Abstract

The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

S. Park, E. Clarkson, M. A. Kupinski, and H. H. Barrett, "Efficiency of the human observer detecting random signals in random backgrounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 3-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Khurd and G. Gindi, "Decision strategies that maximize the area under the LROC curve," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1626-1636 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Neuhauser, E. W. Guenther, G. Wuchterl, M. Mugrauer, A. Bedalov, and P. H. Hauschildt, "Evidence for a co-moving sub-stellar companion of GQ Lup," Astron. Astrophys. 435, L13-L16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, "Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging," Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Chauvin, A. M. Lagrange, C. Dumas, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, I. Song, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Lowrance, "A giant planet candidate near a young brown dwarf: direct, VLT/NACO observations using IR wavefront sensing," Astron. Astrophys. 425, L29-L32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, "The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles," Astrophys. J. Lett. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Samson, F. Champagnat, and J. F. Giovannelli, "Point target detection and subpixel position estimation in optical imagery," Appl. Opt. 43, 257-263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Britton, "Arroyo," in Modeling and Systems Engineering for Astronomy, S. C. Craig and M. J. Cullum, eds., Proc. SPIE 5497, 290-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (7)

A. Refregier, "Shapelets--I. A method for image analysis," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338, 35-47 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gallas and H. H. Barrett, "Validating the use of channels to estimate the ideal linear observer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1725-1738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hobson and C. McLachlan, "A Bayesian approach to discrete object detection in astronomical data sets," Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338, 765-784 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kupinski, J. W. Hoppin, E. Clarkson, and H. H. Barrett, "Ideal-observer computation in medical imaging with use of Markov-chain Monte Carlo," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430-438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, "The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions," Astrophys. J. 596, 702-712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, A. Custo, G. De Mol, and M. Robberto, "A Fourier-based method for the restoration of chopped and nodded images," Astron. Astrophys. 406, 765-772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Sivaramakrishnan, J. P. Lloyd, P. E. Hodge, and B. A. Macintosh, "Speckle decorrelation and dynamic range in speckle noise-limited imaging," Astrophys. J. Lett. 581, L59-L62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. Lett. 558, L71-L74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, "Human and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. L. Starck, A. Bijaoui, I. Valtchanov, and F. Murtagh, "A combined approach for object detection and deconvolution," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 147, 139-149 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Charbonneau, T. M. Brown, D. W. Latham, and M. Mayor, "Detection of planetary transits across a sun-like star," Astrophys. J. Lett. 529, L45-L48 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, "Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Racine, G. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, "Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions," Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 589-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Gifford, R. G. Wells, and M. A. King, "A comparison of human observer LROC and numerical observer ROC for tumor detection in SPECT images," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 1032-1037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, 'The Rose model, revisited," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 633-646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

O. Esslinger and M. G. Edmunds, "Photometry with adaptive optics: a first guide to expected performance," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 129, 617-635 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, and E. Clarkson, "Objective assessment of image quality: III. ROC metrics, ideal observers and likelihood-generating functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1520-1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, B. Gallas, and M. Eckstein, "Stabilized estimates of Hotelling-observer detection performance in patient-structured noise," Proc. SPIE 3340, 27-43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. J. Bell and T. J. Sejnowski, "The 'independent components' of natural scenes are edge filters," Vision Res. 37, 3327-3338 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Strickland and D. A. Hutton, "Channelized detection filters," Opt. Lett. 22, 72-74 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

R. G. Swensson, "Unified measurement of observer performance in detecting and localizing target objects on images," Med. Phys. 23, 1709-1725 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Enard, A. Marechal, and J. Espiard, "Progress in ground-based optical telescopes," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 601-656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, "A Jupiter mass companion to a solar type star," Nature 378, 355-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, J. L. Denny, R. F. Wagner, and K. J. Myers, "Objective assessment of image quality: II. Fisher information, Fourier crosstalk, and figures of merit for task performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 834-852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, F. R. Verdun, C. Hessler, and J. F. Valley, "Detectability on radiological images: the effect of the anatomical noise," in Proc. SPIE 2436, 156-164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. Comon, "Independent component analysis: a new concept?" Signal Process. 36, 287-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Angel, "Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics," Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. Yao and H. H. Barrett, "Predicting human performance by a channelized Hotelling observer model, in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson and J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE 1768, 161-168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett, "Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 649-658 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

