Abstract

To examine the type of chromatic interactions at isoluminance in the phenomenon of binocular vision, I have determined simple visual reaction times (VRT) under three observational conditions (monocular left, monocular right, and binocular) for different chromatic stimuli along random color axes at isoluminance (simultaneous L-, M-, and S-cone variations). Upper and lower boundaries of probability summation as well as the binocular capacity coefficient were estimated with observed distributions of reaction times. The results were not consistent with the notion of independent chromatic channels between eyes, suggesting the existence of excitatory and inhibitory binocular interactions at suprathreshold isoluminance conditions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

J. T. Townsend and W. J. Wenger, "A theory of interactive parallel processing: new capacity measures and predictions for a response time inequality series," Psychol. Rev. 111, 1003-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

K. R. Gegenfurtner and D. C. Kiper, "Color vision," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26, 181-206 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, "Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267-2275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Medina, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. A. Díaz, "Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Interactions between chromatic- and luminance-contrast-sensitive stereopsis mechanisms," Vision Res. 42, 1535-1545 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Erkelens and R. van Ee, "Multi-colored stereograms unveil two binocular color mechanisms in human vision," Vision Res. 42, 1103-1112 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, "Visual competition," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).

S. Grossberg and A. Grunewald, "Temporal dynamics of binocular disparity processing with corticogeniculate interactions," Neural Networks 15, 181-200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, "Simple reaction time to chromatic changes along L&M-constant and S-constant cone axes," Color Res. Appl. 26, 223-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, "A psychophysical dissection of the brain sites involved in color-generating comparisons." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 8069-8074 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Shevell and J. Wei, "A central mechanism of chromatic contrast," Vision Res. 40, 3173-3180 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Simple cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 891-908 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Complex cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 909-924 (1999).
[PubMed]

K. T. Mullen and M. J. Sankeralli, "Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue-yellow, red-green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 39, 733-745, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

C. Wildsoet, J. Wood, H. Maag, and S. Sabdia, "The effect of different forms of monocular occlusion on measures of central visual function," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 263-268 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Deiber, V. Ibañez, N. Sadato, and M. Hallet, "Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study," J. Neurophysiol. 75, 233-247 (1998).

D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "On the binocular summation of chromatic contrast," Vision Res. 38, 1063-1071 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Hughes, and J. T. Townsend, "Varieties of binocular interaction in human vision," Psychol. Sci. 9, 53-60 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "On the independence of chromatic and achromatic stereopsis mechanisms," Vision Res. 37, 1271-1280 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, M. Rubiño, E. Hita, and L. Jiménez del Barco, "Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms," Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

F. A. A. Kingdom and D. R. Simmons, "Stereoacuity and color contrast," Vision Res. 36, 1311-1319 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Differences between stereopsis with isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2094-2104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Townsend and G. Nozawa, "Spatio-temporal properties of elementary perception: an investigation of parallel, serial and coactive theories," J. Math. Psychol. 39, 321-329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiménez del Barco, J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez and M. Rubiño," Considerations on the calibration of color displays assuming constant-channel chromaticity," Color Res. Appl. 20, 377-387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Anzai, M. A. Bearse, R. D. Freeman, and D. Cai, "Contrast coding by cells in the cat's striate cortex: monocular vs. binocular detection," Visual Neurosci. 12, 77-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

H. Colonius H and D. Vorberg, "Distribution inequalities for parallel models with unlimited capacity," J. Math. Psychol. 38, 35-38 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Contrast thresholds for stereoscopic depth identification with isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli." Vision Res. 34, 2971-2982 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. T. Mordkoff and J. Miller, "Redundancy gains and coactivation with two different targets: the problem of target preferences and the effects of display frequency," Percept. Psychophys. 53, 527-535 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

H. Colonius, "Possibly dependent probability summation of reaction time," J. Math. Psychol. 34, 353-375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. O. Dinse and K. Krüger, "Contribution of area 19 to the foreground-background-interaction of the cat: an analysis based on single cell recordings and behavioral experiments," Exp. Brain Res. 82, 107-122 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Townsend, "Serial vs. parallel processing: sometimes they look like Tweedledum and Tweedledee but they can (and should) be distinguished," Psychol. Sci. 1, 46-54 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, "An evaluation of methods producing desired color on CRT monitors," Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Anderson and J. A. Movshon, "Binocular combination of contrast signals," Vision Res. 29, 1115-1132 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

