Abstract

A scanner characterization method is proposed to estimate spectral reflectance from scanner responses by using an optimized adaptive estimation method. In contrast to our previous study [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1125 (2004) ], this method considers the weighting of training samples. It is demonstrated that the color accuracy of this method is only slightly affected by the number of training samples and can provide more accurate reflectance estimation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. L. Vora and H. J. Trussell, 'Measurement of goodness of a set of color scanning filters,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1499-1508 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shi and G. Healey, 'Using reflectance models for color scanner calibration,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 645-656 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Spectral characterization of a color scanner by adaptive estimation,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1125-1130 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Dicarlo and B. A. Wandell, 'Spectral estimation theory: beyond linear but before Bayesian,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1261-1270 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Sharma and H. J. Trussell, 'Digital color imaging,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901-932 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Barnard and B. Funt, 'Camera characterization for color research,' Color Res. Appl. 27, 152-163 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Colorimetric and spectral characterization of a color scanner using local statistics,' J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 342-346 (2004).
  13. R. McDonald and K. J. Smith, 'CIE94--a new colour-difference formula,' J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 111, 376-379 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2004

V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Colorimetric and spectral characterization of a color scanner using local statistics,' J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 342-346 (2004).

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Spectral characterization of a color scanner by adaptive estimation,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1125-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

M. Shi and G. Healey, 'Using reflectance models for color scanner calibration,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 645-656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard and B. Funt, 'Camera characterization for color research,' Color Res. Appl. 27, 152-163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. Sharma and H. J. Trussell, 'Digital color imaging,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901-932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. McDonald and K. J. Smith, 'CIE94--a new colour-difference formula,' J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 111, 376-379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Barnard, K.

K. Barnard and B. Funt, 'Camera characterization for color research,' Color Res. Appl. 27, 152-163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, V.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dicarlo, J. M.

Farrell, J. E.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Funt, B.

K. Barnard and B. Funt, 'Camera characterization for color research,' Color Res. Appl. 27, 152-163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haneishi, H.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Healey, G.

Hong, G. W.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

R. McDonald and K. J. Smith, 'CIE94--a new colour-difference formula,' J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 111, 376-379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P. A.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma and H. J. Trussell, 'Digital color imaging,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901-932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H. L.

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Colorimetric and spectral characterization of a color scanner using local statistics,' J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 342-346 (2004).

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Spectral characterization of a color scanner by adaptive estimation,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1125-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, M.

Smith, K. J.

R. McDonald and K. J. Smith, 'CIE94--a new colour-difference formula,' J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 111, 376-379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tietz, J. D.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trussell, H. H.

G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trussell, H. J.

Tsumura, N.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vora, P. L.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Vora and H. J. Trussell, 'Measurement of goodness of a set of color scanning filters,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1499-1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vrhel, M. J.

G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wandell, B. A.

Westland, S.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xin, J. H.

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Spectral characterization of a color scanner by adaptive estimation,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1125-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Colorimetric and spectral characterization of a color scanner using local statistics,' J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 342-346 (2004).

Color Res. Appl.

V. Cheung, S. Westland, and M. Thomson, 'Accurate estimation of the nonlinearity of input/output response for color cameras,' Color Res. Appl. 29, 406-412 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard and B. Funt, 'Camera characterization for color research,' Color Res. Appl. 27, 152-163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, and P. A. Rhodes, 'A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,' Color Res. Appl. 26, 76-84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

G. Sharma and H. J. Trussell, 'Digital color imaging,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901-932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, 'Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307-316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, H. H. Trussell, and M. J. Vrhel, 'Optimal nonnegative color scanning filters,' IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 129-133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol.

H. L. Shen and J. H. Xin, 'Colorimetric and spectral characterization of a color scanner using local statistics,' J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 342-346 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Soc. Dyers Colour.

R. McDonald and K. J. Smith, 'CIE94--a new colour-difference formula,' J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 111, 376-379 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

N. Tsumura, H. Sato, T. Hasegawa, H. Haneishi, and Y. Miyake, 'Limitation of color samples for spectral estimation from sensor responses in fine art painting,' Opt. Rev. 6, 57-61 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Δ E 94 * Error under Illuminant D65 with Respect to the Number of Training Samples L for the Optimization and AE Methods with targets CDC and IT8

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Optimization (Opt), AE, and LRM-based Methods in Terms of Δ E 94 * Error and rms Error Using Target CDC a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of the Optimization (Opt), AE, and LRM-based Methods in Terms of Δ E 94 * Error and rms Error Using Target IT8 a

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v = M r + n ,
ρ = F ( v ) = F ( M r + n ) ,
u = M r .
r ̂ = W u ,
J 0 = 1 L i = 1 L r ̂ i r i 2 = 1 L i = 1 L W u i r i 2
W AE = ( R U T ) ( U U T ) 1 .
α i = ( 2 π ) 3 2 Σ u u 1 2 exp [ 1 2 ( u i u ) T Σ u u 1 ( u i u ) ] ,
Σ u u = E { ( u i u ¯ ) ( u i u ¯ ) T } ,
J 1 = 1 L i = 1 L α i r ̂ i α i r i 2 .
J 1 = 1 L i = 1 L W α i u i α i r i 2 = 1 L i = 1 L W u ̃ i r ̃ i 2 ,
W opt = ( R ̃ U ̃ T ) ( U ̃ U ̃ T ) 1 .
d i = u u i .
rms error = [ ( r r ̂ ) T ( r r ̂ ) N ] 1 2 .

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