Abstract

The spatial distribution of the optical density of the human macular pigment measured by two-wavelength autofluorescence imaging exhibits in over half of the subjects an annulus of higher density superimposed on a central exponential-like distribution. This annulus is located at about 0.7° from the fovea. Women have broader distributions than men, and they are more likely to exhibit this bimodal distribution. Maxwell’s spot reported by subjects matches the measured distribution of their pigment. Evidence that the shape of the foveal depression may be gender related leads us to hypothesize that differences in macular pigment distribution are related to anatomical differences in the shape of the foveal depression.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006 (1)

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment shows ring like structures,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1774 (2006).

2005 (5)

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, 'On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,' Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, Jr., 'Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,' Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 378-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, 'Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence,' Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. N. Keilhauer, J. Fischer, J. Mlynski, A. Stangl, and F. C. Delori, 'Confocal infrared autofluorescence imaging in normal subjects and AMD patients,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1394 (2005).

2004 (7)

W. Gellermann and P. S. Bernstein, 'Noninvasive detection of macular pigments in the human eye,' J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 75-85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sandby-Moller, E. Thieden, P. Alshede Philipsen, G. Schmidt, and H. C. Wulf, 'Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure,' Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 41-46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Smiddy and H. W. Flynn, Jr., 'Pathogenesis of macular holes and therapeutic implications,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137, 525-537 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, 'Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Moreland, 'Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry,' Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 143-148 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, 'Autofluorescence method to measure macular pigment optical densities fluorometry and autofluorescence imaging,' Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 156-162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Delori, D. Goger, P. Salvetti, C. Keilhauer, and G. Staurenghi, 'Spatial distribution of macular pigment in normal subjects,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1288 (2004).

2003 (9)

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, 'Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Trieschmann, G. Spital, A. Lommatzsch, E. Van Kuijk, F. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and D. Pauleikhoff, 'Macular pigment: quantitative analysis on autofluorescence images,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 1006-1012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Staurenghi, C. Keilhauer, F. Viola, P. Salvetti, D. Goger, and F. Delori, 'Variability in macular pigment distribution evaluated by autofluorescence imaging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5118 (2003).

C. R. Gale, N. F. Hall, D. I. Phillips, and C. N. Martyn, 'Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2461-2465 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sparrow, N. Fishkin, J. Zhou, B. Cai, Y. P. Jang, S. Krane, Y. Itagaki, and K. Nakanishi, 'A2E, a byproduct of the visual cycle,' Vision Res. 43, 2983-2990 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, 'Fundus autofluorescence and age-related macular degeneration,' Ophthalmology 110, 392-399 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wenzel, K. Fuld, and J. M. Stringham, 'Light exposure and macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 306-309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. van Kuijk, 'Macular pigment density and distribution: comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,' Vision Res. 43, 1765-1775 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (9)

P. Massin, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, A. B. Mehidi, M. Paques, and A. Gaudric, 'Retinal thickness in healthy and diabetic subjects measured using optical coherence tomography mapping software,' Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12, 102-108 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. la Cour and J. Friis, 'Macular holes: classification, epidemiology, natural history and treatment,' Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 579-587 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, A. Langner, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, N. Craft, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, and C. K. Dorey, 'Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3538-3549 (2002).

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Berendschot, J. J. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. De Jong, and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

H. Wustemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, 'A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Broekmans, T. T. Berendschot, I. A. Klopping-Ketelaars, A. J. de Vries, R. A. Goldbohm, L. B. Tijburg, A. F. Kardinaal, and G. van Poppel, 'Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin,' Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 595-603 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, and R. W. McClane, 'Raman imaging of human macular pigments,' Opt. Lett. 27, 833-835 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Gellermann, I. V. Ermakov, M. R. Ermakova, R. W. McClane, D. Y. Zhao, and P. S. Bernstein, 'In vivo resonant Raman measurement of macular carotenoid pigments in the young and the aging human retina,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1172-1186 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, 'Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212-1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, Jr., R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, 'Macular pigment optical density in a midwestern sample,' Ophthalmology 108, 730-737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, 'Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, 'Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,' Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28-40 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, 'The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,' Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422-434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Koozekanani, C. Roberts, S. E. Katz, and E. E. Herderick, 'Intersession repeatability of macular thickness measurements with the Humphrey 2000 OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1486-1491 (2000).

A. Stockman and L. T. Sharpe, 'The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype,' Vision Res. 40, 1711-1737 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, 'Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492-1497 (2000).

1999 (3)

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, Jr., R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, 'A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481-2489 (1999).

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, 'Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 867-877 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, 'Reflectance and curvature of the inner limiting membrane at the foveola,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1229-1237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, 'Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, 'Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,' Ophthalmology 105, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

J. M. Benitez del Castillo, T. del Rio, and J. Garcia-Sanchez, 'Effects of estrogen use on lens transmittance in postmenopausal women,' Ophthalmology 104, 970-973 (1997).

