Abstract

It was shown that a peripheral glare source reduces the brightness of a foveal stimulus. We hypothesized that this brightness reduction is governed by an inhibitory effect of the glare source on the test. We reported the results of an investigation of the dynamic of brightness reduction of an incremental stimulus immediately after the onset of a glare source in the field of view. A magnitude comparison paradigm using constant stimuli was adopted to determine the luminance that appeared equal in brightness to the standard patch. The luminance of the standard stimulus was in the mesopic range (0.5cdm2), and the levels of glare were 15 and 60 lx. Results showed that the time course of brightness reduction followed the typical shape attributed to the Broca–Sulzer effect. Data were fitted with a model that first considers the response of a peripheral ganglion cell to glare and then its inhibitory effect on the test signals. We discussed the plausibility of a postretinal stage of processing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (1)

D. Eagleman, J. Jacobson, and T. Sejnowski, "Perceived luminance depends on temporal context," Nature 428, 854-856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

O. Bergamin and R. Kardon, "Latency of the pupil light reflex: sample rate, stimulus intensity, and variation in normal subjects" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 1546-1554 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Krasil'nikov, O. Krasil'nikova, and Y. Shelepin, "Modelling the mechanism of rapid adaptation of the visual system to variation of the illuminance of an observed scene," J. Opt. Technol. 70, 415-419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, "Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559-2570 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

E. Colombo, J. F. Barraza, and L. Issolio. "Effect of a brief exposure on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range," Light. Res. Technol. 32, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Issolio, E. M. Colombo, and J. F. Barraza. "The effect of SOA on brightness under glare condition," Perception 29 (Suppl.), 108 (2000).

1999 (3)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, "Surround articulation I. Brightness judgments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793-803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 196145-6156 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996 (2)

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bitsios, R. Prettyman, and E. Szabadi, "Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people," Age Ageing 25, 432-438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. Adelson, "Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness," Science 262, 2042-2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Dacey, "The dopaminergic amacrine cell," J. Comp. Neurol. 301, 461-489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

J. J. Vos, "Disability glare--a state of the art report," CIE J. 3, 39-53 (1984).

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

1963 (1)

H. W. Horeman, "Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions," Vision Res. 3, 121-130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1953 (2)

A. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Fry and M. Alpern, "The effect of peripheral glare source upon the apparent brightness of an object," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 189-195 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1939 (1)

Adelson, E.

E. Adelson, "Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness," Science 262, 2042-2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, T.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

Annan, V.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, L. E

Arend, L. E.

Barbur, J.

J. Barbur, "Learning from the pupil--studies of basic mechanisms and clinical applications," in The Visual Neurosciences, Vol. 1, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT Press, 2004) pp. 641-656.

Barraza, J. F.

L. Issolio, E. M. Colombo, and J. F. Barraza. "The effect of SOA on brightness under glare condition," Perception 29 (Suppl.), 108 (2000).

E. Colombo, J. F. Barraza, and L. Issolio. "Effect of a brief exposure on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range," Light. Res. Technol. 32, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergamin, O.

O. Bergamin and R. Kardon, "Latency of the pupil light reflex: sample rate, stimulus intensity, and variation in normal subjects" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 1546-1554 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bitsios, P.

P. Bitsios, R. Prettyman, and E. Szabadi, "Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people," Age Ageing 25, 432-438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonato, F.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cataliotti, J.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, E.

E. Colombo, J. F. Barraza, and L. Issolio. "Effect of a brief exposure on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range," Light. Res. Technol. 32, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colombo, E. M.

L. Issolio, E. M. Colombo, and J. F. Barraza. "The effect of SOA on brightness under glare condition," Perception 29 (Suppl.), 108 (2000).

Cornsweet, T.

T. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).

Dacey, D.

D. Dacey, "The dopaminergic amacrine cell," J. Comp. Neurol. 301, 461-489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamond, A.

A. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eagleman, D.

D. Eagleman, J. Jacobson, and T. Sejnowski, "Perceived luminance depends on temporal context," Nature 428, 854-856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finkelstein, M. A.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, "Sensitivity to light," in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K.Boff, L.Kaufman, and J.Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), Chap. 5.

Fry, G. A.

Gilchrist, A.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R.

Heinemann, E.

E. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol VII/4, D.Jameson and L.Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 146-169.

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, "Sensitivity to light," in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K.Boff, L.Kaufman, and J.Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), Chap. 5.

Horeman, H. W.

H. W. Horeman, "Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions," Vision Res. 3, 121-130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Issolio, L.

E. Colombo, J. F. Barraza, and L. Issolio. "Effect of a brief exposure on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range," Light. Res. Technol. 32, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Issolio, E. M. Colombo, and J. F. Barraza. "The effect of SOA on brightness under glare condition," Perception 29 (Suppl.), 108 (2000).

