Abstract

Wavefront-guided laser eye surgery has been recently introduced and holds the promise of correcting not only defocus and astigmatism in patients but also higher-order aberrations. Research is just beginning on the implementation of wavefront-guided methods in optical solutions, such as phase-plate-based spectacles, as alternatives to surgery. We investigate the theoretical differences between the implementation of wavefront-guided surgical and phase plate corrections. The residual aberrations of 43 model eyes are calculated after simulated refractive surgery and also after a phase plate is placed in front of the untreated eye. In each case, the current wavefront-guided paradigm that applies a direct map of the ocular aberrations to the correction zone is used. The simulation results demonstrate that an ablation map that is a Zernike fit of a direct transform of the ocular wavefront phase error is not as efficient in correcting refractive errors of sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and coma as when the same Zernike coefficients are applied to a phase plate, with statistically significant improvements from 2% to 6%.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (11)

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

M. Menon, G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, “Measuring higher order aberrations of customized contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2847 (2004).

H. H. Dietze, M. J. Cox, “Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 473–485 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Monteverde, “Spatial light modulators illuminate a wide variety of application spaces,” Laser Focus World 40, 12–13 (2004).

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4, 262–271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (5)

E. Sarver, D. Sanders, J. Vukich, “Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic introcular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 397–404 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Smolek, S. D. Klyce, “Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Drum, “Aberration analyses needed for FDA evaluation of safety and effectiveness of wavefront-guided refractive surgical devices,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S588–S591 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (12)

N. A. Alpins, “Wavefront technology: a new advance that fails to answer old questions on corneal vs. refractive astigmatism correction—corneal astigmatism measured by keratometry should be included as a component of ‘wavefront-guided’ excimer laser corneal surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 737–740 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Vongthongsri, N. Phusitphoykai, P. Naripthapan, “Comparison of wavefront-guided customized ablation vs. conventional ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S332–S335 (2002).
[PubMed]

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Roberts, “Biomechanics of the cornea and wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S589–S592 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, S. Bara, “Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 400–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, “Standards for reporting the optical aberations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S661 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (8)

J. B. Doshi, E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Schematic eye models for simulation of patient visual performance,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, 414–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201–207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. MacRae, D. Williams, “Wavefront guided ablation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 915–919 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. MacRae, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Wavefront aberrations of the eye following a conventional LASIK procedure,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S266 (2001).

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 236–238 (2000).

H. Hamam, “A quick method for analyzing Hartmann–Shack patterns: application to refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S636 (2000).
[PubMed]

H. Howland, “The history and methods of ophthalmic wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S552–S553 (2000).
[PubMed]

E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Modeling and predicting visual outcomes with VOL-3D,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S611–S616 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. Thibos, D. T. Miller, “Electronic spectacles for the 21st century,” Indiana J. Optom. 2, 6–10 (1999).

1998 (4)

S. Klein, “Optimal corneal ablation for eyes with arbitrary Hartmann–Shack aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2580–2588 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

D. Priest, R. Munger, “A comparative study of the elevation topography of complex shapes,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 741–750 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1994 (1)

Abdel-Sadek, G.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Agapitos, P.

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agapitos, P. J.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, D.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alpins, N. A.

N. A. Alpins, “Wavefront technology: a new advance that fails to answer old questions on corneal vs. refractive astigmatism correction—corneal astigmatism measured by keratometry should be included as a component of ‘wavefront-guided’ excimer laser corneal surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 737–740 (2002).
[PubMed]

Amano, S.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anwaruddin, R.

J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Applegate, R.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, “Standards for reporting the optical aberations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S661 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. B. Doshi, E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Schematic eye models for simulation of patient visual performance,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, 414–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Modeling and predicting visual outcomes with VOL-3D,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S611–S616 (2000).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

Bara, S.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, S. Bara, “Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 400–402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 236–238 (2000).

Barbero, S.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Barkhof, J.

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

Bille, J.

Binder, P.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Brennan, N. A.

Burns, S. A.

Cano, D.

Casson, E.

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chalita, M. R.

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

Choi, R.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chomyn, J.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Coorpender, S.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cottingham, A.

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cox, I.

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, I. G.

