Abstract

A ray-tracing procedure was applied to corrected Scheimpflug photography measurements to determine the spherical aberration of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the cornea. It was found that the total spherical aberration of the cornea increases slightly with age. The spherical aberration of the posterior corneal surface is negative at a young age and becomes positive at an older age. To make an accurate description of the spherical aberration for the whole eye, the posterior surface must also be measured.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  3. R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  29. R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. H. C. Howland and B. Howland, 'A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. Smith, R. A. Applegate, and D. A. Atchison, 'Assessment of the accuracy of the crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2477-2487 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), [Eq. (15.19)] p. 145.
  35. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 236-244.
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2004 (3)

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Atchison, 'Recent advances in representation of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,' Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 138-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. C. He, J. Gwiazda, F. Thorn, and R. Held, 'Wave-front aberrations in the anterior corneal surface and the whole eye,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1155-1163 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, 'Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1595-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. Salmon and L. N. Thibos, 'Videokeratoscope-line-of-sight misalignment and its effect on measurements of corneal and internal ocular aberrations,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 657-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

2001 (4)

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, 'Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman and G. L. van der Heijde, 'The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,' Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, 'Compensation of aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye,' J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke III, 'Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,' J. Refract. Surg. 11, 100-105 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Tomlinson, R. P. Hemenger, and R. Garriot, 'Method for estimating the spherical aberration of the human crystalline lens in vivo,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 621-629 (1993).

1986 (1)

T. Olsen, 'On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 152-154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and G. Carney, 'The mean shape of the human cornea,' Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Millodot and J. Sivak, 'Contribution of the cornea and the lens to the spherical aberration of the eye,' Vision Res. 19, 685-687 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

Amano, S.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amano, Y.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

G. Smith, R. A. Applegate, and D. A. Atchison, 'Assessment of the accuracy of the crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2477-2487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, 'Recent advances in representation of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,' Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 138-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, R. A. Applegate, and D. A. Atchison, 'Assessment of the accuracy of the crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2477-2487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 36.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 251.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), [Eq. (15.19)] p. 145.

Barbero, S.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, 'Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1595-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belluci, R.

R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).

Berny, F.

Berrio, E.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, 'Compensation of aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye,' J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 236-244.

Brennan, N. A.

Buettner, J.

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calver, R.

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, G.

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and G. Carney, 'The mean shape of the human cornea,' Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. G.

Cox, M. J.

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, E.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubbelman, M.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman and G. L. van der Heijde, 'The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,' Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, V. A. Sicam, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, Department of Physics and Medical Technology (FMT), VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript entitled 'The shape of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the aging human cornea.'

El Hage, S. G.

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke III, 'Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,' J. Refract. Surg. 11, 100-105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Garner, L. F.

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garriot, R.

A. Tomlinson, R. P. Hemenger, and R. Garriot, 'Method for estimating the spherical aberration of the human crystalline lens in vivo,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 621-629 (1993).

Guirao, A.

Gwiazda, J.

He, J. C.

Held, R.

Hemenger, R. P.

R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tomlinson, R. P. Hemenger, and R. Garriot, 'Method for estimating the spherical aberration of the human crystalline lens in vivo,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 621-629 (1993).

Howland, B.

Howland, H. C.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Howland and B. Howland, 'A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1508-1518 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiely, P. M.

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and G. Carney, 'The mean shape of the human cornea,' Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Klyce, S. D.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

Koch, D. D.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liou, H.-L.

Marcos, S.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, 'Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1595-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, J.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke III, 'Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,' J. Refract. Surg. 11, 100-105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, 'Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1595-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Millodot, M.

M. Millodot and J. Sivak, 'Contribution of the cornea and the lens to the spherical aberration of the eye,' Vision Res. 19, 685-687 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Millodot, 'Effect of the aberrations of the eye on visual perception,' in Visual Psycophysics and Physiology (Academic, 1978), Chap. 35, pp. 441-452.

Miyai, T.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyata, K.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morselli, S.

