Abstract

The perception and measurement of gloss is just one part of the concept of appearance measurement. We describe the comparison between data derived by 20 observers who each scaled the perceived gloss of a set of 84 neutral and colored test samples and measurements of those samples made using a glossmeter and a sphere-based spectrophotometer. With a glossmeter, the relationship between the visual-scaled data and the measured gloss values could be described by a three-part linear fit or, with a higher correlation, a cubic function. For the sphere-based spectrophotometer, the difference in the luminance factor, ΔY, between specular-included and specular-excluded measurements, was found to give a better linear correlation with the observer-scaled data. The color of the samples did not appear to significantly change the perceived gloss of the surface.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Hutchings, Food Color and Appearance, 2nd ed. (Aspen, 1999).
  2. M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "New Primary standards for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 72, 61-66 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1987).
  4. A. H. Pfund, "The measurement of gloss," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 23-26 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  5. ASTM D523, "Standard test method for specular gloss," (American Society for Testing and Materials, Gaithersburg, Md., 1999).
  6. Byk-Gardner, Technical Note. See http://www.bykgardner.com (2004).
  7. V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of high gloss papers," Pap. Res. 7, 128-136 (1954).
  8. F. W. Billmeyer and F. X. D. O'Donnell, "Visual gloss scaling and multidimensional analysis of painted specimens," Color Res. Appl. 12, 315-326 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Sève, "Problems associated with the concept of gloss," Color Res. Appl. 18, 241-252 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Ward, "Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection," in ACM Comput. Graphics 26(2), 265-272 (1992) [Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '92, Chicago, Illinois, July 26-31, 1992 (www.SIGGRAPH.org)].
  12. Y. Sun, "A physically-based reflection model for glossy appearance," in Proceedings of Tenth IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), pp. 172-177.
  13. G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).
  15. G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).
  16. V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of papers--the effect of luminance factor," Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 92-97 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  17. See GretagMacbeth website: http://www.gretagmacbeth.com (2004).
  18. S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153-181 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. S. Stevens and E. H. Galanter, "Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua," J. Exp. Psychol. 54, 377-341 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. J. Bartleson, "Changes in colour appearance with variations in chromatic adaptation," Color Res. Appl. 4, 119-137 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. See www.sheeninstruments.com (2004).

2002

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

2001

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "New Primary standards for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 72, 61-66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. Sève, "Problems associated with the concept of gloss," Color Res. Appl. 18, 241-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

F. W. Billmeyer and F. X. D. O'Donnell, "Visual gloss scaling and multidimensional analysis of painted specimens," Color Res. Appl. 12, 315-326 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. J. Bartleson, "Changes in colour appearance with variations in chromatic adaptation," Color Res. Appl. 4, 119-137 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1957

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153-181 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Stevens and E. H. Galanter, "Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua," J. Exp. Psychol. 54, 377-341 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of papers--the effect of luminance factor," Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 92-97 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1930

Bartleson, C. J.

C. J. Bartleson, "Changes in colour appearance with variations in chromatic adaptation," Color Res. Appl. 4, 119-137 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Billmeyer, F. W.

F. W. Billmeyer and F. X. D. O'Donnell, "Visual gloss scaling and multidimensional analysis of painted specimens," Color Res. Appl. 12, 315-326 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Byk-Gardner,

Byk-Gardner, Technical Note. See http://www.bykgardner.com (2004).

Chrisment, A.

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

Clarke, A. A.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferwerda, J. A.

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galanter, E. H.

S. S. Stevens and E. H. Galanter, "Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua," J. Exp. Psychol. 54, 377-341 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, D. P.

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harold, R. W.

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1987).

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of papers--the effect of luminance factor," Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 92-97 (1951).
[CrossRef]

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of high gloss papers," Pap. Res. 7, 128-136 (1954).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1987).

Hutchings, J. B.

J. B. Hutchings, Food Color and Appearance, 2nd ed. (Aspen, 1999).

Knoblauch, K.

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).

Leroux, T.

G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nadal, M. E.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "New Primary standards for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 72, 61-66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Obein, G.

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).

O'Donnell, F. X. D.

F. W. Billmeyer and F. X. D. O'Donnell, "Visual gloss scaling and multidimensional analysis of painted specimens," Color Res. Appl. 12, 315-326 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pellacini, F.

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfund, A. H.

Poulter, S. R. C.

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of papers--the effect of luminance factor," Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 92-97 (1951).
[CrossRef]

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of high gloss papers," Pap. Res. 7, 128-136 (1954).

Rhodes, P. A.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scrivener, S. A. R.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sève, R.

R. Sève, "Problems associated with the concept of gloss," Color Res. Appl. 18, 241-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, S. S.

S. S. Stevens and E. H. Galanter, "Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua," J. Exp. Psychol. 54, 377-341 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153-181 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, "A physically-based reflection model for glossy appearance," in Proceedings of Tenth IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), pp. 172-177.

Tait, C. J.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, E. A.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "New Primary standards for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 72, 61-66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vienot, F.

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).

Ward, G. J.

G. J. Ward, "Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection," in ACM Comput. Graphics 26(2), 265-272 (1992) [Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '92, Chicago, Illinois, July 26-31, 1992 (www.SIGGRAPH.org)].

Br. J. Appl. Phys.

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of papers--the effect of luminance factor," Br. J. Appl. Phys. 2, 92-97 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl.