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

S. M. MacRae, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Wavefront aberrations of the eye following a conventional LASIK procedure,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S266 (2001).

Cox, M. J.

Culbertson, W.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Culbertson, W. W.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Luise, V. P.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dietze, H. H.

Donitzky, C.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doshi, J. B.

J. B. Doshi, E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Schematic eye models for simulation of patient visual performance,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, 414–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

Dreher, A.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Drum, B. A.

B. A. Drum, “Aberration analyses needed for FDA evaluation of safety and effectiveness of wavefront-guided refractive surgical devices,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S588–S591 (2003).
[PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Endl, M.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fedoriouk, V.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Forster, W.

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fujikado, T.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Globerson, P.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Hamam, H.

H. Hamam, “A quick method for analyzing Hartmann–Shack patterns: application to refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S636 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hirohara, Y.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, A.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, W.

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holladay, J.

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hong, J.-W.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howland, H.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Howland, “The history and methods of ophthalmic wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S552–S553 (2000).
[PubMed]

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Howland, H. C.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4, 262–271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W.

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, T.

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

Jeong, T. M.

M. Menon, G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, “Measuring higher order aberrations of customized contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2847 (2004).

Jethmalani, J.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Kaemmerer, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201–207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelemen, E.

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kelly, J. E.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4, 262–271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S.

Klyce, S.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klyce, S. D.

M. K. Smolek, S. D. Klyce, “Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D. D.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, M.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koranyi, G.

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kovacs, A.

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

Krueger, R. R.

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

Kymionis, G.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, S.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Lee, J.

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-S.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemperle, J.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Liang, J.

Liou, H. L.

Llorente, L.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Lloves, J. M.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Loffler, J.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacRae, S.

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. MacRae, D. Williams, “Wavefront guided ablation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 915–919 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRae, S. M.

S. M. MacRae, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Wavefront aberrations of the eye following a conventional LASIK procedure,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S266 (2001).

Maeda, N.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mancebo, T.

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 236–238 (2000).

Manns, F.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, L. E.

D. Priest, L. E. Marchese, R. Munger, “The efficacy of wavefront guided ablations on customized eye models,” presented at the Fifth International Wavefront Sensing and Optimized Refractive Corrections, Whistler, Canada, 2004.

Marcos, S.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
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S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, S. Bara, “Contrast improvement of confocal retinal imaging by use of phase-correcting plates,” Opt. Lett. 27, 400–402 (2002).
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E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Martinez, C.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, M.

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menon, M.

M. Menon, G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, “Measuring higher order aberrations of customized contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2847 (2004).

Merayo, J.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mihashi, T.

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4, 262–271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
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Miller, D. T.

L. Thibos, D. T. Miller, “Electronic spectacles for the 21st century,” Indiana J. Optom. 2, 6–10 (1999).

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J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
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Mintsioulis, G.

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, K.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, R. R.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
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R. Monteverde, “Spatial light modulators illuminate a wide variety of application spaces,” Laser Focus World 40, 12–13 (2004).

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E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 236–238 (2000).

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201–207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munger, R.

D. Priest, R. Munger, “A comparative study of the elevation topography of complex shapes,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 741–750 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Priest, L. E. Marchese, R. Munger, “The efficacy of wavefront guided ablations on customized eye models,” presented at the Fifth International Wavefront Sensing and Optimized Refractive Corrections, Whistler, Canada, 2004.

Nagy, Z.

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
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Naripthapan, P.

A. Vongthongsri, N. Phusitphoykai, P. Naripthapan, “Comparison of wavefront-guided customized ablation vs. conventional ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S332–S335 (2002).
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Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

R. Navarro, E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Bara, T. Mancebo, “Phase plates for wave-aberration compensation in the human eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 236–238 (2000).

Netto, M. V.

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

Norrby, N.

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

Ohno, K.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oshika, T.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palagyi-Deak, I.

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pallikaris, A.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pallikaris, I.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panagopoulou, S.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parel, J.-M.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phusitphoykai, N.

A. Vongthongsri, N. Phusitphoykai, P. Naripthapan, “Comparison of wavefront-guided customized ablation vs. conventional ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S332–S335 (2002).
[PubMed]

Piers, P.