B. R. Hammond, Jr., E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795-1801 (1997).

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, and K. E. Sprague, 'One year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,' Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57-62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hammond, Jr., B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187-1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary patterns,' Vision Res. 36, 2001-2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, 'In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

D. M. Snodderly, 'Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxident vitamins,' Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62, 1448S-1461S (1995).
[PubMed]

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,' Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Seddon and C. H. Hennekens, 'Vitamins, minerals, and macular degeneration,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 112, 176-179 (1994).

F. C. Delori, 'Spectrophotometer for noninvasive measurement of intrinsic fluorescence and reflectance of the ocular fundus,' Appl. Opt. 33, 7439-7452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (3)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, 'Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,' Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, 'Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),' J. Neurosci. 12, 1169-1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

B. Bordat, A. Laudeho, I. R. Guirguis, and C. Arnaud, 'Study of the crystalline lens by fluorophotometry in 60 control subjects and 56 diabetics,' J. Fr. Ophtalmol 15, 113-118 (1992) (in French).
[PubMed]

1991 (3)

S. Siik, P. J. Airaksinen, A. Tuulonen, H. I. Alanko, and H. Nieminen, 'Lens autofluorescence in healthy individuals,' Acta Ophthalmol. 69, 187-192 (1991).

O. Arend, S. Wolfe, F. Jung, B. Bertram, and H. Postgens, 'Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 514-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Liem, J. E. E. Keunen, D. van Norren, and J. van der Kraats, 'Rod densitometry in the aging human eye,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 31-37 (1991).

1990 (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, 'Human photoreceptor topography,' J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, 'Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,' J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, 'Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,' Vision Res. 29, 663-674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

G. J. Handelman, E. A. Dratz, C. C. Reay, and F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, 'Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 29, 850-855 (1988).

G. E. Eldred and M. L. Katz, 'Fluorophores of the human retinal pigment epithelium: separation and spectral characterization,' Exp. Eye Res. 47, 71-86 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, 'Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).

1985 (1)

L. Wu, Z. Huang, D. Wu, and E. Chan, 'Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal macula,' Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 406-411 (1985).
[PubMed]

1984 (2)

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, 'Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 1286-1293 (1984).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, 'The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674-684 (1984).

1980 (2)

H. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, and T. R. Dawber, 'The Framingham eye study monograph. An ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults, 1973-1975,' Surv. Ophthalmol. 24, 335-610 (1980).
[PubMed]

L. Feeney-Burns, E. R. Berman, and H. Rothman, 'Lipofuscin of human retinal pigment epithelium,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 783-791 (1980).
[PubMed]

1977 (2)

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, 'Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 16, 1154-1157 (1977).

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, 'Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: the normal fundus,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

1968 (1)

W. A. Rushton and G. H. Henri, 'Bleaching and regeneration of cone pigments in man,' Vision Res. 8, 617-631 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

W. R. Miles, 'Comparison of functional and structural areas in human fovea. I. Method of entopic plotting,' J. Neurophysiol. 17, 22-38 (1954).
[PubMed]

Airaksinen, P. J.

S. Siik, P. J. Airaksinen, A. Tuulonen, H. I. Alanko, and H. Nieminen, 'Lens autofluorescence in healthy individuals,' Acta Ophthalmol. 69, 187-192 (1991).

Ajani, U. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alanko, H. I.

S. Siik, P. J. Airaksinen, A. Tuulonen, H. I. Alanko, and H. Nieminen, 'Lens autofluorescence in healthy individuals,' Acta Ophthalmol. 69, 187-192 (1991).

Alexander, K. R.

P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, 'Human macular pigment assessed by imaging fundus reflectometry,' Vision Res. 29, 663-674 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, 'Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,' J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, O.

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, 'In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

O. Arend, S. Wolfe, F. Jung, B. Bertram, and H. Postgens, 'Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 514-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, C.

B. Bordat, A. Laudeho, I. R. Guirguis, and C. Arnaud, 'Study of the crystalline lens by fluorophotometry in 60 control subjects and 56 diabetics,' J. Fr. Ophtalmol 15, 113-118 (1992) (in French).
[PubMed]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, 'The macular pigment. II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 25, 674-684 (1984).

Barth, T.

H. Wustemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, 'A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaanse, M.

T. T. Berendschot, J. J. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. De Jong, and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, 'Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 867-877 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beausencourt, E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, 'Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

Berendschot, T.

T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment shows ring like structures,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1774 (2006).

Berendschot, T. T.

T. T. Berendschot and D. van Norren, 'On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,' Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Berendschot, J. J. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. De Jong, and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

W. M. Broekmans, T. T. Berendschot, I. A. Klopping-Ketelaars, A. J. de Vries, R. A. Goldbohm, L. B. Tijburg, A. F. Kardinaal, and G. van Poppel, 'Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin,' Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 595-603 (2002).
[PubMed]

Berman, E. R.

L. Feeney-Burns, E. R. Berman, and H. Rothman, 'Lipofuscin of human retinal pigment epithelium,' Am. J. Ophthalmol. 90, 783-791 (1980).
[PubMed]

Bernstein, P. S.

Bertram, B.