C. J. Bartleson, "Changes in colour appearance with variations in chromatic adaptation," Color Res. Appl. 4, 119-137 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, "Quantifying colour appearance. Part 1. LUTCHI color appearance data," Color Res. Appl. 16, 165-180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Billmeyer and F. X. D. O'Donnell, "Visual gloss scaling and multidimensional analysis of painted specimens," Color Res. Appl. 12, 315-326 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Sève, "Problems associated with the concept of gloss," Color Res. Appl. 18, 241-252 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Coat. Technol.

M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "New Primary standards for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 72, 61-66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol.

S. S. Stevens and E. H. Galanter, "Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua," J. Exp. Psychol. 54, 377-341 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Perception

G. Obein, K. Knoblauch, A. Chrisment, and F. Vienot, "Perceptual scaling of the gloss of a one-dimensional series of painted black samples," Perception 31, 65 (2002).

Proc. SPIE

J. A. Ferwerda, F. Pellacini, and D. P. Greenberg, "A psychophysically-based model of surface gloss perception," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 291-301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Obein, T. Leroux, and F. Vienot, "Bi-directional reflectance distribution factor and gloss scales," in Proc. SPIE 4299, 279-290 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Rev.

S. S. Stevens, "On the psychophysical law," Psychol. Rev. 64, 153-181 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

See GretagMacbeth website: http://www.gretagmacbeth.com (2004).

See www.sheeninstruments.com (2004).

J. B. Hutchings, Food Color and Appearance, 2nd ed. (Aspen, 1999).

G. J. Ward, "Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection," in ACM Comput. Graphics 26(2), 265-272 (1992) [Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '92, Chicago, Illinois, July 26-31, 1992 (www.SIGGRAPH.org)].

Y. Sun, "A physically-based reflection model for glossy appearance," in Proceedings of Tenth IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science, Systems and Applications (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2002), pp. 172-177.

G. Obein, T. Leroux, K. Knoblauch, and F. Vienot, "Visually relevant gloss parameters," in Proceedings of the 11th International Metrology Conference, Toulon, France, October 20-24, 2003 (www.cfmetrologie.com).

ASTM D523, "Standard test method for specular gloss," (American Society for Testing and Materials, Gaithersburg, Md., 1999).

Byk-Gardner, Technical Note. See http://www.bykgardner.com (2004).

V. G. W. Harrison and S. R. C. Poulter, "Gloss measurement of high gloss papers," Pap. Res. 7, 128-136 (1954).

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1987).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurements of a series of samples, at three angles of illumination, as a function of the rank order of a visual assessment of their gloss.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Visual scales measured by one observer as a function of normalized specular gloss measured using 60° (solid curve) and 20° (dashed curve) geometry. From Obein et al.[15]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Visual scales measured by one observer as a function of ranked sample number of the series. From Obein et al.[15]

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distribution of the 84 samples in (a) a CIELAB a * b * plane and (b) a CIELAB L * C * plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Physical size of each sample after it was mounted on a card (the background of the image was a checked board).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometric arrangements for the scaling experiment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Original observer-scaled gloss data and (b) the scaled gloss data for each of the 20 observers plotted against the geometric mean of those 20 sets of data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average scaled gloss value, for all 84 samples, in rank order of gloss values of all the samples. The error bars represent the associated value of ± 1 standard deviation for each sample. The values of the standard deviation are also plotted at the bottom of the graph as a function of the rank order of gloss value.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Parameter, Δ Y , derived from measurements made using a spectrophotometer, as a function of measurements made using a conventional glossmeter with 60° geometry. Solid curve: three-part, linear, least-squares fit. Dashed curve: cubic fit. Crosses and heavy dots represent color and neutral samples, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Visual scale data as a function of measurements made using a conventional glossmeter with 60° geometry. Solid line: linear, least-squares fit. Dashed curve: cubic fit. (Dotted–dashed line is 45° line).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized visual scale data as a function of normalized measurements made using a conventional glossmeter with 60° geometry. Solid curve: three-part, linear, least-squares fit. Dashed curve: cubic fit. (Dotted–dashed line is 45° line). Crosses and heavy dots represent color and neutral samples, respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normalized visual scale data as a function of a parameter derived from measurements made using a spectrophotometer. Solid line: linear, least-squares fit. Dashed curve: cubic fit.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measurements of a series of samples, at three angles of illumination, as a function of the rank order of a visual assessment of their gloss. Similar to Fig. 1 but based on the method described in the paper.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Subsets of the Set of 84 Test Samples

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Table 2 Coefficients of Scaling Factor, a, and Intercept, b, for Each of the 20 Observers

Tables Icon

Table 3 Values of the Coefficients of Determination, r 2 , and Variation, CV, for the Seven Observers Who Repeated the Scaling of the 84 Samples a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Values of the Coefficients of Determination, r 2 , and Variation, CV, for the 20 Data Sets Compared with the Geometric Mean Data Set a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Sample Uniformity for the 84 Samples Expressed in Terms of the Coefficient of Variation

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Table 6 Sample Stability in Terms of the Correlation Coefficient, r, and the Coefficient of Variation, CV a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Statistics of Least-Squares Lines Relating the Measurements Made Using a Glossmeter and a Spectrophotometer a

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Table 8 Statistics of Least-Squares Lines Relating the Normalized Visual Data to the Measurements Made Using a Glossmeter, Considering All 84 Samples, and Comparison Statistics for the Data of Obein et al.[15]

Tables Icon

Table 9 Statistics of Least-Squares Lines Relating the Visual Data to the Measurements Made Using a Spectrophotometer a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

log 10 S ¯ i = a log 10 S i + b ,
S i = 10 log 10 S ¯ i b a ,
CV = 100 y ¯ ( x i y i ) 2 n ,

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