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

Porter, J.

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priest, D.

D. Priest, R. Munger, “A comparative study of the elevation topography of complex shapes,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 741–750 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Priest, L. E. Marchese, R. Munger, “The efficacy of wavefront guided ablations on customized eye models,” presented at the Fifth International Wavefront Sensing and Optimized Refractive Corrections, Whistler, Canada, 2004.

Qi, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Qi, M. Miller, “Vision through a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” in Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G. Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999).

Rapuano, C. J.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C.

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roberts, “Biomechanics of the cornea and wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S589–S592 (2002).
[PubMed]

Samejima, T.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, D.

E. Sarver, D. Sanders, J. Vukich, “Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic introcular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 397–404 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sarver, E.

E. Sarver, D. Sanders, J. Vukich, “Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic introcular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 397–404 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sarver, E. J.

J. B. Doshi, E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Schematic eye models for simulation of patient visual performance,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, 414–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Modeling and predicting visual outcomes with VOL-3D,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S611–S616 (2000).
[PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, “Standards for reporting the optical aberations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S661 (2002).
[PubMed]

Seiler, T.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201–207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seo, K.

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seong, G.

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R.

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siganos, C.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smolek, M. K.

M. K. Smolek, S. D. Klyce, “Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Straub, J.

J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sugar, A.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sverdrup, L.

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

Tanaka, S.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Theodorakis, M.

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L.

L. Thibos, D. T. Miller, “Electronic spectacles for the 21st century,” Indiana J. Optom. 2, 6–10 (1999).

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, “Standards for reporting the optical aberations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S661 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Qi, M. Miller, “Vision through a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” in Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G. Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999).

Tokunaga, T.

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uozato, H.

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Mooren, M.

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

Varley, G. A.

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vongthongsri, A.

A. Vongthongsri, N. Phusitphoykai, P. Naripthapan, “Comparison of wavefront-guided customized ablation vs. conventional ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S332–S335 (2002).
[PubMed]

Vukich, J.

E. Sarver, D. Sanders, J. Vukich, “Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic introcular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 397–404 (2003).
[PubMed]

Williams, D.

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. MacRae, D. Williams, “Wavefront guided ablation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 915–919 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. Williams, D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

S. M. MacRae, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Wavefront aberrations of the eye following a conventional LASIK procedure,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S266 (2001).

Wilson, S. E.

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wullner, C.

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

Yee, R.

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

Yoon, G.

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

M. Menon, G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, “Measuring higher order aberrations of customized contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2847 (2004).

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

S. MacRae, D. Williams, “Wavefront guided ablation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132, 915–919 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Porter, S. MacRae, G. Yoon, C. Roberts, I. Cox, D. Williams, “Separate effects of the microkeratome incision and laser ablation on the eye’s wave aberration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136, 327–337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

M. Endl, C. Martinez, S. Klyce, M. McDonald, S. Coorpender, R. Applegate, H. Howland, “Effect of larger ablation zone and transition zone on corneal optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1159–1164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Wilson, R. R. Mohan, J.-W. Hong, J.-S. Lee, R. Choi, R. R. Mohan, “The wound healing response after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy: elusive control of biological variability and effect on custom laser vision correction,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 889–897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Indiana J. Optom. (1)

L. Thibos, D. T. Miller, “Electronic spectacles for the 21st century,” Indiana J. Optom. 2, 6–10 (1999).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (7)

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

M. K. Smolek, S. D. Klyce, “Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Chalita, M. V. Netto, M. Xu, R. R. Krueger, “First year experience with wavefront-guided ablation for myopia and astigmatism correction,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 224 (2004).

J. Jethmalani, J. Chomyn, G. Abdel-Sadek, J. Lemperle, L. Sverdrup, V. Fedoriouk, P. Globerson, P. Binder, S. Lai, A. Dreher, “Wavefront guided spectacle lenses for emmetropes and myopes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2764 (2004).

T. Jeong, G. Yoon, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Vision improvement using customized optics in normal and abnormal eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 1078 (2004).

P. A. Piers, J. Barkhof, P. Artal, S. Norrby, “Lenticular spherical aberration in eyes implanted with IOLs is well predicted from ocular and corneal measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2191 (2004).

