Abstract

An etched diffraction grating (EDG) demultiplexer with high sidelobe suppression is designed. Sidelobes resulting from two adjacent wavelengths are suppressed by etching two optimized rectangular air trenches in front of each output waveguide that can induce large resonance loss in the adjacent wavelength but have little influence on the operational wavelength. The designed EDG demultiplexer can suppress crosstalk to less than 50dB in theory.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Polarization performance analysis of etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using boundary element method," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 224-231 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Sadov and K. A. McGreer, "Polarization dependence of diffraction gratings that have total internal reflection facets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1590-1594 (2002).
  4. J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Fast analysis method for polarization-dependent performance of a concave diffraction grating with total internal reflection facets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1947-1951 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, and Emil S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Song and S. He, "Effects of rounded corners on the performance of an echelle diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 769-773 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Effects of surface roughness on the performance of an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 646-650 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Analysis of the loss resulting from point defects for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using a method of moments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1620-l623 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Song and S. He, "Effects of rounded corners on the performance of an echelle diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 769-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

1998

1996

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cloutier, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dam, C. v.

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

Delage, A.

Delâge, A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dossou, K.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, L.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, and Emil S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, J. J.

He, S.

J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Effects of surface roughness on the performance of an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 646-650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Analysis of the loss resulting from point defects for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using a method of moments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1620-l623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Fast analysis method for polarization-dependent performance of a concave diffraction grating with total internal reflection facets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1947-1951 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Polarization performance analysis of etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using boundary element method," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 224-231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song and S. He, "Effects of rounded corners on the performance of an echelle diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 769-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koteles, Emil S.

Krug, P. A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, and Emil S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGreer, K. A.

Packirisamy, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pang, D. Q.

J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sadov, S. Y.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Effects of surface roughness on the performance of an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 646-650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Polarization performance analysis of etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using boundary element method," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 224-231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Fast analysis method for polarization-dependent performance of a concave diffraction grating with total internal reflection facets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1947-1951 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, N. Zhu, and S. He, "Analysis of the loss resulting from point defects for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using a method of moments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1620-l623 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Song and S. He, "Effects of rounded corners on the performance of an echelle diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 769-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. K. Smit and C. v. Dam, "Phasar-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Song, J. J. He, and S. He, "Polarization performance analysis of etched diffraction grating demultiplexer using boundary element method," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 224-231 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson, and D. X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

J. Song and S. He, "Effects of rounded corners on the performance of an echelle diffraction grating demultiplexer," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 769-773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

J. Song, D. Q. Pang, and S. He, "A MoM-based design and simulation method for an etched diffraction grating demultiplexer," Opt. Commun. 233, 363-371 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of (a) an EDG demultiplexer based on a Rowland circle mounting and (b) air trench structures in front of each output waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image field distribution near the central output waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sidelobe suppression for different lengths and widths of air trench D 1 (the light is perpendicular to the facet a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sidelobe suppression at varied operational wavelengths using the parameters of D 1 given by the four loss peaks marked in Fig. 3 ( λ c = 1549.2 nm ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sidelobe suppression at different positions for peaks 1 and 2 marked in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral width with over 1 dB sidelobe suppression at different positions for Peaks l and 2 marked in Fig. 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image field distribution near the central output waveguide using two optimal air trenches.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optimal sizes of air trenches for 17 wavelength channels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Cross talk and (b) loss for 17 wavelength channels. Circles are for an EDG demultiplexer with two optimal air trenches in front of each output waveguide. Squares are for a conventional EDG design.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 E 0 ( x , z ) k 0 2 ε w ( x , z ) E 0 ( x , z ) = 0 ,
E i = E i 0 + q = 1 , q i N G i , q k 0 2 Δ ε q E q V q + M i k 0 2 Δ ε i E i ,
M i = k 0 2 [ π Δ x i Δ z i 2 k H 1 ( 1 ) ( k Δ x i Δ z i π ) + ( i k ) 2 ] ,
G ( r i , r q ) = i 4 k 0 2 H 0 ( 1 ) [ k ( x i x q ) 2 + ( z i z q ) 2 ] ,

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