Abstract

This study examines the extent to which a Zernike-based optical correction can restore acuity in keratoconus as a function of disease severity and contrast level. Increasingly complete Zernike corrections in the presence of Zernike-fit error were simulated. Acuity for keratoconic eyes with <60D maximum corneal power reached 2013 with a fifth-order Zernike correction under high-contrast conditions and exhibited a loss of 0.1 logMAR (minimum angle of resolution) (from 2032 to 2040) for low-contrast conditions. Acuity for keratoconic eyes with >60D maximum corneal power approached 2013 with sixth–tenth-order corrections under high-contrast conditions but did not return to similar levels with a tenth-order correction for low-contrast conditions. The results suggest that fit error affects visual performance for more difficult tasks and that restoring high-contrast acuity (2016 or better) using a fifth-order Zernike correction is not limited by Zernike-fit error for over 88% of keratoconus cases.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).
  28. J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  29. M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  30. L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

L. N. Thibos, "The optics of wavefront sensing," Ophthalmol. Clin. N. Am. 17, 111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Klyce, M. D. Karon, and M. K. Smolek, "Advantages and disadvantages of the Zernike expansion for representing wavefront aberration of the normal and aberrated eye," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S537-541 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

A. Guirao and D. R. Williams, "A method to predict refractive errors from wave aberration data," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 36-42 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike fitting fails to represent all visually significant aberrations in keratococnus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-562 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Method for optimizing the correction of the eye's higher-order aberrations in the presence of decentrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 126-128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, J. Porter, D. R. Williams, and I. G. Cox, "Calculated impact of higher order monochromatic aberrations on retinal image quality in a population of human eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 620-628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

1995 (1)

D. B. Elliott, K. C. H. Yang, and D. Whitaker, "Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 186-191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

1984 (2)

J. G. Burton and N. D. Haig, "Effects of the Seidel aberrations on visual target discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 373-385 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, "Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders," Surv. Ophthalmol. 28, 293-322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, C.

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

Applegate, R. A.

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-562 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. G. Cox and M. Lagana, "Feasibility of wavefront customized contact lenses," in R. R. Krueger, R. A. Applegate, and S. M. MacRae, Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: the Quest for Super Vision II (Slack Inc., 2004), pp. 279-284.

Ballentine, C.

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbero, S.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

Barr, J. T.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Belin, M. W.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, "Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders," Surv. Ophthalmol. 28, 293-322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benito, A.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burton, J. G.

Chateau, N.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cobo, L. M.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Coster, D. J.

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

Dana, M. R.

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

de Brabander, J.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. D.

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

Edrington, T. B.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Elliott, D. B.

D. B. Elliott, K. C. H. Yang, and D. Whitaker, "Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 186-191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Everett, D. F.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Feder, R. S.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, "Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders," Surv. Ophthalmol. 28, 293-322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foulks, G. N.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Fritz, M. E.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Fujikado, T.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goelz, S.

Gordon, M. O.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Grimm, B.

Gross, H.

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guirao, A.

Haig, N. D.

Hirohara, Y.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hom, D. L.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, M.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Johnson, C. A.

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

Karon, M. D.

S. D. Klyce, M. D. Karon, and M. K. Smolek, "Advantages and disadvantages of the Zernike expansion for representing wavefront aberration of the normal and aberrated eye," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S537-541 (2004).
[PubMed]

Keates, R. H.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Khemsara, V.

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Klyce, S. D.

S. D. Klyce, M. D. Karon, and M. K. Smolek, "Advantages and disadvantages of the Zernike expansion for representing wavefront aberration of the normal and aberrated eye," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S537-541 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike fitting fails to represent all visually significant aberrations in keratococnus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kollbaum, P.

P. Kollbaum, "Seeing into the future with contact lenses," Cont. Lens. Spect., February 2003, 25-29.

Krachmer, J. H.

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, "Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders," Surv. Ophthalmol. 28, 293-322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, R. R.

I. G. Cox and M. Lagana, "Feasibility of wavefront customized contact lenses," in R. R. Krueger, R. A. Applegate, and S. M. MacRae, Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: the Quest for Super Vision II (Slack Inc., 2004), pp. 279-284.

Kuroda, T.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagana, M.

I. G. Cox and M. Lagana, "Feasibility of wavefront customized contact lenses," in R. R. Krueger, R. A. Applegate, and S. M. MacRae, Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: the Quest for Super Vision II (Slack Inc., 2004), pp. 279-284.

