Abstract

Elliptically polarized light-scattering measurements were performed to investigate the dispersion behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Xylene- and pyridine-derived MWNT powders were dispersed in water and ethanol in separate optic cells and allowed to sit undisturbed over a two-week time period after probe sonication. Continuous light-scattering measurements taken between scattering angles of 10170deg and repeated over several days showed that the nanotubes formed fractal-like networks. The pyridine-derived MWNTs showed greater dispersion variation over time, tending to aggregate and clump much faster than the xylene-derived tubes. The water suspensions appeared much more stable than the ethanol suspensions, which transformed into nonfractal morphology after a few hours. We relate the dispersion stability to size and fringe patterns on the outer surface of the nanotubes. Measured values of fractal dimension were distinctly lower than those in previous studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Profiles of both diagonal and off-diagonal scattering matrix elements are presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature (London) 345, 56–58 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London, 1998).
  3. M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouridis, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. T. Lau, D. Hui, “The revolutionary creation of new advanced materials—carbon nanotube composites,” Composites, Part B 33, 263–277 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  14. M. P. Mengüc, S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. 36, 1569–1596 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Manickavasagam, M. P. Mengüc, “Scattering matrix elements of fractal-like soot agglomerates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1337–1351 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. T. Lau, D. Hui, “The revolutionary creation of new advanced materials—carbon nanotube composites,” Composites, Part B 33, 263–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. P. Mengüc, S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. 36, 1569–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1991

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature (London) 345, 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. P.

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, R.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arepalli, S.

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ausman, K. D.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Avouridis, P.

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouridis, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Blase, X.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boul, P.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boul, P. J.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, R. K.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buhle, M.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charlier, J. C.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charlier, J.-C.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. S.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, P.-W.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T. W.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colbert, D. T.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerw, R.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derbyshire, F.

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, E. C.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, G.

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London, 1998).

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouridis, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouridis, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London, 1998).

Eklund, P. C.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, L. M.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Files, B. S.

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foley, B.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giannaris, C.

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grobert, N.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haddon, R. C.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafiner, J. H.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamon, M. A.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroz, E.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, C.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, C. B.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hui, D.

K. T. Lau, D. Hui, “The revolutionary creation of new advanced materials—carbon nanotube composites,” Composites, Part B 33, 263–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, S.

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature (London) 345, 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iverson, T.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, D.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamalakaran, R.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kichambare, P.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuper, C.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. T.

K. T. Lau, D. Hui, “The revolutionary creation of new advanced materials—carbon nanotube composites,” Composites, Part B 33, 263–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-S.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. R.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, G.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, A.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manickavasagam, S.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Mengüc, S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. 36, 1569–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Manickavasagam, M. P. Mengüc, “Scattering matrix elements of fractal-like soot agglomerates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1337–1351 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mengüc, M. P.

M. P. Mengüc, S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. 36, 1569–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Manickavasagam, M. P. Mengüc, “Scattering matrix elements of fractal-like soot agglomerates,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1337–1351 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Connell, M. J.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-W.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qian, D.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Reyes, M.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rinzler, A. G.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigez-Macia, F.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, S.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, A.

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, R.

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London, 1998).

Saltiel, C.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadler, L. S.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, D. W.

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shelimov, K.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shon, Y. S.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R. W.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalley, E. R.

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalley, R. E.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tekleab, D.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terrones, H.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terrones, M.

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thostenson, E. T.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D. W.

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tour, J.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. H.

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, M. F.

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany)

P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube–polymer composites: strength and weaknesses,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Germany) 12, 750–753 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Andrews, D. Jacques, A. M. Rao, F. Derbyshire, D. Qian, X. Fan, E. C. Dickey, J. Chen, “Continuous production of aligned carbon nanotubes: a step closer to commercial realization,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 303, 467–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Schaefer, J. Zhao, J. M. Brown, D. P. Anderson, D. W. Tomlin, “Morphology of dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 375, 369–375 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O’Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. H. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, R. E. Smalley, “Reversible water-solubilization of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer wrapping,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 265–271 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol.

