Abstract

A synthesized photochromic compound—pyrrylfulgide—is prepared as a thin film doped in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix. Under irradiation by UV light, the film converts from the bleached state into a colored state that has a maximum absorption at 635nm and is thermally stable at room temperature. When the colored state is irradiated by a linearly polarized 650nm laser, the film returns to the bleached state; photoinduced anisotropy is produced during this process. Application of optical image processing methods using the photoinduced anisotropy of the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film is described. Examples in non-Fourier optical image processing, such as contrast reversal and image subtraction and summation, as well as in Fourier optical image processing, such as low-pass filtering and edge enhancement, are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Y. Korchemskaya and D. A. Stepanchikov, "Real-time selective image processing using photoinduced anisotropy of bacteriorhodopsin polymer films," in Proc. SPIE 3486, 156-164 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Henriot and M. May, "Image deblurring methods using the Weigert effect," Appl. Opt. 20, 2060-2065 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Yokoyama, "Fulgide for memories and switches," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1717-1739 (2000).
  10. F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).
  13. B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Yokoyama, "Fulgide for memories and switches," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1717-1739 (2000).

1998 (1)

E. Y. Korchemskaya and D. A. Stepanchikov, "Real-time selective image processing using photoinduced anisotropy of bacteriorhodopsin polymer films," in Proc. SPIE 3486, 156-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to optical processing in partially coherent light," Opt. Eng. 19, 828-833 (1980).

1979 (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to the contrast reversal of a black and white transparency," Opt. Commun. 28, 30-34 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

Calabretta, N.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Calixto, S.

Chen, G.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Eyre, D. J.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, M.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

Geldenhuys, R.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Gong, M.

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henriot, M. P.

Hill, M. T.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Huijskens, F. M.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to optical processing in partially coherent light," Opt. Eng. 19, 828-833 (1980).

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to the contrast reversal of a black and white transparency," Opt. Commun. 28, 30-34 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J.

Khoe, G. D.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Korchemskaya, E. Y.

E. Y. Korchemskaya and D. A. Stepanchikov, "Real-time selective image processing using photoinduced anisotropy of bacteriorhodopsin polymer films," in Proc. SPIE 3486, 156-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, Y.

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lei, M.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, R. A.

Li, T.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, N.

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

Mantese, J. V.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, F.

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

May, M.

M. P. Henriot and M. May, "Image deblurring methods using the Weigert effect," Appl. Opt. 20, 2060-2065 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to optical processing in partially coherent light," Opt. Eng. 19, 828-833 (1980).

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to the contrast reversal of a black and white transparency," Opt. Commun. 28, 30-34 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Menke, N.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ming, Y.

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

Qi, G.

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D.

Solano, C.

Stepanchikov, D. A.

E. Y. Korchemskaya and D. A. Stepanchikov, "Real-time selective image processing using photoinduced anisotropy of bacteriorhodopsin polymer films," in Proc. SPIE 3486, 156-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, K.

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, H.

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

B. Yao, Y. Wang, M. Lei, N. Menke, G. Chen, Y. Chen, T. Li, and M. Fan, "Polarization patterns hide and display using photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Opt. Express 13, 20-25 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Q.

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

Yokoyama, Y.

Y. Yokoyama, "Fulgide for memories and switches," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1717-1739 (2000).

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

Yu, L.

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

Zhang, K.

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Chem. Lett. (1)

F. Matsui, H. Taniguchi, Y. Yokoyama, K. Sugiyama, and Y. Kurita, "Application of photochromic 5-dimethylaminoindolylfulgide to photo-mode erasable optical media with non-destructive readout ability based on wavelength dependence of bleaching quantum yield," Chem. Lett. 10, 1869-1872 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

Y. Yokoyama, "Fulgide for memories and switches," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 100, 1717-1739 (2000).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, B. Yao, N. Menke, Y. Chen, T. Li, Y. Zheng, M. Lei, W. Dong, M. Fan, and G. Chen, "Polarization patterns control based on photoinduced anisotropy of photochromic fulgide," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 679-681 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

N. Liao, M. Gong, D. Xu, G. Qi, and K. Zhang, "Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material," Chin. Sci. Bull. 46, 1856-1859 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to the contrast reversal of a black and white transparency," Opt. Commun. 28, 30-34 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan and M. May, "Application of the Weigert effect to optical processing in partially coherent light," Opt. Eng. 19, 828-833 (1980).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. W. Milton, D. J. Eyre, and J. V. Mantese, "Finite frequency range Kramers-Kronig relations: bounds on the dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3062-3065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Y. Korchemskaya and D. A. Stepanchikov, "Real-time selective image processing using photoinduced anisotropy of bacteriorhodopsin polymer films," in Proc. SPIE 3486, 156-164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Geldenhuys, Y. Liu, N. Calabretta, M. T. Hill, F. M. Huijskens, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "All-optical signal processing for optical packet switching," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 854-865 (2004).

L. Yu, Y. Ming, M. Fan, H. Yu, and Q. Ye, "Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical storage," Sci. China, Ser. B 25, 799-803 (1995).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular formula of the pyrrylfulgide and the photochromic reaction. Left, E-form; right, C-form.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dichroism and birefringence spectra of the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The different angular displacements of red and blue–green light. L r and L b - g represent the long axes of the elliptically polarized red and blue-green light, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the photoinduced anisotropy on the excitation exposure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast reversal of optical image. The pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film is placed between two polarizers: (a) Positive image; the two polarizers are orthogonal. (b) Negative image; the analyzer is slightly rotated from the crossed position.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental demonstration of optical summation and subtraction (for details see Table 1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental configuration for Fourier optical image processing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results of Fourier optical image processing. (a) Low-pass filtering, (b) edge enhancement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Different Conditions for the Transmission Images of the P–Film–A System Corresponding to Different Polarizations of the Polarizer P

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( λ ) = n n = ln 10 2 π 2 d p.v. 0 Δ D ( λ ) 1 λ 2 λ 2 d λ ,
I [ b 2 sin 2 ( θ α ) a 2 sin 2 α ] 2

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