

2003 (3)

J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doom, A. M. L. Kappers, S. F. te Pas, and S. C. Pont, "Illumination direction from texture shading," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 987-995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. A. A. Kingdom, "Color brings relief to human vision,"Nat. Neurosci. 6, 641-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Georgeson and A. J. Schofield, "Shading and texture: separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?" Spatial Vis. 16, 59-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Hanazawa and H. Komatsu, "Influence of the direction of elemental luminance gradients on the responses of V4 cells to textured surfaces," J. Neurosci. 21, 4490-4497 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Langer and H. H. Bülthoff, "A prior for global convexity in local shape-from-shading," Perception 30, 403-410 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Christou and J. J. Koenderink, "Light source dependence in shape from shading," Vision Res. 37, 1441-1449 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai and L. H. Finkel, "Characterization of the spatial-frequency spectrum in the perception of shape from texture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1208-1224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. Curran and A. Johnston, "Integration of shading and texture cues: testing the linear model," Vision Res. 34, 1863-1874 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Finkel and P. Sajda, "Constructing visual perception," Am. Sci. 82, 224-237 (1994).

1992 (2)

D. Kleffner and V. S. Ramachandran, "On the perception of shape from shading," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 18-36 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Aks and J. T. Enns, "Visual search for direction of shading is influenced by apparent depth," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 63-74 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski, "Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 240, 251-278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Nature (London) 331, 163-166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Sci. Am. 259, 58-65 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. Shapley and J. Gordon, "Nonlinearity in the perception of form," Percept. Psychophys. 37, 84-88 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aks, D. J.

D. J. Aks and J. T. Enns, "Visual search for direction of shading is influenced by apparent depth," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 63-74 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, N.

K. Sakai and N. Aoki, "Effects of in-figure and boundary contrast on shape-from-shading," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 31, S44 (2004).

Bacon, B. A.

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bowen, C. V.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bülthoff, H. H.

M. S. Langer and H. H. Bülthoff, "A prior for global convexity in local shape-from-shading," Perception 30, 403-410 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Bülthoff, "Shape from X: psychophysics and computation," in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M.S.Landy and J.A.Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, 1991).

Christou, C. G.

C. G. Christou and J. J. Koenderink, "Light source dependence in shape from shading," Vision Res. 37, 1441-1449 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curran, W.

W. Curran and A. Johnston, "Integration of shading and texture cues: testing the linear model," Vision Res. 34, 1863-1874 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enns, J. T.

D. J. Aks and J. T. Enns, "Visual search for direction of shading is influenced by apparent depth," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 63-74 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erens, R. G.

E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finkel, L. H.

Gati, J. S.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgeson, M. A.

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

M. A. Georgeson and A. J. Schofield, "Shading and texture: separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?" Spatial Vis. 16, 59-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodale, M. A.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

R. Shapley and J. Gordon, "Nonlinearity in the perception of form," Percept. Psychophys. 37, 84-88 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, E. D.

E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanazawa, A.

A. Hanazawa and H. Komatsu, "Influence of the direction of elemental luminance gradients on the responses of V4 cells to textured surfaces," J. Neurosci. 21, 4490-4497 (2001).
[PubMed]

Hesse, G.

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

Hirai, Y.

K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humphrey, G. K.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jentzsch, I.

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

Johnston, A.

W. Curran and A. Johnston, "Integration of shading and texture cues: testing the linear model," Vision Res. 34, 1863-1874 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, E. B.

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kappers, A. M. L.

Kingdom, F. A. A.

F. A. A. Kingdom, "Color brings relief to human vision,"Nat. Neurosci. 6, 641-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleffner, D.

D. Kleffner and V. S. Ramachandran, "On the perception of shape from shading," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 18-36 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J. J.

Komatsu, H.

A. Hanazawa and H. Komatsu, "Influence of the direction of elemental luminance gradients on the responses of V4 cells to textured surfaces," J. Neurosci. 21, 4490-4497 (2001).
[PubMed]

Landy, M. S.

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, M. S.

M. S. Langer and H. H. Bülthoff, "A prior for global convexity in local shape-from-shading," Perception 30, 403-410 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. S.

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehky, S. R.

S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski, "Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 240, 251-278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mamassian, P.

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

Menon, R. S.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momma, T.

K. Sakai and T. Momma, "Ambiguous contours in shape-from-shading," Abstract of Asian Conference on Vision, Hayama, Japan, July 30-31, 2001, p. 37.

Mumford, D.

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, H.

K. Sakai and H. Nishimura, "Surrounding suppression and facilitation in the determination of border ownership," J. Cogn Neurosci. 18, 562-579 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noest, A. J.