1967 (1)

L. W. Nolte and D. Jaarsma, "More on the detection of one of M orthogonal signals," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 497-505 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

H. Hotelling, "The generalization of Student's ratio," Ann. Math. Stat. 2, 360-378 (1931).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, C. K.

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, "Human and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, B. Gallas, and M. Eckstein, "Stabilized estimates of Hotelling-observer detection performance in patient-structured noise," Proc. SPIE 3340, 27-43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, and E. Clarkson, "Objective assessment of image quality: III. ROC metrics, ideal observers and likelihood-generating functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1520-1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett and C. K. Abbey, "Bayesian detection of random signals on random backgrounds," in Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Vol. 1234 of Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J.Duncan and G.Gindi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 155-166.

Abe, F.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, P.

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aime, C.

C. Aime and R. Soummer, "The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles," Astrophys. J. Lett. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R. P.

R. P. Angel, "Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics," Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

S. Park, E. Clarkson, M. A. Kupinski, and H. H. Barrett, "Efficiency of the human observer detecting random signals in random backgrounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 3-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kupinski, J. W. Hoppin, E. Clarkson, and H. H. Barrett, "Ideal-observer computation in medical imaging with use of Markov-chain Monte Carlo," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430-438 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gallas and H. H. Barrett, "Validating the use of channels to estimate the ideal linear observer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1725-1738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, "Human and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, B. Gallas, and M. Eckstein, "Stabilized estimates of Hotelling-observer detection performance in patient-structured noise," Proc. SPIE 3340, 27-43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, and E. Clarkson, "Objective assessment of image quality: III. ROC metrics, ideal observers and likelihood-generating functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1520-1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, J. L. Denny, R. F. Wagner, and K. J. Myers, "Objective assessment of image quality: II. Fisher information, Fourier crosstalk, and figures of merit for task performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 834-852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett, J. Yao, J. Rolland, and K. J. Myers, "Model observers for assessment of image quality," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 9758-9765 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett, "Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 649-658 (1992).
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H. H. Barrett, "Objective assessment of image quality: effects of quantum noise and object variability," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1266-1278 (1990).
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W. E. Smith and H. H. Barrett, "Hotelling trace criterion as a figure of merit for the optimization of imaging systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 717-725 (1986).
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H. H. Barrett and C. K. Abbey, "Bayesian detection of random signals on random backgrounds," in Information Processing in Medical Imaging, Vol. 1234 of Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, J.Duncan and G.Gindi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1997), pp. 155-166.

H. H. Barrett, D. Lara, and J. C. Dainty, "Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
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A. J. Bell and T. J. Sejnowski, "The 'independent components' of natural scenes are edge filters," Vision Res. 37, 3327-3338 (1997).
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F. O. Bochud, F. R. Verdun, C. Hessler, and J. F. Valley, "Detectability on radiological images: the effect of the anatomical noise," in Proc. SPIE 2436, 156-164 (1995).
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M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, A. Custo, G. De Mol, and M. Robberto, "A Fourier-based method for the restoration of chopped and nodded images," Astron. Astrophys. 406, 765-772 (2003).
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E. E. Bloemhof, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, "Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system," Astrophys. J. Lett. 558, L71-L74 (2001).
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G. Chauvin, A. M. Lagrange, C. Dumas, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, I. Song, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Lowrance, "A giant planet candidate near a young brown dwarf: direct, VLT/NACO observations using IR wavefront sensing," Astron. Astrophys. 425, L29-L32 (2004).
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I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
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Eckstein, M.