O. Arend, S. Wolfe, F. Jung, B. Bertram, and H. Postgens, 'Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 514-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bird, A. C.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. van Kuijk, 'Macular pigment density and distribution: comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,' Vision Res. 43, 1765-1775 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trieschmann, G. Spital, A. Lommatzsch, E. Van Kuijk, F. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and D. Pauleikhoff, 'Macular pigment: quantitative analysis on autofluorescence images,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 1006-1012 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, 'Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,' in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmol Kyoto, K.Shimuzu and J.A.Oosterhuis, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 658-662.

Blair, N.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bone, R. A.

J. T. Landrum and R. A. Bone, 'Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment,' Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28-40 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Landrum, R. A. Bone, H. Joa, M. D. Kilburn, L. L. Moore, and K. E. Sprague, 'One year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement,' Exp. Eye Res. 65, 57-62 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, 'Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,' Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bordat, B.

B. Bordat, A. Laudeho, I. R. Guirguis, and C. Arnaud, 'Study of the crystalline lens by fluorophotometry in 60 control subjects and 56 diabetics,' J. Fr. Ophtalmol 15, 113-118 (1992) (in French).
[PubMed]

Boulton, M.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H. H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, 'Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 83, 867-877 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bresnick, G. H.

G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, 'Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 1286-1293 (1984).

Broekmans, W. M.

W. M. Broekmans, T. T. Berendschot, I. A. Klopping-Ketelaars, A. J. de Vries, R. A. Goldbohm, L. B. Tijburg, A. F. Kardinaal, and G. van Poppel, 'Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin,' Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 595-603 (2002).
[PubMed]

Budenz, D.

S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

Burke, J. M.

R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,' Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

P. M. Prieto, J. S. McLellan, and S. A. Burns, 'Investigating the light absorption in a single pass through the photoreceptor layer by means of the lipofuscin fluorescence,' Vision Res. 45, 1957-1965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, 'Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212-1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, 'Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

S. A. Burns and A. E. Elsner, 'Color matching at high illuminances: photopigment optical density and pupil entry,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 221-230 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, T. C.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

J. R. Sparrow, N. Fishkin, J. Zhou, B. Cai, Y. P. Jang, S. Krane, Y. Itagaki, and K. Nakanishi, 'A2E, a byproduct of the visual cycle,' Vision Res. 43, 2983-2990 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, 'Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,' Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantor, L.

S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

Caruso-Avery, M.

B. R. Hammond and M. Caruso-Avery, 'Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 1492-1497 (2000).

Chan, E.

L. Wu, Z. Huang, D. Wu, and E. Chan, 'Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal macula,' Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 406-411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Chang, Y.

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, 'The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,' Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422-434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chang, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Section 2 Li-Long Street, Shih-Pi, Taipei, Taiwan 11221 (personal communication, 2002).

Chen, S. F.

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, 'The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,' Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422-434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
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F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, 'In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, and F. C. Delori, 'Lipofuscin in aged and AMD eyes,' in Retinal Degeneration, J.G.Holyfield, R.E.Anderson, and M.M.LaVail, eds. (Plenum, 1993), pp. 3-14.
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C. N. Keilhauer, J. Fischer, J. Mlynski, A. Stangl, and F. C. Delori, 'Confocal infrared autofluorescence imaging in normal subjects and AMD patients,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1394 (2005).

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J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, 'Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).

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C. R. Gale, N. F. Hall, D. I. Phillips, and C. N. Martyn, 'Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2461-2465 (2003).
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Ganley, J. P.

H. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, and T. R. Dawber, 'The Framingham eye study monograph. An ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults, 1973-1975,' Surv. Ophthalmol. 24, 335-610 (1980).
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J. M. Benitez del Castillo, T. del Rio, and J. Garcia-Sanchez, 'Effects of estrogen use on lens transmittance in postmenopausal women,' Ophthalmology 104, 970-973 (1997).

Garnett, K. M.

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, A. Langner, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, N. Craft, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, and C. K. Dorey, 'Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3538-3549 (2002).

Gaudric, A.

P. Massin, A. Erginay, B. Haouchine, A. B. Mehidi, M. Paques, and A. Gaudric, 'Retinal thickness in healthy and diabetic subjects measured using optical coherence tomography mapping software,' Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12, 102-108 (2002).
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Gellermann, W.

Goger, D.

F. Delori, D. Goger, P. Salvetti, C. Keilhauer, and G. Staurenghi, 'Spatial distribution of macular pigment in normal subjects,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1288 (2004).

G. Staurenghi, C. Keilhauer, F. Viola, P. Salvetti, D. Goger, and F. Delori, 'Variability in macular pigment distribution evaluated by autofluorescence imaging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5118 (2003).

Goger, D. G.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, and C. K. Dorey, 'Age-related accumulation and spatial distribution of lipofuscin in RPE of normal subjects,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1855-1866 (2001).

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, 'Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212-1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, 'In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

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W. M. Broekmans, T. T. Berendschot, I. A. Klopping-Ketelaars, A. J. de Vries, R. A. Goldbohm, L. B. Tijburg, A. F. Kardinaal, and G. van Poppel, 'Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin,' Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76, 595-603 (2002).
[PubMed]

Gorrand, J. M.

