The energy conservation of grating diffraction is analyzed in a particular condition of incidence in which two incident waves reach a symmetrical grating from the two sides of the grating normal at the first-order Littrow mounting. In such a situation the incident waves generate an interference pattern with the same period as the grating. Thus in each direction of diffraction, interference occurs between two consecutive diffractive orders of the symmetrical incident waves. By applying only energy conservation and the geometrical symmetry of the grating profile to this problem it is possible to establish a general constraint for the phases and amplitudes of the diffracted orders of the same incident wave. Experimental and theoretical results are presented confirming the obtained relations.
© 2006 Optical Society of America
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