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, B. Gallas, and M. Eckstein, "Stabilized estimates of Hotelling-observer detection performance in patient-structured noise," Proc. SPIE 3340, 27-43 (1998).
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O. Esslinger and M. G. Edmunds, "Photometry with adaptive optics: a first guide to expected performance," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 129, 617-635 (1998).
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I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
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O. Esslinger and M. G. Edmunds, "Photometry with adaptive optics: a first guide to expected performance," Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 129, 617-635 (1998).
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M. Carbillet, L. Fini, B. Femena, A. Riccardi, S. Esposito, E. Viard, F. Delplancke, and N. Hubin, "CAOS stimulation package 3.0: an IDL-based tool for adaptive optics systems design and simulations," in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems X, Vol. 238 of ASP Conference Proceedings, F.R.Harnden, Jr., F.A.Primini, and H.E.Payne, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2001), p. 249.

Fiete, R. D.

Fini, L.

M. Carbillet, L. Fini, B. Femena, A. Riccardi, S. Esposito, E. Viard, F. Delplancke, and N. Hubin, "CAOS stimulation package 3.0: an IDL-based tool for adaptive optics systems design and simulations," in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems X, Vol. 238 of ASP Conference Proceedings, F.R.Harnden, Jr., F.A.Primini, and H.E.Payne, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2001), p. 249.

Furuta, Y.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
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Gallas, B.

H. H. Barrett, C. K. Abbey, B. Gallas, and M. Eckstein, "Stabilized estimates of Hotelling-observer detection performance in patient-structured noise," Proc. SPIE 3340, 27-43 (1998).
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Gallas, B. D.

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H. C. Gifford, R. G. Wells, and M. A. King, "A comparison of human observer LROC and numerical observer ROC for tumor detection in SPECT images," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 1032-1037 (1999).
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P. Khurd and G. Gindi, "Decision strategies that maximize the area under the LROC curve," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1626-1636 (2005).
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R. Neuhauser, E. W. Guenther, G. Wuchterl, M. Mugrauer, A. Bedalov, and P. H. Hauschildt, "Evidence for a co-moving sub-stellar companion of GQ Lup," Astron. Astrophys. 435, L13-L16 (2005).
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R. Neuhauser, E. W. Guenther, G. Wuchterl, M. Mugrauer, A. Bedalov, and P. H. Hauschildt, "Evidence for a co-moving sub-stellar companion of GQ Lup," Astron. Astrophys. 435, L13-L16 (2005).
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I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
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D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis and synthesis," in Computer Graphics Proceedings, SIGGRAPH 95 Conference Proceedings, R.Cook, ed. (ACM SIGGRAPH, 1995), Vol. 29, pp. 229-238.

Heraudeau, P.

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
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Herbstmeier, U.

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. O. Bochud, F. R. Verdun, C. Hessler, and J. F. Valley, "Detectability on radiological images: the effect of the anatomical noise," in Proc. SPIE 2436, 156-164 (1995).
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M. Carbillet, L. Fini, B. Femena, A. Riccardi, S. Esposito, E. Viard, F. Delplancke, and N. Hubin, "CAOS stimulation package 3.0: an IDL-based tool for adaptive optics systems design and simulations," in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems X, Vol. 238 of ASP Conference Proceedings, F.R.Harnden, Jr., F.A.Primini, and H.E.Payne, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2001), p. 249.

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I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
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Kamiya, K.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khurd, P.

P. Khurd and G. Gindi, "Decision strategies that maximize the area under the LROC curve," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1626-1636 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilmartin, P. M.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, M. A.

H. C. Gifford, R. G. Wells, and M. A. King, "A comparison of human observer LROC and numerical observer ROC for tumor detection in SPECT images," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 1032-1037 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiss, C.

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klaas, U.

C. Kiss, P. Abraham, U. Klaas, D. Lemke, P. Heraudeau, C. del Burgo, and U. Herbstmeier, "Small-scale structure of the galactic cirrus emission," Astron. Astrophys. 399, 177-186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, M.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kupinski, M. A.

