The diffraction characteristics of a volume grating (VG) illuminated by a three-dimensional (3-D) converging–diverging Gaussian beam at conical incidence are investigated by applying 3-D finite-beam (FB) rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) based on the conventional 3-D RCWA in conjunction with two-dimensional plane-wave decomposition. The Gaussian beam is assumed to have an arbitrary incidence angle, an arbitrary azimuthal angle, and any linear polarization. The two cases with linear polarizations of the central beam of the Gaussian ( and ) are investigated. The diffraction efficiencies and the diffracted beam profiles for both unslanted VGs and slanted VGs (designed for substrate-mode optical interconnects) are presented. In general, the diffraction efficiencies of a converging–diverging spherical Gaussian beam diffracted by both unslanted VGs and slanted VGs increase and approach the central-beam results as the refractive-index modulation increases.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
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