Gragoudas, E. S.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
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Greenfield, D.

S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

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G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, 'Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 1286-1293 (1984).

Gruber, M.

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, 'Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
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C. R. Gale, N. F. Hall, D. I. Phillips, and C. N. Martyn, 'Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2461-2465 (2003).
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H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, 'Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
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J. Sandby-Moller, E. Thieden, P. Alshede Philipsen, G. Schmidt, and H. C. Wulf, 'Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure,' Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 41-46 (2004).
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G. H. Bresnick, R. Condit, S. Syrjala, M. Palta, A. Groo, and K. Korth, 'Abnormalities of the foveal avascular zone in diabetic retinopathy,' Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 102, 1286-1293 (1984).

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J. Sandby-Moller, E. Thieden, P. Alshede Philipsen, G. Schmidt, and H. C. Wulf, 'Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure,' Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 41-46 (2004).
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L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, A. Langner, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, N. Craft, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, and C. K. Dorey, 'Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3538-3549 (2002).

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
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M. Trieschmann, G. Spital, A. Lommatzsch, E. Van Kuijk, F. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and D. Pauleikhoff, 'Macular pigment: quantitative analysis on autofluorescence images,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 1006-1012 (2003).
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A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. van Kuijk, 'Macular pigment density and distribution: comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,' Vision Res. 43, 1765-1775 (2003).
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V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
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G. Staurenghi, C. Keilhauer, F. Viola, P. Salvetti, D. Goger, and F. Delori, 'Variability in macular pigment distribution evaluated by autofluorescence imaging,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 5118 (2003).

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V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
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R. S. Weinhaus, J. M. Burke, F. C. Delori, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Comparison of fluorescein angiography with microvascular anatomy of macaque retinas,' Exp. Eye Res. 61, 1-16 (1995).
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D. M. Snodderly, R. S. Weinhaus, and J. C. Choi, 'Neural-vascular relationships in central retina of macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis),' J. Neurosci. 12, 1169-1193 (1992).
[PubMed]

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, 'Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

F. C. Delori, C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, O. Arend, D. G. Goger, and J. J. Weiter, 'In vivo fluorescence of the ocular fundus exhibits retinal pigment epithelium lipofuscin characteristics,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 36, 718-729 (1995).

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, 'Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).

Wenzel, A. J.

A. J. Wenzel, K. Fuld, and J. M. Stringham, 'Light exposure and macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 306-309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, J. R.

M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, 'Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,' Ophthalmology 105, 360-370 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willemse-Assink, J. J.

T. T. Berendschot, J. J. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. De Jong, and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

Willett, W.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wing, G.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, 'Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).

Wolf, S.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, 'Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wustemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, 'A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, S.

O. Arend, S. Wolfe, F. Jung, B. Bertram, and H. Postgens, 'Retinal microcirculation in patients with diabetes mellitus: dynamic and morphological analysis of perifoveal capillary network,' Br. J. Ophthamol. 75, 514-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wollstein, G.

V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, Z. Y.

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, Jr., 'Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,' Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 378-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, 'Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, Jr., R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, 'A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481-2489 (1999).

B. R. Hammond, Jr., B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1187-1196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary patterns,' Vision Res. 36, 2001-2012 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, D.

L. Wu, Z. Huang, D. Wu, and E. Chan, 'Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal macula,' Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 406-411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Wu, J. C.

S. F. Chen, Y. Chang, and J. C. Wu, 'The spatial distribution of macular pigment in humans,' Curr. Eye Res. 23, 422-434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

L. Wu, Z. Huang, D. Wu, and E. Chan, 'Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal macula,' Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 406-411 (1985).
[PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

J. Sandby-Moller, E. Thieden, P. Alshede Philipsen, G. Schmidt, and H. C. Wulf, 'Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure,' Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 41-46 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wustemeyer, H.

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, 'Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wustemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, 'A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yannuzzi, L. A.

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yeum, K. J.

B. R. Hammond, Jr., E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795-1801 (1997).

Ying-Lai, M.

S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

Zhao, D. Y.

Zhou, J.

J. R. Sparrow, N. Fishkin, J. Zhou, B. Cai, Y. P. Jang, S. Krane, Y. Itagaki, and K. Nakanishi, 'A2E, a byproduct of the visual cycle,' Vision Res. 43, 2983-2990 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Curr. Eye Res. (1)

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L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, Z. Y. Wong, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, N. E. Craft, and C. K. Dorey, 'Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail,' Exp. Eye Res. 75, 529-542 (2002).
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Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (3)

H. Wustemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, 'A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wustemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, 'Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
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M. Trieschmann, G. Spital, A. Lommatzsch, E. Van Kuijk, F. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and D. Pauleikhoff, 'Macular pigment: quantitative analysis on autofluorescence images,' Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 1006-1012 (2003).
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T. T. Berendschot, J. J. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. De Jong, and D. van Norren, 'Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

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B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, Jr., R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, 'A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 2481-2489 (1999).