Kurata, Y.

I. A. Bond, A. Udalski, M. Jaroszyski, N. J. Rattenbury, B. Paczyski, I. Soszyski, L. Wyrzykowski, M. K. Szymaski, M. Kubiak, O. Szewczyk, K. Ebru, G. Pietrzyski, F. Abe, D. P. Bennett, S. Eguchi, Y. Furuta, J. B. Hearnshaw, K. Kamiya, P. M. Kilmartin, Y. Kurata, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, Y. Muraki, S. Noda, K. Okajima, T. Sako, T. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sumi, P. J. Tristram, T. Yanagisawa, P. C. M. Yock, and The MOA and OGLE Collaborations, "OGLE 003-BLG-235/MOA 2003-BLG-53: a planetary microlensing event," Astrophys. J. Lett. 606, L155-L158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagrange, A. M.

G. Chauvin, A. M. Lagrange, C. Dumas, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, I. Song, J. L. Beuzit, and P. Lowrance, "A giant planet candidate near a young brown dwarf: direct, VLT/NACO observations using IR wavefront sensing," Astron. Astrophys. 425, L29-L32 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lara, D.

H. H. Barrett, D. Lara, and J. C. Dainty, "Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
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Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Yao and H. H. Barrett, "Predicting human performance by a channelized Hotelling observer model, in Mathematical Methods in Medical Imaging, D. C. Wilson and J. N. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE 1768, 161-168 (1992).
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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of an adaptive optics system.