E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nose, I.

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogiya, M.

K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pont, S. C.

Ramachandran, V. S.

D. Kleffner and V. S. Ramachandran, "On the perception of shape from shading," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 18-36 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Nature (London) 331, 163-166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Sci. Am. 259, 58-65 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

Rock, P. B.

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

Romero, R. D.

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutt, B. K.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajda, P.

L. H. Finkel and P. Sajda, "Constructing visual perception," Am. Sci. 82, 224-237 (1994).

Sakai, K.

K. Sakai and H. Nishimura, "Surrounding suppression and facilitation in the determination of border ownership," J. Cogn Neurosci. 18, 562-579 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakai and N. Aoki, "Effects of in-figure and boundary contrast on shape-from-shading," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 31, S44 (2004).

K. Sakai and L. H. Finkel, "Characterization of the spatial-frequency spectrum in the perception of shape from texture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1208-1224 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakai and T. Momma, "Ambiguous contours in shape-from-shading," Abstract of Asian Conference on Vision, Hayama, Japan, July 30-31, 2001, p. 37.

Schofield, A. J.

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

M. A. Georgeson and A. J. Schofield, "Shading and texture: separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?" Spatial Vis. 16, 59-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweinberger, S. R.

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sejnowski, T. J.

S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski, "Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 240, 251-278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shapley, R.

R. Shapley and J. Gordon, "Nonlinearity in the perception of form," Percept. Psychophys. 37, 84-88 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, M.

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

te Pas, S. F.

Tsutsui, K.

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Doom, A. J.

Vilis, T.

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. F.

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Sci. (1)

L. H. Finkel and P. Sajda, "Constructing visual perception," Am. Sci. 82, 224-237 (1994).

Curr. Biol. (1)

G. K. Humphrey, M. A. Goodale, C. V. Bowen, J. S. Gati, T. Vilis, B. K. Rutt, and R. S. Menon, "Differences in perceived shape from shading correlate with activity in early visual areas," Curr. Biol. 7, 144-147 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cogn Neurosci. (1)

K. Sakai and H. Nishimura, "Surrounding suppression and facilitation in the determination of border ownership," J. Cogn Neurosci. 18, 562-579 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

A. Hanazawa and H. Komatsu, "Influence of the direction of elemental luminance gradients on the responses of V4 cells to textured surfaces," J. Neurosci. 21, 4490-4497 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Neurosci. (2)

T. S. Lee, C. F. Yang, R. D. Romero, and D. Mumford, "Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher-order perceptual saliency," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589-597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. A. Kingdom, "Color brings relief to human vision,"Nat. Neurosci. 6, 641-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Nature (London) 331, 163-166 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

M. Taira, I. Nose, K. Inoue, and K. Tsutsui, "Cortical areas related to attention to 3D surface structures based on shading: an fMRI study," Neuroimage , 14, 959-966 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroReport (1)

P. Mamassian, I. Jentzsch, B. A. Bacon, and S. R. Schweinberger, "Neural correlates of shape from shading," NeuroReport 14, 971-975 (2003).
[PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (3)

R. Shapley and J. Gordon, "Nonlinearity in the perception of form," Percept. Psychophys. 37, 84-88 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kleffner and V. S. Ramachandran, "On the perception of shape from shading," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 18-36 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Aks and J. T. Enns, "Visual search for direction of shading is influenced by apparent depth," Percept. Psychophys. 52, 63-74 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (2)

A. J. Schofield, G. Hesse, M. A. Georgeson, and P. B. Rock, "The role of texture in shape from shading: Are humans biased towards seeing relief textures?" Perception 34 (Suppl.), S56 (2005).

M. S. Langer and H. H. Bülthoff, "A prior for global convexity in local shape-from-shading," Perception 30, 403-410 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B (1)

S. R. Lehky and T. J. Sejnowski, "Neural network model of visual cortex for determining surface curvature from images of shaded surfaces," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 240, 251-278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (1)

K. Sakai and N. Aoki, "Effects of in-figure and boundary contrast on shape-from-shading," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 31, S44 (2004).

