Abstract

The transmittance of thin films of Sc deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions has been investigated in the 201000eV spectral range. Transmittance measurements were performed in situ on Sc layers that were deposited over grids coated with a C support film. Transmittance measurements were used to obtain the extinction coefficient of Sc films at each individual photon energy investigated. These data, along with the data available in the literature for the rest of the spectrum, were used to obtain the refractive index of Sc by means of the Kramers–Krönig analysis. Sum-rule tests indicated an acceptable consistency of the data.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. Henke, data of Ref. are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants/
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. A tabulated form of the data is available on request at the following e-mail address: larruquert@ifa.cetef.csic.es.
  22. E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, "Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444-3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. H. Weaver and C. G. Olson, "Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium," Phys. Rev. B 16, 731-735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Antonangeli, F.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, S. V.

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Optical properties of 3D transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 288-294 (1997).

Aquila, A. L.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

Aznárez, J. A.

Birch, J.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, "14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window," Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Brousseau-Lahaye, B.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Caro, P. E.

M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chassaing, C.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Colliex, C.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Covini, S.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

De Luisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA," T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, and J. Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142-1145.
[CrossRef]

Doyle, B. P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, "14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window," Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

Fedorenko, A. I.

Fedotov, V. Y.

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

François, J. C.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Frandon, J.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gasgnier, M.

M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gazzadi, G. C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

F. Eriksson, G. A. Johansson, H. M. Hertz, E. M. Gullikson, U. Kreissig, and J. Birch, "14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window," Opt. Lett. 28, 2494-2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

Henke,

Henke, data of Ref. are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants/

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

Henry la Blanchetais, Ch.

M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

Inokuti, M.

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

Koch, E. E.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).

Kondratenko, V. V.

Krafka, C.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).

Kreissig, U.

Larruquert, J. I.

Levashov, V. E.

Lynch, D. W.

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).

Mahne, N.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Malvezzi, A. M.

Mayerhöfer, T. G.

Méndez, J. A.

Naletto, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Nannarone, S.

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, "Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444-3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA," T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, and J. Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142-1145.
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Olson, C. G.

J. H. Weaver and C. G. Olson, "Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium," Phys. Rev. B 16, 731-735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pasquali, L.

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA," T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, and J. Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142-1145.
[CrossRef]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Pelizzo, M. G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

Piacentini, M.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

Popov, N. L.

Sae-Lao, B.

Salmassi, F.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

Sasaki, T.

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Shiles, E.

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. Y.

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Oxford U. Press, 1948).

Tondello, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

Trebbia, P.

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Uspenskii, Y. A.

Y. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, "Efficient method for the determination of extreme-ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 298-305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Optical properties of 3D transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 288-294 (1997).

Uspenskii, Y. U.

Verucchi, R.

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, "Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444-3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Weaver, J. H.

J. H. Weaver and C. G. Olson, "Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium," Phys. Rev. B 16, 731-735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).

Yu, V.

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Optical properties of 3D transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 288-294 (1997).

Zema, N.

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, "X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000eV, Z=1-92," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181-342 (1993). These data have been updated after the preparation of this research by including the measurements of Ref. .
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

E. Shiles, T. Sasaki, M. Inokuti, and D. Y. Smith, "Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: applications to aluminium," Phys. Rev. B 22, 1612-1628 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Weaver and C. G. Olson, "Optical examination of the electronic structure of single-crystal hcp scandium," Phys. Rev. B 16, 731-735 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigrist, C. Chassaing, J. C. François, F. Antonangeli, N. Zema, and M. Piacentini, "Optical properties of scandium thin films," Phys. Rev. B 35, 3760-3764 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

B. Brousseau-Lahaye, C. Colliex, J. Frandon, M. Gasgnier, and P. Trebbia, "Determination of the electron excitation spectrum in scandium and yttrium by means of characteristic energy loss measurements," Phys. Status Solidi B 69, 257-266 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Verucchi and S. Nannarone, "Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3444-3450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Gasgnier, Ch. Henry la Blanchetais, and P. E. Caro, "Réactivitè des métaux des terres rares yttriques et du scandium en couches minces vis-à-vis de l'atmosphère résiduelle du microscope électronique," Thin Solid Films 31, 283-295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A tabulated form of the data is available on request at the following e-mail address: larruquert@ifa.cetef.csic.es.

Henke, data of Ref. are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/opticallowbarconstants/

J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, and E. E. Koch, Physik Daten, 18-2 (Fach-informationszentrum Energie-Physik-Mathematik GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany, 1981).

S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Oxford U. Press, 1948).

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. De Luisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, "The BEAR beamline at ELETTRA," T.Warwick, J.Arthur, H.A.Padmore, and J.Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 450-453.
[CrossRef]

L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, and S. Nannarone, "The UHV experimental chamber for optical measurements (reflectivity and absorption) and angle resolved photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA," T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, and J. Stöhr, eds., in AIP Conference Proceedings (AIP, 2004), Vol. 705, pp. 1142-1145.
[CrossRef]

Absolute XUV silicon photodiode (AXUV series) by International Radiation Detectors, Inc.

Y. A. Uspenskii, S. V. Antonov, V. Yu, and A. V. Vinogradov, "Optical properties of 3D transition metals in the spectral interval of interest for discharge pumped XUV lasers," in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 288-294 (1997).

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, E. M. Gullikson, F. Eriksson, and J. Birch, "Measurements of the optical constants of scandium in the 50-1300eV range," in Optical Constants of Materials for UV to X-Ray Wavelengths, R. Soufli and J. F. Seely, eds., Proc. SPIE 5538, 64-71 (2004).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of the grid-supported C substrate as a function of the photon energy on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance of three Sc films of different thicknesses as a function of the photon energy on a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithm of transmittance as a function of the film thickness at three different energies (symbols) and the fit (solid lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log–log plot of the extinction coefficient of Sc obtained with the transmittance measurements, represented along with data in the literature. The spectral range of each set of data is spanned with a straight line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extinction coefficient of Sc at the Sc L 2 , 3 edge.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Log–log plot of the extinction coefficient data set used for the KK analysis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

δ = 1 n in the range of small energies.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Log–log plot of δ = 1 n in the range of large energies.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

δ = 1 n at the L edge.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effective number of electrons contributing to the extinction coefficient up to each energy.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Constants at the Energies of Smallest Absorption Below Both the L and the M Edges

Equations (7)

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T = ( I T I B ) R T ( I D I B ) R D ,
T f s T s exp ( 4 π k x λ ) ,
n ( E ) 1 = 2 π P 0 E k ( E ) E 2 E 2 d E ,
0 E k ( E ) d E = π 4 N el e 2 h 2 ε 0 m ,
n eff ( E ) = 4 ε 0 m π N at e 2 h 2 0 E E k ( E ) d E
0 [ n ( E ) 1 ] d E = 0 .
ζ = 0 [ n ( E ) 1 ] d E 0 n ( E ) 1 d E .

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