Equations (137)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ¯ m ( f ) = d r h m ( r ) f ( r ) , m = 1 , , M ,
g ¯ ( f ) = H f ,
pr ( g ) = d f pr ( g f ) pr ( f ) ,
pr ( g ) = pr ( g f ) f ,
g ̿ m = g m g , f = g m g f f = d f d g g m pr ( g f ) pr ( f ) .
g ̿ m = g ¯ m f = d r h m ( r ) f ¯ ( r ) .
[ K g f ] m m = [ g m g ¯ m ] [ g m g ¯ m ] g f
K g f = [ g g ¯ ] [ g g ¯ ] t g f .
K g [ g g ̿ ] [ g g ̿ ] t g , f = [ g g ̿ ] [ g g ̿ ] t g f f .
K g = [ g g ¯ + g ¯ g ̿ ] [ g g ¯ + g ¯ g ̿ ] t g f f = [ g g ¯ ] [ g g ¯ ] t g f f + [ g ¯ g ̿ ] [ g ¯ g ̿ ] t f .
[ g g ¯ ] [ g ¯ g ̿ ] t g f f = [ g g ¯ ] g f [ g ¯ g ̿ ] t f = [ g ¯ g ¯ ] [ g ¯ g ̿ ] t f = 0 .
K g = K ¯ g noise + K g ¯ obj ,
K f ( r , r ) = [ f ( r ) f ¯ ( r ) ] [ f ( r ) f ¯ ( r ) ] .
K g ¯ obj = H K f H ,
pr ( g H k ) = d f pr ( g f ) pr ( f H k ) .
SNR t 2 = [ t ( g ) H 1 t ( g ) H 0 ] 2 1 2 Var { t ( g ) H 1 } + 1 2 Var { t ( g ) H 0 } ,
t Hot ( g ) = w t g = [ g ̿ 1 g ̿ 0 ] t K av 1 g , K av 1 2 [ K g H 1 + K g H 0 ] .
SNR Hot 2 [ g ̿ 1 g ̿ 0 ] t K av 1 [ g ̿ 1 g ̿ 0 ] = tr { K av 1 [ g ̿ 1 g ̿ 0 ] [ g ̿ 1 g ̿ 0 ] t } ,
θ ̂ = θ ¯ + K θ , g K g 1 [ g g ̿ ] ,
EMSE = tr K θ tr K θ , g K g 1 K θ , g t .
g ¯ m ( j ) = d 2 r d t h m ( j ) ( r , t ) f ( r , t ) , m = 1 , , M , j = 1 , , J ,
h m ( j ) ( r , t ) = rect [ t t j 1 2 T T ] d 2 r d d m ( r d ) p ( r d , r , t ) ,
g ¯ m ( j ) = d 2 r d d m ( r d ) t j t j + T d t d 2 r p ( r d , r , t ) f ( r , t ) .
g ¯ m ( j ) = d 2 r h m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) , m = 1 , , M , j = 1 , , J ,
h m ( j ) ( r ) = d 2 r d d m ( r d ) p ( j ) ( r d , r ) ,
p ( j ) ( r d , r ) = t j t j + T d t p ( r d , r , t ) .
G ¯ = H s F ,
α ̂ ( k ) = k = 1 K 0 M ( k ) τ ̂ ( k k ) ,
W DM ( k ) ( r ) = n = 1 N α ̂ n ( k ) ψ n ( r ) ,
W atm ( r , t ; r 0 ) = n = 1 N α n ( t ; r 0 ) ψ n ( r ) + Δ W atm ( r , t ; r 0 ) ,
W ( r , t ; r 0 ) = W atm ( r , t ; r 0 ) W D M ( k ) ( r ) = n = 1 N [ α n ( t ; r 0 ) α ̂ n ( k ) ] ψ n ( r ) + Δ W atm ( r , t ; r 0 ) , k T t < ( k + 1 ) T .
a pup ( r , t ; r 0 ) = a ap ( r ) exp [ i 2 π λ W ( r , t ; r 0 ) ] ,
p coh ( r d , r 0 , t ) d 2 r a ap ( r ) exp [ i 2 π λ W ( r , t ; r 0 ) ] exp [ i 2 π λ f ( r d r 0 ) r ] ,
p ( j ) ( r d , r 0 ) = C t j t j + T d t p coh ( r d , r 0 , t ) 2 ,
p coh ( r d , r , t ) d 2 r a ap ( r ) [ 1 + i ϕ ( r , t ; r ) 1 2 ϕ 2 ( r , t ; r ) ] exp [ i 2 π λ f ( r d r ) r ] ,
d 2 r a ap ( r ) [ 1 + i ϕ ( r , t ; r ) 1 2 ϕ 2 ( r , t ; r ) ] exp ( 2 π i ρ r ) = A ap ( ρ ) + i [ A ap Φ ] ( ρ ) 1 2 [ A ap Φ Φ ] ( ρ ) ,
p ( j ) ( r d , r ) = C t j t j + T d t p coh ( r d , r , t ) 2 = C t j t j + T d t { A ap 2 + [ A ap Φ ] 2 Re [ A ap ( A ap Φ Φ ) ] 2 Im [ A ap ( A ap Φ ) ] } ρ = ( r d r ) λ f ,
F = F sci + F gs + F bg .
T ( G ) = T ( G ) G P , F P F F = d F d P d G T ( G ) pr ( G P , F ) pr ( P F ) pr ( F ) .
pr ( G P , f ) = j = 1 J pr ( g ( j ) p ( j ) , f ( j ) ) .
pr ( g ( j ) p ( j ) , f ( j ) ) = m = 1 M pr ( g m ( j ) p ( j ) , f ( j ) ) .
g m ( j ) = g m ( j ) g m ( j ) p ( j ) , f ( j ) p ( j ) F F .
g ¯ m ( j ) = g ¯ m ( j ) ( p ( j ) , f ( j ) ) = d 2 r h m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) ,