D. M. Snodderly, J. A. Mares, B. R. Wooten, L. Oxton, M. Gruber, and T. Ficek, 'Macular pigment measurement by heterochromatic flicker photometry in older subjects: the carotenoids and age-related eye disease study,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 531-538 (2004).
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C. R. Gale, N. F. Hall, D. I. Phillips, and C. N. Martyn, 'Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2461-2465 (2003).
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B. R. Hammond, Jr., E. J. Johnson, R. M. Russell, N. I. Krinsky, K. J. Yeum, R. B. Edwards, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Dietary modification of human macular pigment density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1795-1801 (1997).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, 'Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

L. R. Thomson, Y. Toyoda, A. Langner, F. C. Delori, K. M. Garnett, N. Craft, C. R. Nichols, K. M. Cheng, and C. K. Dorey, 'Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 3538-3549 (2002).

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S. Fraser-Bell, R. Varma, J. Lipyanik, V. M. Patella, D. Budenz, L. Cantor, D. Greenfield, J. Savell, J. Schuman, and M. Ying-Lai, 'Age, gender, ethnicity and refractive error related differences in normal macular thickness and volume as measured by STRATUS OCT,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1542 (2005).

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C. N. Keilhauer, J. Fischer, J. Mlynski, A. Stangl, and F. C. Delori, 'Confocal infrared autofluorescence imaging in normal subjects and AMD patients,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1394 (2005).

A. J. Wenzel, K. Fuld, and J. M. Stringham, 'Light exposure and macular pigment optical density,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 306-309 (2003).
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J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, 'Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,' Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 145-152 (1986).

J. Am. Med. Assoc. (1)

J. M. Seddon, U. A. Ajani, R. D. Sperduto, R. Hiller, N. Blair, T. C. Burton, M. D. Farber, E. S. Gragoudas, J. Haller, D. T. Miller, L. A. Yannuzzi, and W. Willett, 'Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E and advanced age-related macular degeneration,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 272, 1413-1420 (1994).
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L. Wu, Z. Huang, D. Wu, and E. Chan, 'Characteristics of the capillary-free zone in the normal macula,' Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 29, 406-411 (1985).
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Ophthalmology (5)

T. A. Ciulla, J. Curran-Celantano, D. A. Cooper, B. R. Hammond, Jr., R. P. Danis, L. M. Pratt, K. A. Riccardi, and T. G. Filloon, 'Macular pigment optical density in a midwestern sample,' Ophthalmology 108, 730-737 (2001).
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M. R. Hee, C. A. Puliafito, J. S. Duker, E. Reichel, J. G. Coker, J. R. Wilkins, J. S. Schuman, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, 'Topography of diabetic macular edema with optical coherence tomography,' Ophthalmology 105, 360-370 (1998).
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V. Guedes, J. S. Schuman, E. Hertzmark, G. Wollstein, A. Correnti, R. Mancini, D. Lederer, S. Voskanian, L. Velazquez, H. M. Pakter, T. Pedut-Kloizman, J. G. Fujimoto, and C. Mattox, 'Optical coherence tomography measurement of macular and nerve fiber layer thickness in normal and glaucomatous human eyes,' Ophthalmology 110, 177-189 (2003).
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B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, Jr., 'Spectral absorbance and spatial distribution of macular pigment using heterochromatic flicker photometry,' Optom. Vision Sci. 82, 378-386 (2005).
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J. Sandby-Moller, E. Thieden, P. Alshede Philipsen, G. Schmidt, and H. C. Wulf, 'Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure,' Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 20, 41-46 (2004).
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H. Leibowitz, D. E. Krueger, L. R. Maunder, R. C. Milton, M. M. Kini, H. A. Kahn, R. J. Nickerson, J. Pool, T. Colton, J. P. Ganley, J. I. Loewenstein, and T. R. Dawber, 'The Framingham eye study monograph. An ophthalmological and epidemiological study of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and visual acuity in a general population of 2631 adults, 1973-1975,' Surv. Ophthalmol. 24, 335-610 (1980).
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B. R. Hammond, J. Curran-Celentano, S. Judd, K. Fuld, N. I. Krinsky, B. R. Wooten, and D. M. Snodderly, 'Sex differences in macular pigment optical density: relation to plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary patterns,' Vision Res. 36, 2001-2012 (1996).
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J. R. Sparrow, N. Fishkin, J. Zhou, B. Cai, Y. P. Jang, S. Krane, Y. Itagaki, and K. Nakanishi, 'A2E, a byproduct of the visual cycle,' Vision Res. 43, 2983-2990 (2003).
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Other (12)

Since DMP still decreased at 4° in some subjects (Figs. ), we are underestimating DMP's compared with studies that used a reference at 7°. By exponential extrapolation of the profiles, we estimated that the DMP's with a reference at 4° would be 0.02+/-0.03 D.U. (range 0.0 to −0.16 D.U.) less than those with the reference at 7°. Furthermore, our peak DMP's were decreased by the smoothing that we used in our image analysis; reanalysis of our profiles using no smoothing caused the peak densities to increase by 0.03+/-0.02 D.U. (range 0.01-0.05 D.U.).