D. E. Meyer, A. M. Osman, and D. E. Irwin, "Modern mental chronometry," Biol. Psychol. 26, 3-67 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Westendorf and R. Blake, "Binocular reaction time data to contrast increments," Vision Res. 28, 355-359 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Eriksen, "A source of error in attempts to distinguish coactivation from separate activation in the perception of redundant targets," Percept. Psychophys. 44, 191-193 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. L. P. Vimal and S. K. Shevell, "A central binocular mechanism affects chromatic adaptation," Vision Res. 27, 429-439 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

G. E. Legge, "Binocular contrast summation--I. Detection and discrimination," Vision Res. 24, 373-383 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Legge, "Binocular contrast summation-II. Quadratic summation," Vision Res. 24, 385-394 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. Blake, M. Sloane, and R. Fox, "Further developments in binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266-276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

R. Blake, W. Martens, and A. Di Gianfilippo, "Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 930-941 (1980).

G. L. Trick and S. L. Guth, "The effect of wavelength on binocular summation," Vision Res. 20, 975-980 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Lennie, "Parallel visual pathways: a review," Vision Res. 20, 561-594, 1980.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

R. Ratcliff, "Group reaction time distributions and an analysis of distributions statistics," Psychol. Bull. 86, 446-461 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Smith and R. S. Harwerth, "Supratheshold binocular interactions: the effects of prolonged monocular occlusion," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 681-688 (1979).
[PubMed]

1977 (2)

M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457-462 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kelly and D. van Norren, "Two band model of heterochromatic flicker photometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1081-1091 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161-185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. A.

P. A. Anderson and J. A. Movshon, "Binocular combination of contrast signals," Vision Res. 29, 1115-1132 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anzai, A.

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Simple cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 891-908 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Complex cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 909-924 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. Anzai, M. A. Bearse, R. D. Freeman, and D. Cai, "Contrast coding by cells in the cat's striate cortex: monocular vs. binocular detection," Visual Neurosci. 12, 77-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bearse, M. A.

A. Anzai, M. A. Bearse, R. D. Freeman, and D. Cai, "Contrast coding by cells in the cat's striate cortex: monocular vs. binocular detection," Visual Neurosci. 12, 77-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blake, R.

R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, "Visual competition," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).

D. Westendorf and R. Blake, "Binocular reaction time data to contrast increments," Vision Res. 28, 355-359 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, M. Sloane, and R. Fox, "Further developments in binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266-276 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, W. Martens, and A. Di Gianfilippo, "Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 930-941 (1980).

R. Blake and R. Fox, "The psychophysical inquiry into binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 14, 161-185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D.

D. Brainard, Handbook of Optics I (McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 1-48.

Cai, D.

A. Anzai, M. A. Bearse, R. D. Freeman, and D. Cai, "Contrast coding by cells in the cat's striate cortex: monocular vs. binocular detection," Visual Neurosci. 12, 77-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, C. S.

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, "An evaluation of methods producing desired color on CRT monitors," Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Colonius, H.

H. Colonius, "Possibly dependent probability summation of reaction time," J. Math. Psychol. 34, 353-375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Colonius and J. Towsend, "Activation-state representation of models for the redundant-signals-effect," in Choice, Decision and Measurement, A.A.J.Marley, ed. (Erlbaum, 1997), pp. 245-254.

Colonius H, H.

H. Colonius H and D. Vorberg, "Distribution inequalities for parallel models with unlimited capacity," J. Math. Psychol. 38, 35-38 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deiber, M. P.

M. P. Deiber, V. Ibañez, N. Sadato, and M. Hallet, "Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study," J. Neurophysiol. 75, 233-247 (1998).

del Barco, L. Jiménez

J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Medina, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. A. Díaz, "Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, "Simple reaction time to chromatic changes along L&M-constant and S-constant cone axes," Color Res. Appl. 26, 223-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, M. Rubiño, E. Hita, and L. Jiménez del Barco, "Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms," Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jiménez del Barco, J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez and M. Rubiño," Considerations on the calibration of color displays assuming constant-channel chromaticity," Color Res. Appl. 20, 377-387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Di Gianfilippo, A.