g ̿ m ( j ) = g ̿ m ( j ) ( f ( j ) ) = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) ,
h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) = d 2 r d d m ( r d ) p ¯ ( j ) ( r d , r ) .
g m ( j ) = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) F = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) ,
K G [ G G ] [ G G ] t G , P , F [ G G ] [ G G ] t G P , F P F F .
[ K G ] m m ( j , j ) = [ g m ( j ) g m ( j ) ] [ g m ( j ) g m ( j ) ] G P , F P F F .
K G = [ G G ¯ + G ¯ G ̿ + G ̿ G ] [ G G ¯ + G ¯ G ̿ + G ̿ G ] t G P , F P F F .
K G = K ̿ G noise + K ¯ G ¯ PSF + K G ̿ obj ,
K ̿ G noise [ G G ¯ ] [ G G ¯ ] t G P , F P F F ,
K ¯ G ¯ PSF [ G ¯ G ̿ ] [ G ¯ G ̿ ] t P F F ,
K G ̿ obj [ G ̿ G ] [ G ̿ G ] t F .
[ K ̿ G noise ] m m ( j , j ) = [ σ m 2 + g m ( j ) ] δ m m δ j j .
[ K ¯ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r f ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P F F .
[ K ¯ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r f ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) F [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P .
[ K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r [ h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) F ] × [ h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ( j ) ( r ) F ] F .
[ K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) [ f ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) ] [ f ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) ] F = d 2 r d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) ,
K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) K f ( r , r , t , t ) t = t j , t = t j = [ f ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) ] [ f ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) ] .
[ K ¯ G ¯ PSF + K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r { f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ ( j ) ( r ) [ K h ] m m ( j , j ) ( r , r ) + h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) + [ K h ] m m ( j , j ) ( r , r ) K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) } ,
[ K h ] m m ( j , j ) ( r , r ) [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P .
[ K G ] m m ( j , j ) = [ σ m 2 + g m ] δ m m δ j j + [ K ¯ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j j ) + [ K G ̿ obj ] m m .
t Hot ( G ) = W t G = [ G 1 G 0 ] t K av 1 G ,
K av 1 2 [ K G H 1 + K G H 0 ] .
t Hot ( G ) = m = 1 M m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J s ̿ m ( j ) [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) g m ( j ) ,
SNR Hot 2 = m = 1 M m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J s ̿ m ( j ) [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) s ̿ m ( j ) .
t Hot ( G ) = m = 1 M s ̿ m g m ( pw ) ,
g m ( pw ) m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) g m ( j ) .
t npw ( G ) = m = 1 M s ̿ m g m ( npw ) , g m ( npw ) j = 1 J g m ( j ) .
[ K ¯ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = [ C ¯ 2 + K C ( t j , t j ) ] d 2 r d 2 r [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P = [ C ¯ 2 + K C ( t j , t j ) ] [ d 2 r h m ( j ) ( r ) d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ d 2 r h m ( j ) ( r ) d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P .