R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).

Moses, R. A.

R. A. Moses, Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application (Mosby, 1981), p. 38.

Nathoo, A.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nuñez, R.

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, K.

R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, T.

T. Olsen, 'On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 152-154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oshika, C.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshika, T.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

Patel, S.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke III, 'Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,' J. Refract. Surg. 11, 100-105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Piers, P.

R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).

Porter, J.

Redondo, M.

Salmon, T. O.

T. O. Salmon and L. N. Thibos, 'Videokeratoscope-line-of-sight misalignment and its effect on measurements of corneal and internal ocular aberrations,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 657-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. O. Salmon, 'Corneal contribution to the wave aberration of the eye,' Ph.D. dissertation (Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, Okla., 1999; revised, 2002), http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/~salmonto/Dissertation/Dissertation.html.

Samejima, T.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

Sicam, V. A.

M. Dubbelman, V. A. Sicam, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, Department of Physics and Medical Technology (FMT), VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript entitled 'The shape of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the aging human cornea.'

Sivak, J.

M. Millodot and J. Sivak, 'Contribution of the cornea and the lens to the spherical aberration of the eye,' Vision Res. 19, 685-687 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, R. A. Applegate, and D. A. Atchison, 'Assessment of the accuracy of the crossed-cylinder aberroscope technique,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2477-2487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and G. Carney, 'The mean shape of the human cornea,' Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 36.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 251.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), [Eq. (15.19)] p. 145.

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

T. O. Salmon and L. N. Thibos, 'Videokeratoscope-line-of-sight misalignment and its effect on measurements of corneal and internal ocular aberrations,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 657-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, Handbook of Visual Optics, v. 4/99 http://research.opt.indiana.edu/default.html.

Thorn, F.

Tomlinson, A.

R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tomlinson, R. P. Hemenger, and R. Garriot, 'Method for estimating the spherical aberration of the human crystalline lens in vivo,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 621-629 (1993).

van der Heijde, G. L.

M. Dubbelman and G. L. van der Heijde, 'The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,' Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijde, R. G.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, V. A. Sicam, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, Department of Physics and Medical Technology (FMT), VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript entitled 'The shape of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the aging human cornea.'

Völker-Dieben, H. J.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

Weeber, H. A.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, 'Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, 'Compensation of aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye,' J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 236-244.

Yamagami, S.

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. L. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, 'Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 379-383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Amano, Y. Amano, S. Yamagami, T. Miyai, K. Miyata, T. Samejima, C. Oshika, and T. Oshika, 'Age-related changes in corneal and ocular higher-order wavefront aberrations,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 988-992 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

T. Olsen, 'On the calculation of power from curvature of the cornea,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 70, 152-154 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Exp. Optom. (1)

D. A. Atchison, 'Recent advances in representation of monochromatic aberrations of human eyes,' Clin. Exp. Optom. 87, 138-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, 'Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

A. Tomlinson, R. P. Hemenger, and R. Garriot, 'Method for estimating the spherical aberration of the human crystalline lens in vivo,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 621-629 (1993).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (2)

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and J. Merayo-Lloves, 'Corneal and total optical aberrations in a unilateral aphakic patient,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1595-1600 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, 'Optical aberrations of the human anterior cornea,' J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514-1521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke III, 'Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,' J. Refract. Surg. 11, 100-105 (1995).
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R. Belluci, S. Morselli, and P. Piers, 'Comparison of wavefront aberrations and optical quality of eyes implanted with five intraocular lenses,' J. Refract. Surg. 20, 297-306 (2004).

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, 'Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,' J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652-660 (2002).

