Abstract

We present a method and devices for highly resolved carrier and information extraction of optically modulated radar signals. The extraction is done by passing the optical beam through a monitoring path that constitutes a finite impulse response filter. Replications of the monitoring signal realize the required spectral scan of the filter. Despite the fact that the filter configuration is fixed, each replication experiences different spectral filtering. The radar carrier is detected by observing the energy fluctuations in a low-rate output detector. The RF information is extracted by positioning a low-rate tunable filter at the detected carrier frequency.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. A. Minasian, D. B. Hunter, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals using fiber Bragg gratings,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) pp. 339 –340.
  4. D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic tunable microwave transversal filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 191–193 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. S. Alberts, J. J. Garstka, F. P. Stein, “Network centric warefare: developing and leveraging information superiority,” Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) Publication Series, ISBN 1-57906-019-6, 1999.
  9. T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Zalevsky, D. Mendlovic, E. Marom, N. Cohen, E. Goldenberg, N. Konforti, A. Shemer, G. Shabtay, U. Levy, R. Appelman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” J. Opt. Netw. 1, 170–183 (2002).

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic tunable microwave transversal filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 191–193 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Alberts, D. S.

D. S. Alberts, J. J. Garstka, F. P. Stein, “Network centric warefare: developing and leveraging information superiority,” Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) Publication Series, ISBN 1-57906-019-6, 1999.

Appelman, R.

Brock, J. C.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Campany, J.

J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cohen, N.

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davis, R.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Esman, R. D.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic tunable microwave transversal filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 191–193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Espiau, F. M.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fetterman, H. R.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic tunable microwave transversal filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 191–193 (1995).
[Crossref]

Garstka, J. J.

D. S. Alberts, J. J. Garstka, F. P. Stein, “Network centric warefare: developing and leveraging information superiority,” Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) Publication Series, ISBN 1-57906-019-6, 1999.

Goldenberg, E.

Haus, H. A.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hunter, D. B.

R. A. Minasian, D. B. Hunter, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals using fiber Bragg gratings,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) pp. 339 –340.

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johns, S.

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jung, T.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Keefer, C.

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kelly, J. R.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Konforti, N.

Lembo, L. J.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Levy, U.

Lodenkamper, R.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marom, E.

Mather, A.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mendlovic, D.

Minasian, R. A.

R. A. Minasian, D. B. Hunter, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals using fiber Bragg gratings,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) pp. 339 –340.

Murthy, S.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Norton, D.

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ortega, B.

J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pastor, D.

J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Scott, D. C.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shabtay, G.

Shemer, A.

Shen, J. L.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Simonis, G. J.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stein, F. P.

D. S. Alberts, J. J. Garstka, F. P. Stein, “Network centric warefare: developing and leveraging information superiority,” Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) Publication Series, ISBN 1-57906-019-6, 1999.

Tanbun-Ek, T.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R.

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tong, D. T. K.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Trinh, P. D.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zalevsky, Z.

IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. (1)

H. R. Fetterman, Y. Chang, D. C. Scott, S. R. Forrest, F. M. Espiau, M. Wu, D. V. Plant, J. R. Kelly, A. Mather, W. H. Steier, R. M. Osgood, H. A. Haus, G. J. Simonis, “Optically controlled phased array radar receiver using SLM switched real time delays,” IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 5, 414–416 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Xu, R. Taylor, S. R. Forrest, “True time-delay phased-array antenna feed system based on optical heterodyne techniques,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 160–162 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Norton, S. Johns, C. Keefer, R. Soref, “Tunable microwave filter using high dispersion fiber time delays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 831–832 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Fiber optic tunable microwave transversal filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 191–193 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, “Continuously tunable photonic radio-frequency notch filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 339–341 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

T. Jung, J. L. Shen, D. T. K. Tong, S. Murthy, M. C. Wu, T. Tanbun-Ek, W. Wang, R. Lodenkamper, R. Davis, L. J. Lembo, J. C. Brock, “CW injection locking of a mode-locked semiconductor laser as a local oscillator comb for channelizing broadband RF signals,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1225–1232 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Campany, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, “New and flexible fiber-optics delay line filters using chirped fiber Bragg gratings and laser arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1321–1326 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (2)

D. S. Alberts, J. J. Garstka, F. P. Stein, “Network centric warefare: developing and leveraging information superiority,” Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) Publication Series, ISBN 1-57906-019-6, 1999.

R. A. Minasian, D. B. Hunter, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals using fiber Bragg gratings,” Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) pp. 339 –340.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of the obtained FIR filter. The figure depicts the absolute value of the spectral response of a two-term FIR filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum of the signal and the noise for RF carrier of 15 GHz . (b) Obtained readout intensity at the detector as function of the delay (controlled by the 1 × 4 switch). (c) Same as (a) but for carrier of 8 GHz . (d) Same type of readout as (b) but for carrier as in (c). (e) Same as (a) but for carrier of 3 GHz . (f) Same type of readout as (b) but for carrier as in (e).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic sketch of improved static system having high information efficiency throughput.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Constructed optical configuration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental results for optical filter generated over RF signal at the first replication: (a) First replication without modulation; (b) and (c) modulation at 34.682 MHz ; (d) lower optical path is disconnected.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Additional experimental results for optical filter generated over RF signal at the first replication: (a) first replication without modulation; (b) and (c) modulation frequency is below the spectral position of the filter; (d) modulation frequency is 34.682 MHz ; (e) modulation frequency is higher than the filter frequency.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental results for optical filter generated over RF signal at the second replication: (a) Signal without modulation; (b) modulation frequency is below the frequency of the optical filter; (c) modulation is at 20.682 MHz ; (d) modulation is at a frequency higher than the optical filter frequency.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experiments at high frequencies: (a) modulation frequency does not match the optical filter frequency, (b) modulation frequency of 800 MHz .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Detected replications with EDFA at the optical feedback loop: (a) replications without modulation, (b) replications with modulation at 414.2 MHz .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Modulation frequency is (a) below the optical notch, (b) at the optical notch, (c) above the optical notch.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ L = c Δ t = ( 3 × 10 8 ) ( 5 × 10 12 ) = 1.5 mm .
δ t = i = 1 K Δ i ( δ 1 , δ 2 , δ 3 , δ 4 ) ,
s T ( t ) = n = 0 N 1 a n s ( t n δ t ) .
S T ( μ ) = s T ( t ) exp ( 2 π i μ t ) d t = n = 0 N 1 a n s ( t n δ t ) exp ( 2 π i μ t ) d t = S ( μ ) F ( μ ) ,
S ( μ ) = s ( t ) exp ( 2 π i μ t ) d t ,
F ( μ ) = n = 0 N 1 a n exp ( 2 π i μ n δ t ) .
ν FIR = 1 2 δ t .

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