Sci. Am. (1)

V. S. Ramachandran, "Perception of shape from shading," Sci. Am. 259, 58-65 (1988b).
[CrossRef]

Spatial Vis. (1)

M. A. Georgeson and A. J. Schofield, "Shading and texture: separate information channels with a common adaptation mechanism?" Spatial Vis. 16, 59-76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (5)

C. G. Christou and J. J. Koenderink, "Light source dependence in shape from shading," Vision Res. 37, 1441-1449 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Curran and A. Johnston, "Integration of shading and texture cues: testing the linear model," Vision Res. 34, 1863-1874 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Landy, L. T. Maloney, E. B. Johnston, and M. Young, "Measurement and modelling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion," Vision Res. 35, 389-412 (1995).
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K. Sakai, M. Ogiya, and Y. Hirai, "Perception of depth and motion from ambiguous binocular information," Vision Res. 45, 2471-2480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Haan, R. G. Erens, and A. J. Noest, "Shape from shaded random surfaces," Vision Res. 35, 2985-3001 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K. Sakai and T. Momma, "Ambiguous contours in shape-from-shading," Abstract of Asian Conference on Vision, Hayama, Japan, July 30-31, 2001, p. 37.

H. H. Bülthoff, "Shape from X: psychophysics and computation," in Computational Models of Visual Processing, M.S.Landy and J.A.Movshon, eds. (MIT Press, 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stimulus configuration for the experiments. The two ground squares with circles were placed on the right and left sides of the fixation point (a small square at the center). Within each square, five circles that form a T shape have a luminance that increases toward the top (appearing convex), and the other circles have the opposite luminance gradient (appearing concave). The positions and orientations of the T shape were chosen randomly except that the occurrence of the same orientation in both ground squares was 50%. A stimulus was presented for 1 s , and subjects were asked to judge whether the orientations of the two T shapes, shown simultaneously, were identical.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Addition of band-limited white noise to stimuli. (A) Example of luminance along a vertical axis that crosses the center of five circles. Gray curve, original luminance without noise; black curve, luminance with white noise. (B) Examples of part (a single circle) of a stimulus. A stimulus without noise is shown at the leftmost side. The noise was added to (1) the circles to increase both in-figure and boundary contrast, (2) the ground to increase boundary contrast, and (3) both circles and ground to increase in-figure contrast, as shown from left to right, respectively. Arrows below the stimuli illustrate the amounts of in-figure and boundary contrast and saliency in figure/ground segregation. Upward and downward arrows indicate an increase and decrease from the stimulus without noise, respectively. Equal signs indicate no change.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured correct rates of six subjects as a function of the luminance range of the random noise (noise contrast). Six symbols with distinct connecting lines identify the subjects. Error bars indicate ± 1 standard error, shown for a single subject for the sake of simplicity. The results for stimuli without noise are plotted at the noise contrast of zero.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Increase in the correct rates for noise-added stimuli compared with stimuli without noise for each subject. Error bars indicate ± 1 standard error, shown for a single subject for the sake of simplicity. The addition of noise increased the correct rates of all subjects for the luminance range of noise to or lower than 12.4 cd m 2 , indicating facilitative interaction between shading and unstructured texture. The NSR for 12.4 cd m 2 is 1.05, so the noise contrast is about the same as the shading contrast. The suppression in correct rates for noise-added stimuli is observed for the luminance range of noise equal to or higher than 16.3 cd m 2 . Although the correct rates vary among the subjects, facilitation was observed for a certain range of random noise with intersubject agreement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Facilitation, i.e., the increase in the correct rates for noise-added stimuli compared with stimuli without noise, as a function of the range of luminance gradation (shading contrast) for three types of noise configurations in which random texture is added to (A) figures, (B) the ground, and (C) both. Three icons with distinct connecting lines identify the subjects, with error bars indicating ± 1 standard errors. Error bars are shown for a single subject within each panel for the sake of simplicity. The addition of noise increased the correct rates for all stimulus configurations, indicating that an increase in in-figure contrast, boundary contrast, or both, results in facilitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) Examples of stimuli with multiplicative noise and with additive noise. (B) An example of luminance along a vertical axis that crosses the center of a circle. The thick straight solid line indicates gradation without noise. The luminances of multiplicative noise and additive noise are plotted as thick solid black and gray curves, respectively. The scaling factors for multiplicative and additive noise are indicated by thin solid lines and thin dashed lines, respectively. The amounts of facilitation (the increases in correct rates for noise-combined stimuli compared with those for stimuli without noise) are plotted as a function of (C) the range of luminance gradation (shading contrast) and of (D) the mean of the luminance range of noise (noise contrast). Three types of open symbols with distinct connecting lines show the results of multiplicative noise on correct rates for three subjects, and three types of solid symbols show the results of additive noise on correct rates of the three subjects, with error bars indicating ± 1 standard errors. The addition of multiplicative noise increased the correct rates for all stimulus configurations to extents similar to those seen when additive noise was applied.

Equations (1)

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I ( x , y ) = N ( x , y ) ( G ( x , y ) G min G max G min + 0.5 ) ,

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