J. Vision (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, 'Compensation of aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye,' J. Vision 1, 1-8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

R. P. Hemenger, A. Tomlinson, and K. Oliver, 'Corneal optics from videokeratographs,' Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 63-68 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and G. Carney, 'The mean shape of the human cornea,' Opt. Acta 29, 1027-1040 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

R. A. Applegate, R. Nuñez, J. Buettner, and H. C. Howland, 'How accurately can videokeratographic systems measure surface elevation?' Optom. Vision Sci. 72, 785-792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

M. Dubbelman and G. L. van der Heijde, 'The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox,' Vision Res. 41, 1867-1877 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Smith, M. J. Cox, R. Calver, and L. F. Garner, 'The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye,' Vision Res. 41, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Millodot and J. Sivak, 'Contribution of the cornea and the lens to the spherical aberration of the eye,' Vision Res. 19, 685-687 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 251.

R. A. Moses, Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application (Mosby, 1981), p. 38.

T. O. Salmon, 'Corneal contribution to the wave aberration of the eye,' Ph.D. dissertation (Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, Okla., 1999; revised, 2002), http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/~salmonto/Dissertation/Dissertation.html.

M. Dubbelman, V. A. Sicam, and R. G. L. van der Heijde, Department of Physics and Medical Technology (FMT), VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, are preparing a manuscript entitled 'The shape of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the aging human cornea.'

M. Millodot, 'Effect of the aberrations of the eye on visual perception,' in Visual Psycophysics and Physiology (Academic, 1978), Chap. 35, pp. 441-452.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), p. 36.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), [Eq. (15.19)] p. 145.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 236-244.

L. N. Thibos, Handbook of Visual Optics, v. 4/99 http://research.opt.indiana.edu/default.html.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Incident light on a corneal surface is refracted to a focus point, F.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ray-tracing procedure to determine the SA of the cornea.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SA for the anterior corneal surface (solid diamonds: slope = 0.0055 , r = 0.356 , p < 0.001 ) and posterior corneal surface (open squares: slope = 0.0028 , r = 0.646 , p < 0.001 ) as a function of age for a 7.5 mm zone. The age trend for the whole cornea is shown as a line of dashes (slope = 0.0083 , r = 0.464 , p < 0.001 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percent posterior SA contribution with respect to the anterior contribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent difference between SA calculated for a one-surface model of the cornea compared with actual values.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Value ( ± s.d. ) of the Radius and k Value of the Anterior and Posterior Surfaces of the Cornea a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean Value ( ± s.d. ) (or Range [..]) of Calculated SA of the Corneal Anterior Surface from Different Data Sets

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s 2 2 r z a + k z a 2 = 0 .
n 1 z a + n 2 d 1 = n 2 f .
d 1 2 = s 2 + ( f z a ) 2 .
k = 1 n 1 2 n 2 2 0.4718 ,
f = n 2 r n 2 n 1 .
W a = n 2 f n 1 z a n 2 d 1 .
W a = n 2 ( z a z r e f ) cos θ n 1 ( z a z r e f ) ,
W c = n 2 t + n 3 ( f c t ) n 1 z a n 2 Δ n 3 d 2 ,
z z 0 = c ( s s 0 ) 2 1 + 1 + k c 2 ( s s 0 ) 2 ,
r ( θ ) = r 1 + r 2 cos 2 ( θ α ) ,
k ( θ ) = k 1 + k 2 cos 2 ( θ β ) .
W ( X , Y ) = W 1 X + W 2 Y + W 3 X 2 + W 4 X Y + W 5 Y 2 + W 6 X 3 + W 7 X 2 Y + W 8 X Y 2 + W 9 Y 3 + W 10 X 4 + W 11 X 3 Y + W 12 X 2 Y 2 + W 12 X 2 Y 2 + W 13 X Y 3 + W 14 Y 4 + O ( 5 ) ,
W ( X , Y ) = W 4 , 0 Y 4 ,
SA = C R 4 ,
C = W 4 , 0 = ( 3 W 10 + W 12 + 3 W 14 ) 8 .
SA = 6 5 C 4 0 ρ 4 ,
R = r p ρ ,
C = Seidel value r p 4 ,
Seidel value = 6 5 C 4 0 ,
Seidel value ( μ m ) = r p 2 4 Seidel value ( D ) .

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