s ̿ m = A s h ¯ m ( r s ) .
[ K G ] m m ( j , j ) = ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) δ m m δ j j + η 2 K C ( t j , t j ) ,
[ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) = ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) 1 δ m m δ j j Q ( j , j ) ,
t Hot ( G ) = A s σ 2 + η C ¯ m = 1 m j = 1 J h ¯ m ( r s ) [ g m ( j ) η C ̂ ( j ) ] ,
η C ̂ ( j ) ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) m = 1 M j = 1 J Q ( j , j ) g m ( j ) .
SNR Hot 2 = A s 2 m = 1 M m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J h ¯ m ( r s ) [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) h ¯ m ( r s ) = J A s 2 σ 2 + η C ¯ m = 1 M [ h ¯ m ( r s ) ] 2 A s 2 [ m = 1 M h ¯ m ( r s ) ] 2 j = 1 J j = 1 J Q ( j , j ) .
SNR Hot 2 J A s 2 σ 2 + η C ¯ m = 1 M [ h ¯ m ( r s ) ] 2 ( M large ) ,
[ K G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j j ) d 2 r d r K f ( r r ) [ h m j ( r ) h ¯ m ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( r ) ] P .
[ K G ] m m ( j j ) = [ σ 2 + g ] δ m m δ j j + d 2 r d 2 r K f ( r r ) h m ( j ) ( r ) h m ( j ) ( r ) P .
[ K ¯ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = A 2 [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] [ h m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] P = A 2 [ K h ] m m ( j , j ) ( r , r ) .
[ K ̿ G noise ] m m ( j , j ) = [ σ 2 + g b g + A h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ] δ m m δ j j .
δ g m ( j ) g 2 m ( j ) g 1 m ( j ) ,
[ K ¯ δ G noise ] m m ( j , j ) = [ 2 σ 2 + A 1 h ¯ 1 m ( r ) + A 2 h ¯ 2 m ( r ) ] δ m m δ j j ,
[ K δ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) [ δ g ¯ δ g ¯ P ] m ( j ) [ δ g ¯ δ g ¯ P ] m ( j ) P .
[ δ g ¯ δ g ¯ P ] m ( j ) = A 2 [ h 2 m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ 2 m ( r ) ] A 1 [ h 1 m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ 1 m ( r ) ] ,
[ K δ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = ( A 2 A 1 ) 2 [ K h ] m m ( j , j ) ( r , r ) .
δ s ̿ m = d 2 r h ¯ m ( r ) [ f ¯ 2 s ( r ) f ¯ 1 s ( r ) ] .
θ ̂ = θ ¯ + K θ , G K G 1 [ G G ] ,
EMSE = tr K θ tr K θ , G K G 1 K θ , G t .
F = F θ θ ,
G = G G P , F P F F θ θ G θ θ .
K θ , G = [ θ θ ¯ ] [ G G ] t G P , F P F F θ θ = [ θ θ ¯ ] [ G θ G ] t θ .
K G = [ G G ] [ G G ] t G P , F P F F θ θ = K G θ θ + [ G θ G ] [ G θ G ] t θ ,
K G θ [ G G θ ] [ G G θ ] t G P , F P F F θ .
[ G θ ] m ( j ) = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) [ f ¯ bg ( r ) + θ δ ( r r ) ] = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ bg ( r ) + θ h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ,
[ G ] m ( j ) = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f ¯ bg ( r ) + θ ¯ h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) .
[ K θ , G ] m ( j ) = σ θ 2 h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ,
[ [ G θ G ] [ G θ G ] t θ ] m m ( j , j ) = σ θ 2 h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) ,
[ K G ] m m ( j , j ) = [ K G θ ] m m ( j , j ) + σ θ 2 h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) .
θ ̂ = θ ¯ + σ θ 2 m = 1 M h ¯ m ( r ) [ g m ( pw ) g m ( pw ) ] ,
