The scalar bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) due to a perfectly conducting surface with roughness and autocorrelation width comparable with the illumination wavelength is derived from coherence theory on the assumption of a random reflective phase screen and an expansion valid for large effective roughness. A general quadratic expansion of the two-dimensional isotropic surface autocorrelation function near the origin yields representative Cauchy and Gaussian BRDF solutions and an intermediate general solution as the sum of an incoherent component and a nonspecular coherent component proportional to an integral of the plasma dispersion function in the complex plane. Plots illustrate agreement of the derived general solution with original bistatic BRDF data due to a machined aluminum surface, and comparisons are drawn with previously published data in the examination of variations with incident angle, roughness, illumination wavelength, and autocorrelation coefficients in the bistatic and monostatic geometries. The general quadratic autocorrelation expansion provides a BRDF solution that smoothly interpolates between the well-known results of the linear and parabolic approximations.
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