R. Blake, W. Martens, and A. Di Gianfilippo, "Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 930-941 (1980).

Díaz, J. A.

J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Medina, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. A. Díaz, "Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, "Simple reaction time to chromatic changes along L&M-constant and S-constant cone axes," Color Res. Appl. 26, 223-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiménez del Barco, J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez and M. Rubiño," Considerations on the calibration of color displays assuming constant-channel chromaticity," Color Res. Appl. 20, 377-387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dinse, H. R.

H. R. O. Dinse and K. Krüger, "Contribution of area 19 to the foreground-background-interaction of the cat: an analysis based on single cell recordings and behavioral experiments," Exp. Brain Res. 82, 107-122 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksen, C. W.

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A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Complex cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 909-924 (1999).
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G. L. Trick and S. L. Guth, "The effect of wavelength on binocular summation," Vision Res. 20, 975-980 (1980).
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E. L. Smith and R. S. Harwerth, "Supratheshold binocular interactions: the effects of prolonged monocular occlusion," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 681-688 (1979).
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J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, "Simple reaction time to chromatic changes along L&M-constant and S-constant cone axes," Color Res. Appl. 26, 223-233 (2001).
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J. R. Jiménez, M. Rubiño, E. Hita, and L. Jiménez del Barco, "Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms," Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
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J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
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J. R. Jiménez, M. Rubiño, E. Hita, and L. Jiménez del Barco, "Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms," Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
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R. Blake, W. Martens, and A. Di Gianfilippo, "Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 930-941 (1980).

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J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
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P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

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P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

D. J. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, "Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267-2275 (2003).
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J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Medina, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. A. Díaz, "Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
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D. E. Meyer, A. M. Osman, and D. E. Irwin, "Modern mental chronometry," Biol. Psychol. 26, 3-67 (1988).
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J. T. Mordkoff and J. Miller, "Redundancy gains and coactivation with two different targets: the problem of target preferences and the effects of display frequency," Percept. Psychophys. 53, 527-535 (1993).
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M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994)
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J. T. Mordkoff and J. Miller, "Redundancy gains and coactivation with two different targets: the problem of target preferences and the effects of display frequency," Percept. Psychophys. 53, 527-535 (1993).
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K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, "A psychophysical dissection of the brain sites involved in color-generating comparisons." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 8069-8074 (2000).
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K. T. Mullen and M. J. Sankeralli, "Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue-yellow, red-green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 39, 733-745, (1999).
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D. J. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, "Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267-2275 (2003).
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M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457-462 (1977).
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J. T. Townsend and G. Nozawa, "Spatio-temporal properties of elementary perception: an investigation of parallel, serial and coactive theories," J. Math. Psychol. 39, 321-329 (1995).
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A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Simple cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 891-908 (1999).
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A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Complex cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 909-924 (1999).
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D. E. Meyer, A. M. Osman, and D. E. Irwin, "Modern mental chronometry," Biol. Psychol. 26, 3-67 (1988).
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D. J. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, "Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267-2275 (2003).
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M. J. Nissen and J. Pokorny, "Wavelength effects on simple reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 22, 457-462 (1977).
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D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, "An evaluation of methods producing desired color on CRT monitors," Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
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W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1986), pp. 650-655.

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J. R. Jiménez, M. Rubiño, E. Hita, and L. Jiménez del Barco, "Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms," Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
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L. Jiménez del Barco, J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez and M. Rubiño," Considerations on the calibration of color displays assuming constant-channel chromaticity," Color Res. Appl. 20, 377-387 (1995).
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C. Wildsoet, J. Wood, H. Maag, and S. Sabdia, "The effect of different forms of monocular occlusion on measures of central visual function," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 263-268 (1998).
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M. P. Deiber, V. Ibañez, N. Sadato, and M. Hallet, "Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study," J. Neurophysiol. 75, 233-247 (1998).