C. K. Dorey, G. Staurenghi, and F. C. Delori, 'Lipofuscin in aged and AMD eyes,' in Retinal Degeneration, J.G.Holyfield, R.E.Anderson, and M.M.LaVail, eds. (Plenum, 1993), pp. 3-14.
[CrossRef]

V.-P. Gabel, R. Birngruber, and F. Hillenkamp, 'Visible and near infrared light absorption in pigment epithelium and choroid,' in XXIII Concilium Ophthalmol Kyoto, K.Shimuzu and J.A.Oosterhuis, eds. (Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 1979), pp. 658-662.

In previous reports, we used the signal at a fixed location outside the illuminated area to estimate SL [squares in Fig. ]. We found that this signal increased significantly with age for both Lambda's (p<0.0001) but that it was also affected by the choroidal pigmentation (as estimated by iris color). Measurements showed that there was a gradient away from the image edge caused by the red AF diffusing in the choroid. We also found that the signal was smaller in the four study pseudophakic subjects compared with the age- and gender-matched phakic subjects (for Lambda=470 nm,t=2.8,p=0.02).

Crystalline lens AF was measured in three study subjects (ages 37, 46, and 57 years) by focusing the sampling volume within the lens. Excitation, normalized at 470 nm, were 0.91+/-0.01, 1.00+/-0.00, 0.53+/-0.02, and 0.24+/-0.02 at Lambda=430, 470, 510, and 550 nm, respectively. Emission spectra were maximal at 520+/-5 nm for Lambda=470 nm; at 600 nm, the fluorescence was 37%+/-2% of the maximum fluorescence. Fluorescence intensity increased with age of the three subjects. Excitation and emission spectra for one subject can be found in Fig. 8 of Ref. .

From the dimensions of the reflex, we calculated, using equations in the study of Gorrand and Delori, that the radius of curvature of the concave ILM reflector was 1180 and 744 µm for women and men, respectively. The method does not sample the entire foveal depression but considers only an eccentric annulus from where incident rays can be reflected through the detection pupil. We calculated that the center of that annulus is at 0.27° and 0.16° from the fovea in women and men, respectively, and that the angle between the ILM and the RPE surface is 3.7° and 3.6°, respectively.

Y. Chang, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Section 2 Li-Long Street, Shih-Pi, Taipei, Taiwan 11221 (personal communication, 2002).

B. R. Hammond, Jr., Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, Athens, Georgia 30677 (personal communication, 2002).

W. H. A. Rushton, 'Visual pigments in man,' in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, H.J.A.Dartnall, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1972), pp. 364-394.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Maxwell, 'On the unequal sensibility of the foramen centrale to light of different colours,' Rep. Brit. Assoc. 2, 12 (1856).

ANSI, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI 136.1), ANSI 136.1-2000 (The Laser Institute of America, 2000).