E. T. Thostenson, Z. Ren, T. W. Chou, “Advances in the science and technology of carbon nanotubes and their composites: a review,” Compos. Sci. Technol. 61, 1899–1912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Composites, Part B

K. T. Lau, D. Hui, “The revolutionary creation of new advanced materials—carbon nanotube composites,” Composites, Part B 33, 263–277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Eng. Sci.

M. P. Mengüc, S. Manickavasagam, “Characterization of size and structure of agglomerates and inhomogeneous particles via polarized light,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. 36, 1569–1596 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

Q. Chen, C. Saltiel, S. Manickavasagam, L. S. Schadler, R. W. Siegel, H. Yang, “Aggregation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes in dilute aqueous suspension,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280, 91–97 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.

D. Qian, R. Andrews, D. Jacques, P. Kichambare, G. Lian, E. C. Dickey, “Low-temperature synthesis of large-area CNx, nanotube arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 93–97 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

R. Czerw, M. Terrones, J. C. Charlier, X. Blase, B. Foley, R. Kamalakaran, N. Grobert, H. Terrones, D. Tekleab, P. M. Ajayan, W. Blau, M. Buhle, D. L. Carroll, “Identification of electron donor states in N-doped carbon nanotubes,” Nano Lett. 1, 457–460 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Choi, D.-S. Lee, R. Czerw, P.-W. Chiu, N. Grobert, M. Terrones, M. Reyes-Reyes, H. Terrones, J.-C. Charlier, P. M. Ajayan, S. Roth, D. L. Carroll, Y.-W. Park, “Nonlinear behavior in the thermopower of doped carbon nanotubes due to strong, localized states,” Nano Lett. 3, 839–842 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature (London) 345, 56–58 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. F. Yu, B. S. Files, S. Arepalli, R. S. Ruoff, “Tensile loading of ropes of single wall carbon nanotubes and their mechanical properties,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5552–5555 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. S. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, R. C. Haddon, “Solution properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science 282, 95–98 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, A. G. Rinzler, H. Dai, J. H. Hafiner, R. K. Bradley, P. J. Boul, A. Lu, T. Iverson, K. Shelimov, C. B. Huffman, F. Rodrigez-Macia, Y. S. Shon, T. R. Lee, D. T. Colbert, E. R. Smalley, “Fullerene pipes,” Science 280, 1253–1256 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Saito, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes (Imperial College Press, London, 1998).

M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. Avouridis, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the light-scattering apparatus. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of as-prepared MWNTs: SEM cross sections (top), TEM (middle), and HRTEM (bottom). SEM shows nanotube mat thickness of (a) CS, 100 μ m ; (b) CL, 60 μ m ; and (c) NC, 35 μ m . TEM shows average tube outer diameter (100 tubes measured) of (a) CS, 35 nm ; (b) CL, 70 nm ; and (c) NC, 35 nm . HRTEM shows (a) CS, concentric fringes on tube wall; (b) CL, concentric fringes on tube wall; and (c) NC, herringbonelike fringes on tube wall.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of suspended MWNTs in water solution after standing for two weeks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM pictures of MWNTs after dispersion in water (the SEM sample preparation process consisted of placing some drops of suspensions on a SEM holder).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractal plots of MWNT suspensions at various times after sonication.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagonal scattering matrix elements’ profiles of MWNTs dispersed in water after 1 h .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Off-diagonal scattering matrix elements’ profiles of MWNTs dispersed in water after 1 h .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of MWNTs dispersed in ethanol after standing for two weeks.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fractal plots of MWNTs dispersed in ethanol.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of MWNT Powders

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

K = [ I Q U V ] T ,
{ K s } = [ S ( θ ) ] { K i } ,
[ S ( θ ) ] = 1 ( k r ) 2 [ S 11 S 12 S 13 S 14 S 21 S 22 S 23 S 24 S 31 S 32 S 33 S 34 S 41 S 42 S 43 S 44 ] .
[ S ( θ ) ] = 1 ( k r ) 2 [ S 11 S 12 0 0 S 12 S 22 0 0 0 0 S 33 S 34 0 0 S 34 S 44 ] .
S 11 ( q ) S 12 ( q ) q f D ,

Metrics