M. Menon, G. Yoon, T. M. Jeong, “Measuring higher order aberrations of customized contact lenses,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2847 (2004).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (7)

M. Mrochen, C. Donitzky, C. Wullner, J. Loffler, “Wavefront-optimized ablation profiles: theoretical background,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 775–785 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Manns, A. Ho, J.-M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, G. Seong, J. Lee, K. Seo, Y. Lee, E. Kim, “Comparison of laser epithelial keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy for low to moderate myopia,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 565–570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, T. Seiler, “Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201–207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Aizawa, K. Shimizu, M. Komatsu, M. Ito, M. Suzuki, K. Ohno, H. Uozato, “Clinical outcomes of wavefront- guided laser in situ keratomileusis: 6-month follow-up,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1507–1513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pallikaris, G. Kymionis, S. Panagopoulou, C. Siganos, M. Theodorakis, A. Pallikaris, “Induced optical aberrations following formation of a laser in situ keratomileusis flap,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1737-1741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Priest, R. Munger, “A comparative study of the elevation topography of complex shapes,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 741–750 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

J. Refract. Surg. (16)

J. Holladay, P. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, N. Norrby, “A new intraocular lens design to reduce spherical aberration of pseudophakic eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683–691 (2002).
[PubMed]

C. Roberts, “Biomechanics of the cornea and wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S589–S592 (2002).
[PubMed]

B. A. Drum, “Aberration analyses needed for FDA evaluation of safety and effectiveness of wavefront-guided refractive surgical devices,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, S588–S591 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Vongthongsri, N. Phusitphoykai, P. Naripthapan, “Comparison of wavefront-guided customized ablation vs. conventional ablation in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S332–S335 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Hamam, “A quick method for analyzing Hartmann–Shack patterns: application to refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S636 (2000).
[PubMed]

H. Howland, “The history and methods of ophthalmic wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S552–S553 (2000).
[PubMed]

N. A. Alpins, “Wavefront technology: a new advance that fails to answer old questions on corneal vs. refractive astigmatism correction—corneal astigmatism measured by keratometry should be included as a component of ‘wavefront-guided’ excimer laser corneal surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 737–740 (2002).
[PubMed]

Z. Nagy, I. Palagyi-Deak, A. Kovacs, E. Kelemen, W. Forster, “First results with wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S620–S623 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Applegate, H. Howland, R. Sharp, A. Cottingham, R. Yee, “Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397–407 (1998).
[PubMed]

S. M. MacRae, D. R. Williams, I. G. Cox, “Wavefront aberrations of the eye following a conventional LASIK procedure,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S266 (2001).

J. Miller, R. Anwaruddin, J. Straub, J. Schwiegerling, “Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S579–S583 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. B. Doshi, E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Schematic eye models for simulation of patient visual performance,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, 414–419 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. Sarver, D. Sanders, J. Vukich, “Image quality in myopic eyes corrected with laser in situ keratomileusis and phakic introcular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 397–404 (2003).
[PubMed]

E. J. Sarver, R. A. Applegate, “Modeling and predicting visual outcomes with VOL-3D,” J. Refract. Surg. 16, S611–S616 (2000).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, “Standards for reporting the optical aberations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652–S661 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, J. Merayo, S. Marcos, “Total and corneal optical aberrations induced by laser in situ keratomileusis for hyperopia,” J. Refract. Surg. 20, 203–216 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Vis. (1)

J. E. Kelly, T. Mihashi, H. C. Howland, “Compensation of corneal horizontal/vertical astigmatism, lateral coma, and spherical aberration by internal optics of the eye,” J. Vis. 4, 262–271 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Focus World (1)

R. Monteverde, “Spatial light modulators illuminate a wide variety of application spaces,” Laser Focus World 40, 12–13 (2004).

Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) (3)

T. Oshika, K. Miyata, T. Tokunaga, T. Samejima, S. Amano, S. Tanaka, Y. Hirohara, T. Mihashi, N. Maeda, T. Fujikado, “Higher order wavefront aberrations of cornea and magnitude of refractive correction in laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 1154–1158 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Jackson, E. Casson, W. Hodge, G. Mintsioulis, P. Agapitos, “Laser vision correction for low hyperopia. An 18-month assessment of safety and efficacy,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 105, 1727–1738 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugar, C. J. Rapuano, W. W. Culbertson, D. Huang, G. A. Varley, P. J. Agapitos, V. P. de Luise, D. D. Koch, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia and astigmatism: safety and efficacy: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology,” Ophthalmology (Philadelphia) 109, 175–187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

L. N. Thibos, X. Qi, M. Miller, “Vision through a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” in Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, G. Love, ed. (World Scientific, 1999).

D. Priest, L. E. Marchese, R. Munger, “The efficacy of wavefront guided ablations on customized eye models,” presented at the Fifth International Wavefront Sensing and Optimized Refractive Corrections, Whistler, Canada, 2004.

ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX Optical Design Program User’s Guide (2004), pp. 227–228.

ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX Optical Design Program User’s Guide (2004), p. 89.

ZEMAX Development Corporation, ZEMAX Optical Design Program (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of preoperative and postoperative root-mean-squared HOA values following wavefront-guided LASEK treatments, where the dotted line is a guide to the eye and indicates no change in HOAs following treatment, and (b) the cumulative distribution of changes in HOAs following wavefront-guided LASEK, where a negative change in HOAs indicates a net improvement following surgery. Note that 71 consecutive eyes were treated with wavefront-guided refractive (LASEK) surgery between January and May 2004, at the University of Ottawa Eye Institute. Surgeries were performed by two surgeons using a VISX Star S4 laser with active eye tracking. Wavefront measurements were obtained by using the WaveScan running version 3.50 software (VISX).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Eye models created to simulate wavefront-guided refractive corrections. (a) The standard model using parameters based on the Liou–Brennan (L–B) average eye model and with aligned optics; (b) variation on the L–B model where the Q of the anterior cornea surface is changed; (c) variation on the L–B model where the crystalline lens is tilted along the y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residual aberrations as a function of the untreated value for (a) DS, (b) DC, (c) SA, and (d) coma. Solid shapes represent data after applying a corneal ablation, and open symbols represent data after a phase plate is applied. Solid diamonds in (a) represent the data postcornea reshape (material added in addition to ablated).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Residual SA as a function of untreated SA (solid circles) and defocus (open circles) for the model subset of eye length variation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparisons of residual values for (a) DS, (b) DC, (c) SA, and (d) coma between 12 real eyes after wavefront-guided ablations, 12 model eyes after simulated wavefront-guided ablations using the current paradigm, and 12 modeled eyes after simulated phase plate (PP) corrections using the same paradigm. The untreated aberrations of each model eye matched those of the real data to within 1% error.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Residual (a) DS and (b) coma as a function of the untreated value. The aberrations were created by displacement of the crystalline lens. The symbols represent the following types of wavefront correction: planar, a planar phase plate correction; conic, a phase plate with a conic shape equal to the anterior cornea; and ablation, the current paradigm of laser eye surgery.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output (a) defocus and (b) SA for two three-surface model systems. In the first system, the second surface is a phase plate, and, in the second system, the second surface is an optical medium, whose shape may be changed.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Reference Eye Model Parameters from the Liou–Brennan Average Eye Model

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Table 2 Eye Model Variations and Preoperative Aberration Values

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Table 3 Estimated Slopes for Efficacy Curves

Equations (8)

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z = x 2 R x + y 2 R y 1 + [ 1 ( 1 + Q x ) x 2 R x 2 ( 1 + Q y ) y 2 R y 2 ] 1 2 ,
W ep ( x , y ) = n = 0 6 m = n + 2 n C n m Z n m ( x , y ) ,
DS = 4 3 C 2 0 r 2 ,
DC = 4 6 C 2 2 r 2 ,
W ̃ ac ( x , y ) = n = 0 6 m = n + 2 n G ̃ n m Z n m ( x , y ) .
G n m = λ G ̃ n m ( n 1 ) ,
z t = z n = 0 6 m = n + 2 n G n m Z n m ( x , y ) ,
F = r 2 n 4 3 λ G 2 0 ,

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