Most older subjects in this study were recruited from the Harvard Cooperative Program on Aging (Roslindale, Mass.), an organization devoted to good health through research and education.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) AF images of the macula of a 50 year old woman for (a) Λ = 545 nm and (b) Λ = 470 nm , and a common barrier filter ( > 590 nm ) . Absorption by the MP is clearly demonstrated in the 470 nm image (high MP absorption) compared with the 545 nm image (very low absorption). The broader dark area in the 545 nm image represents the area of increased melanin pigmentation in the RPE and of decreased lipofuscin fluorescence. (c) Relative log-ratio map obtained from the aligned images. The dots on a circle at 4° radius are the end points of the 48 meridians radiating from the center of the fovea. (d) Density profile D MP ( ϵ ) along the line a b seen in (c). The MP density is the difference between the profile and the reference (see the text). The arrows indicate the half-widths HW ( 7 8 ) and HW ( 3 8 ) , where the density is 7 8 and 3 8 of the peak density, respectively. The positions and densities of secondary maxima (solid circle), minima (open circle), or shoulders (cross) are calculated by differential analysis along all 48 meridians, yielding the coded maps of their positions shown in Fig. 2 [Fig. 2(g) is for the same subject]. A slope less than that shown by line S is considered a shoulder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MP distributions in 12 subjects displayed in three age groups: top row, 20–40 years; middle row, 40–55 years; and bottom row, 55–70 years. Men are in the first and second columns, women in the third and fourth columns. Tick marks along the axes are spaced at 1° visual angle. All distributions are shown with the nasal side on the left. The “gray-scale” map of the MP densities has been gamma-corrected to allow visualization of details in the high-density (darkest) area at the fovea (same correction for all maps); the horizontal and vertical density profiles through the fovea center (displayed at the bottom and the left side of each panel) are scaled to the tick marks with spacing of 0.25 D.U. The coded map of the positions of the maxima (black solid circles), minima (gray solid circles), and shoulders (crosses) on each meridian is shown in the upper right side in each panel (displaced by 2° temporally and 2° superiorly, for clarity). Also shown are the equidensity contour lines at 3 8 of peak density (outer) and at 7 8 of peak density (inner). Each panel includes the gender and age of the subject (e.g., M34), the index [ N r ] characterizing the prominence of the ring pattern observed on the slopes of some distributions ( 0 N r 48 ) , and the pattern of Maxwell’s spot reported by the subject (Subsection 3F): D, diffuse spot; D s , dark spot with spokes; R, ring with no central spot; R c , ring with central spot; and “-”, testing was not performed. The same information will be given in each figure of this paper.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index N r that characterizes the prominence of the annulus pattern plotted versus age (left) for women (circles) and men (bow ties). The vertical lines are the differences between the test and retest determinations (shaded symbols are for those where no retest was available). Symbols with a horizontal white bar are for pseudophakic subjects. The vertical bars (right) represent the IQR with the median (dark lines) for women (W) and men (M). The index N r was significantly higher in women than in men (Mann–Whitney, Z = 3.8 , p = 0.0001 ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean D MP profiles obtained with the 470–545 nm pair (thick curves) as a function of eccentricity for six subjects obtained by averaging the profiles measured on 48 meridians. The profiles were displaced by 0.15 D.U. for clarity ( D MP is zero at 4°). Gender and age are given for each subject, as well as the index [ N r ] and the Maxwell spot type seen by each subject (see the caption to Fig. 2). D MP profiles obtained with the 510–545 nm pair (dotted curves) have similar shape but exhibit higher densities than those for the 470–545 nm wavelength pair (subject W67 exhibited the largest difference among the study subjects). The ring pattern is similar for both combinations. The three sets of profiles at the bottom were obtained with various degrees of bleaching of the photoreceptors. The arrow in each case indicates increased level of bleaching. For subject M60, four sets of 470–545 nm exposures—each pair yielding a single profile—were obtained in sequence (after focusing and one monochromatic image). For subject W29, the two profiles are from our regular protocol and after 5 min bleaching at 545 nm followed by our regular protocol. For subject M62, three profiles were acquired after focusing followed by 5 min of dark adaptation (the last profile in this set is between the first two). The changes of peak densities were 0.06, 0.00, and 0.05 D.U., respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical density D MP ( 0 ) at the peak (closed symbols, left scale) and density D MP ( 1.5 ° ) at 1.5° eccentricity (open symbols) as a function of age for both women (W, circles) and men (M, bowties). Symbols with a horizontal bar are for the pseudophakic subjects. The D MP ( 1.5 ° ) plot was displaced downward to avoid overlap (right scale). Regression lines are for simple regression with age [split in two parts for D MP ( 0 ) ]. (b) Half-widths HW ( 3 8 ) , at which the density is 3 8 of the peak density (soled symbols), and HW ( 7 8 ) , at which the density is 7 8 of the peak density (open symbols), as a function of age. Same symbols apply for women and men as those in (a). Stepwise multiple regression models are used (factors were age, degree of ametropia, gender, and iris color). The dichotomous variable [Fe] is 1 or 0 for women or men, respectively. D MP ( 1.5 ° ) ( in D.U. ) = 0.084 + 0.0007 [ FE ] [ Age ] ; adjusted r 2 = 0.18 , p = 0.003 . Half-width HW ( 3 8 ) = 0.94 + 0.0064 [ Age ] + 0.0070 [ FE ] [ Age ] ; adjusted r 2 = 0.52 , p < 0.0001 . Half-width HW ( 7 8 ) = 0.16 + 0.0017 [ Age ] ; adjusted r 2 = 0.17 , p = 0.008 ( n = 39 , two outliers indicated by an arrow).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average normalized profiles for women and men in three age groups (as shown). The increase in relative densities for eccentricities larger than 1° causes a widening of the profile. The MP mean densities at the peak, D MP ( 0 ) , are given at the top.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Index N r as a function of distribution width HW ( 3 8 ) for both women (W, circles) and men (M, bowties).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fundus images of the ring pattern obtained with different image modalities. All SLO images were obtained with Λ = 488 nm [(a), (c), (e), and (f)]. The gamma of all images was modified to reveal the details in the darkest part of the image. (a), (b) AF images of the left eye of a 29 year old woman obtained with (a) an SLO and (b) the nonconfocal camera used in this study. The pattern is more distinct on the camera image than on the SLO image. (c) AF image of the right eye of a 70 year old man (with IOL implant) obtained with an SLO. (d) Reflectance image obtained with 470 nm monochromatic photography (Carl Zeiss camera) of the right eye of a 25 year old woman; the ring pattern is seen as well as the smaller specular reflex (small circular image at 9 o’clock). (e) AF image and (f) sodium fluorescein angiogram of the left eye of a 75 year old female patient obtained with an SLO.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Curve fits ( F ) of the sum of a central ( C ) and an eccentric ( R ) distribution [see Eq. (3)] to the averaged profile (solid squares) for three subjects (gender/age indicated). The MP maps of subjects M34 and F67 (IOL) are also seen in Figs. 2(a) and 2(l), respectively. The data on the right of each panel are the results of each fit (see the text): MP densities are measured at 460 nm, and RMSE is the root mean square error of the fit. The fits had six free parameters and 40 data points (every 0.1°). Constraints were as follows; all parameters, except D i , positive; eccentric distribution at ϵ = 0 less than ( peak density ) 100 ; and D i < 0.2 . The Excell solver (Microsoft) was used to minimize the errors, which were weighted by 1 for ϵ 2 ° , by 0.75 for 2 ° < ϵ 3 ° , and by 0.5 for ϵ > 3 ° .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radius of the foveal reflex as a function of age measured in 545 nm reflectance images (solid circles represent women, and bowties represent men). The insets are 545-nm monochromatic images for the two extremes indicated by arrows. The foveal reflex in women was significantly larger than that in men.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