Lass, J. H.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Leach, N. L.

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lembach, R. G.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lim, L.

L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Gil, N.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacRae, S. M.

I. G. Cox and M. Lagana, "Feasibility of wavefront customized contact lenses," in R. R. Krueger, R. A. Applegate, and S. M. MacRae, Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: the Quest for Super Vision II (Slack Inc., 2004), pp. 279-284.

Maeda, N.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mannis, M. J.

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

Marcos, S.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

Marin, G.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marsack, J. D.

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

McMahon, T. T.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

Moran, C. T.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nishida, K.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuamah, I. F.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Park, S. B.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Pesudovs, K.

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J.

Putz, J. L.

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ramos, R.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhart, W. J.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Roorda, A.

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sarver, C. A.

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarver, E. J.

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schoneveld, P.

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seto, R. J.

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. A.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Smolek, M. K.

S. D. Klyce, M. D. Karon, and M. K. Smolek, "Advantages and disadvantages of the Zernike expansion for representing wavefront aberration of the normal and aberrated eye," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S537-541 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike fitting fails to represent all visually significant aberrations in keratococnus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sterling, J. L.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Stocker, E. G.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Sugar, J.

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

Svilar, G. M.

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

Tano, Y.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, "The optics of wavefront sensing," Ophthalmol. Clin. N. Am. 17, 111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, "Design principles and limitations of wavefront guided contact lenses," Eye Cont. Lens. 29, S167-S170 (2003).

Van Der Worp, E.

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viana, M. A.

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

Wagner, H.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

Watanabe, H.

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, D.

D. B. Elliott, K. C. H. Yang, and D. Whitaker, "Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 186-191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Yang, K. C.

D. B. Elliott, K. C. H. Yang, and D. Whitaker, "Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 186-191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zadnik, K.

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

M. J. Mannis, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, and C. Adams, "Contrast sensitivity after penetrating keratoplasty," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1220-1223 (1987).

Biomed. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. D. Marsack, T. E. Milner, H. G. Rylander III, N. L. Leach, and A. Roorda, "Applying wavefront sensors and corneal topography to keratoconus," Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 38, 471-476 (2002).
[PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

K. Pesudovs, P. Schoneveld, R. J. Seto, and D. J. Coster, "Contrast and glare testing in keratoconus and after penetrating keratoplasty," Br. J. Ophthamol. 88, 653-657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

K. Zadnik, J. T. Barr, T. B. Edrington, D. F. Everett, M. Jameson, T. T. McMahon, J. A. Shin, J. L. Sterling, H. Wagner, and M. O. Gordon, "Baseline findings in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus (CLEK) Study," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2537-2546 (1998).

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike fitting fails to represent all visually significant aberrations in keratococnus," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

R. A. Applegate, J. D. Marsack, R. Ramos, and E. J. Sarver, "Interaction between aberrations to improve or reduce visual performance," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1487-1495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-562 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-70 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, J. D. Marsack, W. D. Donnelly, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, "Measuring visual acuity-mesopic or photopic conditions and high or low contrast letters," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S508-514 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. D. Klyce, M. D. Karon, and M. K. Smolek, "Advantages and disadvantages of the Zernike expansion for representing wavefront aberration of the normal and aberrated eye," J. Refract. Surg. 20, S537-541 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Vision (1)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A. Applegate, "Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations," J. Vision 4, 329-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmol. Clin. N. Am. (1)

L. N. Thibos, "The optics of wavefront sensing," Ophthalmol. Clin. N. Am. 17, 111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (4)

J. H. Lass, R. G. Lembach, S. B. Park, D. L. Hom, M. E. Fritz, G. M. Svilar, I. F. Nuamah, W. J. Reinhart, E. G. Stocker, R. H. Keates, C. T. Moran, L. M. Cobo, and G. N. Foulks, "Clinical management of keratoconus. A multicenter analysis," Ophthalmology 97, 433-45 (1990).
[PubMed]

M. R. Dana, J. L. Putz, M. A. Viana, J. Sugar, and T. T. McMahon, "Contact lens failure in keratoconus management," Ophthalmology 99, 1187-1192 (1992).
[PubMed]