Jacobson, J.

D. Eagleman, J. Jacobson, and T. Sejnowski, "Perceived luminance depends on temporal context," Nature 428, 854-856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kardon, R.

O. Bergamin and R. Kardon, "Latency of the pupil light reflex: sample rate, stimulus intensity, and variation in normal subjects" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 1546-1554 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, M.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, "Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559-2570 (2001).
[PubMed]

Komatsu, H.

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, "Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559-2570 (2001).
[PubMed]

Kossyfiids, C.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasil'nikov, N.

Krasil'nikova, O.

Li, X.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ornstein, L. S

Osaka, N.

Paradiso, M. A.

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 196145-6156 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prettyman, R.

P. Bitsios, R. Prettyman, and E. Szabadi, "Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people," Age Ageing 25, 432-438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rittenhouse, C. D.

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, A. F.

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 196145-6156 (1999).
[PubMed]

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirillo, J. A.

Schouten, J. F.

Sejnowski, T.

D. Eagleman, J. Jacobson, and T. Sejnowski, "Perceived luminance depends on temporal context," Nature 428, 854-856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelepin, Y.

Spehar, B.

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabadi, E.

P. Bitsios, R. Prettyman, and E. Szabadi, "Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people," Age Ageing 25, 432-438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, "Disability glare--a state of the art report," CIE J. 3, 39-53 (1984).

Age Ageing (1)

P. Bitsios, R. Prettyman, and E. Szabadi, "Changes in autonomic function with age: a study of pupillary kinetics in healthy young and old people," Age Ageing 25, 432-438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CIE J. (1)

J. J. Vos, "Disability glare--a state of the art report," CIE J. 3, 39-53 (1984).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

O. Bergamin and R. Kardon, "Latency of the pupil light reflex: sample rate, stimulus intensity, and variation in normal subjects" Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 1546-1554 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

D. Dacey, "The dopaminergic amacrine cell," J. Comp. Neurol. 301, 461-489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol. (1)

A. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

M. Kinoshita and H. Komatsu, "Neural representation of the luminance and brightness of a uniform surface in the macaque primary visual cortex," J. Neurophysiol. 86, 2559-2570 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

A. F. Rossi and M. A. Paradiso, "Neural correlates of perceived brightness in the retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and striate cortex," J. Neurosci. 196145-6156 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

E. Colombo, J. F. Barraza, and L. Issolio. "Effect of a brief exposure on brightness perception in the scotopic-mesopic range," Light. Res. Technol. 32, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Eagleman, J. Jacobson, and T. Sejnowski, "Perceived luminance depends on temporal context," Nature 428, 854-856 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perception (1)

L. Issolio, E. M. Colombo, and J. F. Barraza. "The effect of SOA on brightness under glare condition," Perception 29 (Suppl.), 108 (2000).

Psychol. Rev. (1)

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfiids, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Adelson, "Perceptual organization and the judgement of brightness," Science 262, 2042-2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Rossi, C. D. Rittenhouse, and M. A. Paradiso, "The representation of brightness in primary visual cortex," Science 273, 1104-1107 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

H. W. Horeman, "Inductive brightness depression as influenced by configurational conditions," Vision Res. 3, 121-130 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. C. Hood and M. A. Finkelstein, "Sensitivity to light," in Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, K.Boff, L.Kaufman, and J.Thomas, eds. (Wiley, 1986), Chap. 5.

E. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol VII/4, D.Jameson and L.Hurvich, eds. (Springer, 1972), pp. 146-169.

J. Barbur, "Learning from the pupil--studies of basic mechanisms and clinical applications," in The Visual Neurosciences, Vol. 1, L.M.Chalupa and J.S.Werner, eds. (MIT Press, 2004) pp. 641-656.

T. Cornsweet, Visual Perception (Academic, 1970).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time diagram of the presentation of the stimuli and glare. The surround was kept constant during the experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Matching luminance as a function of time for the two glare level conditions, and for both subjects. Theoretical value at time zero, which means no glare conditions, is included to highlight the characteristics of the data. Data for (a) observer LI, (b) observer MIM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamic of the pupil diameter measured with a CCD for an observer under a glare condition of the same geometry, intensity, and duration as in the main experiment. Left panel, a detail of the pupil behavior during the 500 ms of exposure to glare; right panel, the evolution of the pupil diameter before, during, and after exposure to the glare source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data and model prediction for both subjects. Left panel, 15 lx condition; right panel, 60 lx condition.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Model Obtained from the Simulation for Each Subject and Each Glare Condition a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L p = L t F u ( x , y , t ) ,
u ( x , y , t ) = Δ E E [ 1 exp ( t T b ) ] S r S a { 1 exp ( ( t T d ) T a ) T b T a T b [ exp ( ( t T d ) T a ) exp ( ( t T d ) T b ) ] } ,

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