D MP averaged profiles (thick curves) for four subjects. The two curves below the zero lines in each panel are the two terms of Eq. (1): log ( F Λ F R , Λ ) ( K 470 K 545 ) for the excitations Λ = 545 nm (G, green) and Λ = 470 nm (B, blue). D MP is the difference G B (vertical arrow in upper left panel). The G and B profiles are the log distribution of AF for the 2 - Λ method (AF increases, less negative). Thus the AF at Λ = 545 nm ( G ) is generally lower in the center than at the edge of the distribution, and this effect is enhanced at Λ = 470 nm because of MP absorption. Λ G is the difference G ( 0 ° ) G ( 1 ° ) , used to characterize central changes of the G distribution: Subjects data shown in (a) and (b) had the extreme values for Δ G (0.047 and 0.074 , respectively). Profile B is identical to B, but inverted and normalized to the peak D MP ( 0 ) to allow comparison of shapes with D MP ; it represents the MP distribution that would be obtained by using the 1 - Λ method with Λ = 470 nm (assuming that G = 0 ). The ring pattern of the D MP profile appears to be more prominent than that of the B profile for some [(b)–(d)] but not all distributions. The profiles S in (b) and (c) are SL-corrected profiles, and profile S is the same as S but again normalized to the peak D MP ( 0 ) . These S profiles illustrate that SL causes only small increases in the prominence of the ring pattern because it attenuates the peak of the distribution more than the edges [(c)].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

AF images obtained with the excitation wavelength Λ = 545 nm in three subjects illustrating extreme cases of the AF profile in the fovea (field: 8 ° × 8 ° centered on the fovea). (a) Subject with strongest local foveal maximum in the averaged profiles [ Δ G = 0.047 , same subject as that in Fig. 11a] and a bright focus in the fovea, which was not observed in any other subjects; (b) subject with second strongest foveal maximum ( Δ G = 0.044 ) ; (c) subject with second most pronounced foveal minimum [ Δ G = + 0.072 , same subject as that in Fig. 2(h)]. Circular lobules and bright foci are seen throughout the images. The curves on the right are vertical profiles through the fovea: D MP distribution (thick curves, right) and AF profiles for Λ = 545 nm (G, solid curves) and Λ = 470 nm (B, interrupted curves). We used the same format as that in Fig. 11. The profiles were obtained on unsmoothed images with a scan width of 5 pixels. The D MP profiles ( G B ) are very symmetric around the center of the distribution despite strong asymmetries and variability of the G profile; it was, in some instance, affected by local changes in the 545 nm profile. However, no consistent pattern emerged from comparing these profiles: A central ringlike pattern seen at the center of the D MP profile in (a) may have corresponded to the area of high AF (two arrows), but a similar pattern in (c) corresponded with a dark area (two arrows). The high-AF areas in (c) (contrasted by its dark center) are located at higher eccentricities than the ring maximum. No large asymmetry was detected on the D MP profile in (b), despite the marked asymmetric position of an area of high AF.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Macular Pigment Optical Densities and Critical Eccentricities

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Table 2 Characteristics of the Ring Pattern

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Table 3 Visualization of Maxwell’s Spot

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Table 4 Macular Pigment Studies Comparison

Equations (5)

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D MP = 1 K 470 K 545 [ log F 545 F R , 545 log F 470 F R , 470 ] ,
N r = [ Count of maximum – minimum pairs ] + ( 1 2 ) [ Count of shoulders ] .
MPD ( ϵ ) = D i + D c × 10 p ( ϵ HW c ) n + D r × 10 p [ ( ϵ ϵ m ) HW r ] 2 ,
D MP , m = D MP , i 1 K 470 [ log ξ + σ 470 × 10 K 470 D MP , i 1 + σ 470 log ξ + σ 545 1 + σ 545 ] ,
D MP , m = D MP , i + D OP [ K OP , 470 K OP , 545 K MP , 470 K MP , 545 ] ,

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