L. Lim, K. Pesudovs, and D. J. Coster, "Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success," Ophthalmology 107, 1125-1131 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, T. Kuroda, T. Mihashi, Y. Hirohara, K. Nishida, H. Watanabe, and Y. Tano, "Wavefront aberrations measured with Hartmann-Shack sensor in patients with keratoconus," Ophthalmology 109, 1996-2003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optom. Vision Sci. (4)

D. B. Elliott, K. C. H. Yang, and D. Whitaker, "Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6," Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 186-191 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. de Brabander, N. Chateau, G. Marin, N. Lopez-Gil, E. Van Der Worp, and A. Benito, "Simulated optical performance of custom wavefront soft contact lenses for keratoconus," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 637-43 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao and D. R. Williams, "A method to predict refractive errors from wave aberration data," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 36-42 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, C. Ballentine, H. Gross, E. J. Sarver, and C. A. Sarver, "Visual acuity as a function of Zernike mode and level of root mean square error," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 97-105 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. H. Krachmer, R. S. Feder, and M. W. Belin, "Keratoconus and related noninflammatory corneal thinning disorders," Surv. Ophthalmol. 28, 293-322 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

American National Standards, American National Standards for Ophthalmics, "Methods for reporting optical aberrations of eyes," ANSI Z80.28-2004.

L. N. Thibos, "Design principles and limitations of wavefront guided contact lenses," Eye Cont. Lens. 29, S167-S170 (2003).

I. G. Cox and M. Lagana, "Feasibility of wavefront customized contact lenses," in R. R. Krueger, R. A. Applegate, and S. M. MacRae, Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: the Quest for Super Vision II (Slack Inc., 2004), pp. 279-284.

P. Kollbaum, "Seeing into the future with contact lenses," Cont. Lens. Spect., February 2003, 25-29.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of maximum corneal dioptric power in a clinical sample of 117 keratoconic subjects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visual performance charts demonstrating (b) second- through (f) sixth-order Zernike corrections for the keratoconic eye with maximum corneal power of 54 D pictured in (a). Zernicke fit error is included in the simulations shown in (b) through (f).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavefront aberration, including Zernike fit error (the portion of the wavefront not characterized by the Zernike polynomial), for the (a) second- through (e) sixth-order corrections of the 54 D eye are shown. Also shown are wavefront maps for the (f) second- through (j) sixth-order corrections with fit error excluded. (a) through (e) show the wavefront errors used in the simulations for this keratoconic patient. (f) through (j) are shown to provide the reader with a feel of the distribution of the fit error shown in (a) through (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Letters-lost mean of means for (a) high-contrast and (b) low-contrast VA charts convolved with PSFs derived from keratoconic wavefront errors for eyes with corneas having < 60 D maximum corneal power. Letters lost from baseline (left vertical axis) is plotted as a function of Zernike orders corrected. Letters lost is converted to VA (right vertical axis). Zero letters lost from baseline (charts having no wavefront error) corresponds to an average acuity of 20 13 for high contrast and 20 32 for low contrast. At fifth-radial-order Zernike correction, high-contrast visual performance in the presence of sixth- through tenth-order aberrations and residual fit error has returned to baseline levels. At fifth order, low-contrast visual performance in the presence of sixth- through tenth-order aberrations and residual fit error has reached a plateau at a loss of approximately five letters, or 0.1 log MAR. For these subjects a one line loss reduces low-contrast acuity from 20 32 to 20 40 . Dashed lines represent one standard deviation of the average scores on “perfect” high contrast charts. All tested points are plotted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Letters-lost mean of means for both (a) high- and (b) low–contrast VA charts convolved with PSFs derived from keratoconic wavefront errors for corneas having > 60 D maximum corneal power. Letters lost from baseline (left vertical axis) is plotted as a function of Zernike orders corrected. Letters lost is converted to VA (right vertical axis). Zero letters lost from baseline corresponds to an average acuity of 20 13 for high contrast and 20 32 for low contrast. As corneal power increases, the number of Zernike orders required for optimal correction increases. Dashed lines represent one standard deviation of the scores on “perfect” charts. All tested points are plotted.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of 4 mm Aberration Data for the Eight Keratoconic Eyes Studied a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of P Obtained from ANOVAs That Compare Mean High-Contrast Baseline Acuity with the Mean Acuity Obtained for Charts Aberrated with the Corrected Wavefront Error Obtained from < 60 D Keratoconic Eyes

Metrics