g m ( pw ) m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) [ d 2 r h ¯ m ( r ) f ¯ bg ( r ) + θ ¯ h ¯ m ( r ) ] .
EMSE = σ θ 2 σ θ 4 m = 1 M m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J h ¯ m ( r ) [ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) h ¯ m ( r ) .
[ K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r h ¯ m ( r ) h ¯ m ( r ) K f ( r r ) .
[ K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = d 2 r d 2 r h ¯ ( r a m ) h ¯ ( r a m ) K f ( r r ) = d 2 ρ S f ( ρ ) H ¯ ( ρ ) 2 exp [ 2 π i ρ ( a m a m ) ] ,
g ̿ l m ( j ) = d 2 r h ¯ m ( j ) ( r ) f l ( j ) ( r ) .
[ K ̂ G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) = 1 L 1 l = 1 L Δ g ̿ l m ( j ) Δ g ̿ l m ( j ) ,
Δ g ̿ l m ( j ) g ̿ l m ( j ) 1 L l = 1 L g ̿ l m ( j ) .
[ K ¯ ̂ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = A 2 L 1 l = 1 L Δ h l m ( j ) ( r ) Δ h l m ( j ) ( r ) ,
Δ h l m ( j ) ( r ) h l m ( j ) ( r ) 1 L l = 1 L h l m ( j ) ( r ) .
[ K ¯ ̂ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = N I i = 1 I [ 1 L 1 l = 1 L Δ h l m ( j ) ( r i ) Δ h l m ( j ) ( r i ) ] ,
[ K ¯ ̂ G ¯ PSF ] m m ( j , j ) = a pix 2 L l = 1 L [ 1 L 1 l = 1 L Δ g ¯ l l m ( j ) Δ g ¯ l l m ( j ) ] ,
Δ g ¯ l l m ( j ) g ¯ l l m ( j ) 1 L l = 1 L g ¯ l l m ( j ) ,
[ K ̿ G Pois ] m m ( j , j ) = α m 2 g m ( j ) δ m m δ j j .
W = K 1 S ̿ , S ̿ G 1 G 0 ,
W ̂ n + 1 = W ̂ n + α [ K ̿ G noise ] 1 [ S ̿ K G W ̂ n ] .
SNR ̂ Hot 2 = S ̿ t W ̂ N .
[ D + B ] 1 = [ I + D 1 B ] 1 D 1 = [ j = 0 [ D 1 B ] j ] D 1 = D 1 D 1 BD 1 + D 1 BD 1 BD 1 + ,
[ D 1 ] m m ( j , j ) = 1 σ m 2 + g m ( j ) δ m m δ j j ,
SNR Hot 2 = m = 1 M j = 1 J ( s ̿ m ( j ) ) 2 σ m 2 + g m ( j ) m = 1 M m = 1 M j = 1 J j = 1 J s ̿ m ( j ) [ K ¯ G ¯ PSF + K G ̿ obj ] m m ( j , j ) s ̿ m ( j ) ( σ m 2 + g m ( j ) ) ( σ m 2 + g m ( j ) ) + .
[ A UBV ] 1 = A 1 + A 1 UB [ I VA 1 UB ] 1 VA 1 = A 1 + A 1 U [ I BVA 1 U ] 1 BVA 1 .
[ K G 1 ] m m ( j , j ) = ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) 1 δ m m δ j j η 2 ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) 2 [ ( I J + M η 2 σ 2 + η C ¯ K J ) 1 K J ] ( j , j ) ( σ 2 + η C ¯ ) 1 δ m m δ j j Q ( j , j ) ,
K ¯ ̂ G ¯ PSF = RR t ,
R l m ( j ) = A L 1 Δ h l m ( j ) ( r ) .
[ K ̿ G noise + RR t ] 1 = [ K ̿ G noise ] 1 [ K ̿ G noise ] 1
× R [ I L + R t [ K ̿ G noise ] 1 R ] 1 R t [ K ̿ G noise ] 1 .
K ̂ n = 1 N λ n ϕ n ϕ n t Φ Λ Φ t ( N L 1 ) ,
f ( r ) = n = 1 N A n δ ( r x n ) ,
f ¯ ( r ) = n = 1 N A n δ ( r x n ) { A n } , { x n } N N ,
f ¯ ( r ) = N 0 d A n pr A ( A n ) A n d 2 x n pr x ( x n ) δ ( r x n ) N = N ¯ A n pr x ( r ) = A n b ( r ) ,
b ( r ) N ¯ pr x ( r ) ,
f ( r ) f ( r ) = n = 1 N n = 1 N A n A n δ ( r x n ) δ ( r x n ) { A n } { x n } N N .
f ( r ) f ( r ) = N 2 N A n 2 pr x ( r ) pr x ( r ) + N A n 2 d 2 x n pr x ( x n ) δ ( r x n ) δ ( r x n ) = ( σ N 2 + N ¯ 2 N ¯ ) A n 2 pr x ( r ) pr x ( r ) + N ¯ A n 2 pr x ( r ) δ ( r r ) ,
K f ( r , r ) f ( r ) f ( r ) f ¯ ( r ) f ¯ ( r ) = A n 2 b ( r ) δ ( r r ) .
K f ( r , r , t , t ) 2 π 0 ρ d ρ ( ρ + ρ 0 ) γ J 0 ( 2 π ρ r r ) ,
f ( r , t ) = C ( t ) ,
K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) = K C ( t j t j ) ,
K f ( j , j ) ( r , r ) = σ C 2 ,

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