Salas, C.

J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
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K. T. Mullen and M. J. Sankeralli, "Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue-yellow, red-green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation," Vision Res. 39, 733-745, (1999).
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S. K. Shevell and J. Wei, "A central mechanism of chromatic contrast," Vision Res. 40, 3173-3180 (2000).
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D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Interactions between chromatic- and luminance-contrast-sensitive stereopsis mechanisms," Vision Res. 42, 1535-1545 (2002).
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D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "On the binocular summation of chromatic contrast," Vision Res. 38, 1063-1071 (1998).
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D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "On the independence of chromatic and achromatic stereopsis mechanisms," Vision Res. 37, 1271-1280 (1997).
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F. A. A. Kingdom and D. R. Simmons, "Stereoacuity and color contrast," Vision Res. 36, 1311-1319 (1996).
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D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Differences between stereopsis with isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2094-2104 (1995).
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D. R. Simmons and F. A. A. Kingdom, "Contrast thresholds for stereoscopic depth identification with isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli." Vision Res. 34, 2971-2982 (1994).
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R. Blake, M. Sloane, and R. Fox, "Further developments in binocular summation," Percept. Psychophys. 30, 266-276 (1981).
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E. L. Smith and R. S. Harwerth, "Supratheshold binocular interactions: the effects of prolonged monocular occlusion," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 681-688 (1979).
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G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982), pp. 515-519.

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J. T. Townsend and W. J. Wenger, "A theory of interactive parallel processing: new capacity measures and predictions for a response time inequality series," Psychol. Rev. 111, 1003-1035 (2004).
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H. C. Hughes, and J. T. Townsend, "Varieties of binocular interaction in human vision," Psychol. Sci. 9, 53-60 (1998).
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G. L. Trick and S. L. Guth, "The effect of wavelength on binocular summation," Vision Res. 20, 975-980 (1980).
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Vakrou, Chara

P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

Valero, E.

J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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C. J. Erkelens and R. van Ee, "Multi-colored stereograms unveil two binocular color mechanisms in human vision," Vision Res. 42, 1103-1112 (2002).
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Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge U. Press, 1986), pp. 650-655.

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R. L. P. Vimal and S. K. Shevell, "A central binocular mechanism affects chromatic adaptation," Vision Res. 27, 429-439 (1987).
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H. Colonius H and D. Vorberg, "Distribution inequalities for parallel models with unlimited capacity," J. Math. Psychol. 38, 35-38 (1994).
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M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994)
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S. K. Shevell and J. Wei, "A central mechanism of chromatic contrast," Vision Res. 40, 3173-3180 (2000).
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J. T. Townsend and W. J. Wenger, "A theory of interactive parallel processing: new capacity measures and predictions for a response time inequality series," Psychol. Rev. 111, 1003-1035 (2004).
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P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

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C. Wildsoet, J. Wood, H. Maag, and S. Sabdia, "The effect of different forms of monocular occlusion on measures of central visual function," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 263-268 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, J.

C. Wildsoet, J. Wood, H. Maag, and S. Sabdia, "The effect of different forms of monocular occlusion on measures of central visual function," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 263-268 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 1982), pp. 515-519.

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K. Moutoussis and S. Zeki, "A psychophysical dissection of the brain sites involved in color-generating comparisons." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 8069-8074 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

E. L. Smith and R. S. Harwerth, "Supratheshold binocular interactions: the effects of prolonged monocular occlusion," Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56, 681-688 (1979).
[PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2)

R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, "Visual competition," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).

K. R. Gegenfurtner and D. C. Kiper, "Color vision," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26, 181-206 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biol. Psychol. (1)

D. E. Meyer, A. M. Osman, and D. E. Irwin, "Modern mental chronometry," Biol. Psychol. 26, 3-67 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (4)

J. A. Díaz, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. R. Jiménez, and E. Hita, "Simple reaction time to chromatic changes along L&M-constant and S-constant cone axes," Color Res. Appl. 26, 223-233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, "An evaluation of methods producing desired color on CRT monitors," Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Jiménez del Barco, J. A. Díaz, J. R. Jiménez and M. Rubiño," Considerations on the calibration of color displays assuming constant-channel chromaticity," Color Res. Appl. 20, 377-387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, E. Valero, R. G. Anera, J. A. Martínez, and C. Salas, "Chromatic changes in relation to binocular summation determined with contrast thresholds," Color Res. Appl. 28, 366-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

H. R. O. Dinse and K. Krüger, "Contribution of area 19 to the foreground-background-interaction of the cat: an analysis based on single cell recordings and behavioral experiments," Exp. Brain Res. 82, 107-122 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

R. Blake, W. Martens, and A. Di Gianfilippo, "Reaction time as a measure of binocular interaction in human vision," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19, 930-941 (1980).

D. J. McKeefry, N. R. A. Parry and I. J. Murray, "Simple reaction times in color space: the influence of chromaticity, contrast, and cone opponency," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2267-2275 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Psychol. (3)

J. T. Townsend and G. Nozawa, "Spatio-temporal properties of elementary perception: an investigation of parallel, serial and coactive theories," J. Math. Psychol. 39, 321-329 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Colonius, "Possibly dependent probability summation of reaction time," J. Math. Psychol. 34, 353-375 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Colonius H and D. Vorberg, "Distribution inequalities for parallel models with unlimited capacity," J. Math. Psychol. 38, 35-38 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol. (3)

M. P. Deiber, V. Ibañez, N. Sadato, and M. Hallet, "Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study," J. Neurophysiol. 75, 233-247 (1998).

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Simple cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 891-908 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. Anzai, I. Ohzawa and R. D. Freeman, "Neural mechanism for processing binocular information I. Complex cells," J. Neurophysiol. 82, 909-924 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vision (1)

P. V. McGraw, D. J. McKeefry, D. Whitaker, and Chara Vakrou, "Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision," J. Vision 4, 626-636 (2003), http://journalofvision.org/4/7/8.

Neural Networks (1)

S. Grossberg and A. Grunewald, "Temporal dynamics of binocular disparity processing with corticogeniculate interactions," Neural Networks 15, 181-200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

C. Wildsoet, J. Wood, H. Maag, and S. Sabdia, "The effect of different forms of monocular occlusion on measures of central visual function," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 18, 263-268 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (6)

J. R. Jiménez, J. M. Medina, L. Jiménez del Barco, and J. A. Díaz, "Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time," Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Eriksen, "A source of error in attempts to distinguish coactivation from separate activation in the perception of redundant targets," Percept. Psychophys. 44, 191-193 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mordkoff and J. Miller, "Redundancy gains and coactivation with two different targets: the problem of target preferences and the effects of display frequency," Percept. Psychophys. 53, 527-535 (1993).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation in the CIE-1931 chromaticity diagram of the random chromatic stimuli at isoluminance used in the experiments. The solid circles represent the chromaticity coordinates of the red, green, and blue CRT primaries. Level of reference luminance, 15 cd m 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top row (A), evaluation of Miller’s inequality. Positive values of the difference F B ( t ) [ F R ( t ) + F L ( t ) ] represent violations of the Miller bound. Middle row (B), evaluation of Grice’s inequality. Positive values of the difference m a x [ F R ( t ) , F L ( t ) ] F B ( t ) represent violations of the Grice bound. Bottom row (C), illustration of simultaneous violations of the Miller and Grice bounds at different time intervals. Dashed curves, Grice bound; dotted curves, Miller bound, solid curves, particular binocular cumulative distribution function analyzed. Data are presented separately for each observer JA, JM, and JR.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evaluation of the binocular capacity coefficient C B ( t ) taking into account probability summation as baseline. Dotted curves represent each experimental configuration at isoluminance. Data are presented separately for each observer: JA, JM, and JR.

Equations (4)

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F B ( t ) F R ( t ) + F L ( t ) [ F R ( t ) F L ( t ) ] , t 0 ,
max [ F R ( t ) , F L ( t ) ] F B ( t ) F R ( t ) + F L ( t ) , t 0 ,
H ( t ) = 0 t h ( t ) d t ,
C B ( t ) = H B ( t ) H R ( t ) + H L ( t ) , t 0 .

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