Abstract

It is fairly well established that the higher-order aberrations of the eye fluctuate over relatively short time periods, but as yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the origin of these fluctuations. We measured the aberrations and the pulse pressure wave simultaneously for five subjects. The aberrations were measured by using a Shack–Hartmann sensor sampling at 21.2Hz. We decomposed the aberration data into Zernike coefficients up to and including fifth order and also calculated the rms wave-front error. From the pulse data the heart rate variability signal was also derived. Coherence function analysis showed that for all subjects there was a weak correlation between many of the aberrations and the pulse and the derived heart rate variability. The pulse and the heart rate variability can account for only 11%±2% and 20%±2%, respectively, of the aberration dynamics.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragón, D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, C. Dainty, “Benefit of higher closed-loop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 11, 2597–2605 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Nirmaier, G. Pudasaini, J. Bille, “Very fast wave-front measurements at the human eye with a custom CMOS-based Hartmann–Shack sensor,” Opt. Express 11, 2704–2716 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. Suzuki, “Corneal pulsation and corneal pulse waves,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 190–194 (1962).
  6. B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Winn, B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 12, 252–256 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).
  11. A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).
  12. K. M. Daum, G. A. Fry, “Pupillary micro movements apparently related to pulse frequency,” Vision Res. 22, 173–177 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).
  14. D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Malik, A. J. Camm, Heart Rate Variability (Futura, New York, 1995).
  16. K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Kobayashi, T. Musha, “1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 456–457 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8, 631–643 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).
  20. J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures (Wiley, New York, 2000).
  21. P. D. Welch, “The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-15, 70–73 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Y. Wang, M. X. Tang, “Exact confidence interval for magnitude-squared coherence estimates,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 326–329 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. G. Doane, “Interaction of eyelids and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eyeblink,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 507–516 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  25. A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Miege, P. Denieul, “Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 165–171 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).
  28. L. R. Stark, D. A. Atchison, “Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 316–323 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Y. Wang, M. X. Tang, “Exact confidence interval for magnitude-squared coherence estimates,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 326–329 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

2001 (2)

1997 (1)

L. R. Stark, D. A. Atchison, “Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 316–323 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).

1992 (1)

B. Winn, B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 12, 252–256 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).

1990 (1)

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).

1988 (2)

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Miege, P. Denieul, “Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 165–171 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

M. Kobayashi, T. Musha, “1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 456–457 (1982).
[Crossref]

K. M. Daum, G. A. Fry, “Pupillary micro movements apparently related to pulse frequency,” Vision Res. 22, 173–177 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. G. Doane, “Interaction of eyelids and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eyeblink,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 507–516 (1980).
[PubMed]

1967 (1)

P. D. Welch, “The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-15, 70–73 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

I. Suzuki, “Corneal pulsation and corneal pulse waves,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 190–194 (1962).

1959 (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

Aragón, J. L.

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
[Crossref]

Artal, P.

Asakura, K.

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

L. R. Stark, D. A. Atchison, “Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 316–323 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bendat, J. S.

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Bescós, J.

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bille, J.

Camm, A. J.

M. Malik, A. J. Camm, Heart Rate Variability (Futura, New York, 1995).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).

Chen, L.

Cohn, T.

B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).

Collins, M.

M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Daum, K. M.

K. M. Daum, G. A. Fry, “Pupillary micro movements apparently related to pulse frequency,” Vision Res. 22, 173–177 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, B.

M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denieul, P.

C. Miege, P. Denieul, “Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 165–171 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diaz-Santana, L.

Doane, M. G.

M. G. Doane, “Interaction of eyelids and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eyeblink,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 507–516 (1980).
[PubMed]

Eadie, A. S.

A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fry, G. A.

K. M. Daum, G. A. Fry, “Pupillary micro movements apparently related to pulse frequency,” Vision Res. 22, 173–177 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gasson, P.

Gilmartin, B.

B. Winn, B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 12, 252–256 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gros, B.

B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).

Heron, G.

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofer, H.

Iwata, K.

K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).

James, C. B.

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, H.

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, T. Musha, “1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 456–457 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kosugi, Y.

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lexer, F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Malik, M.

M. Malik, A. J. Camm, Heart Rate Variability (Futura, New York, 1995).

Matsumoto, G.

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

Miege, C.

C. Miege, P. Denieul, “Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 165–171 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

Musha, T.

M. Kobayashi, T. Musha, “1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 456–457 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, T.

K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).

Nanba, K.

K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).

Nirmaier, T.

Ohtsuka, K.

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owens, H.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piersol, A. G.

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Pope, D.

B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).

Pudasaini, G.

Pugh, J. R.

A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).

Santamaría, J.

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sattmann, H.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sawa, M.

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L. F.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

Singer, B.

Smith, S. E.

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stark, L. R.

L. R. Stark, D. A. Atchison, “Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 316–323 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Susuki, M.

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sutton, R.

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, I.

I. Suzuki, “Corneal pulsation and corneal pulse waves,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 190–194 (1962).

Tang, M. X.

S. Y. Wang, M. X. Tang, “Exact confidence interval for magnitude-squared coherence estimates,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 326–329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

Thomas, S. H. L.

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Torti, C.

Trew, D. R.

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Unfried, C. J.

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. Y.

S. Y. Wang, M. X. Tang, “Exact confidence interval for magnitude-squared coherence estimates,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 326–329 (2004).
[Crossref]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

Welch, P. D.

P. D. Welch, “The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-15, 70–73 (1967).
[Crossref]

Westheimer, G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).

Williams, D. R.

Winn, B.

A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).

B. Winn, B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 12, 252–256 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, J.

M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G. Y.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. G. Doane, “Interaction of eyelids and tears in corneal wetting and the dynamics of the normal human eyeblink,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 89, 507–516 (1980).
[PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, H. Owens, “Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation,” Curr. Eye Res. 9, 971–975 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

K. Ohtsuka, K. Asakura, H. Kawasaki, M. Sawa, “Respiratory fluctuations of the human pupil,” Exp. Brain Res. 71, 215–217 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. R. Trew, C. B. James, S. H. L. Thomas, R. Sutton, S. E. Smith, “Factors influencing the ocular pulse—the heart rate,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 229, 553–556 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

S. Y. Wang, M. X. Tang, “Exact confidence interval for magnitude-squared coherence estimates,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11, 326–329 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. (1)

P. D. Welch, “The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms,” IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. AU-15, 70–73 (1967).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

T. Musha, Y. Kosugi, G. Matsumoto, M. Susuki, “Modulation of the time relation of action potential impulses propagating along an axon,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-28, 616–623 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Kobayashi, T. Musha, “1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-29, 456–457 (1982).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

B. Gros, D. Pope, T. Cohn, “Involuntary oculomotor events time-locked to the arterial pulse,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32(S4), 895 (1991).

A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, “The influence of arterial pulse on miniature eye movements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35(S4), 2037 (1994).

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

A. Arnulf, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, “A cinematographic method for the dynamic study of the image formation by the human eye. Microfluctuations of the accommodation,” J. Opt. (Paris)12, 123–128 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579–594 (1959).

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2002).

Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

I. Suzuki, “Corneal pulsation and corneal pulse waves,” Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 190–194 (1962).

Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi (1)

K. Nanba, T. Nakayama, K. Iwata, “Variation of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometry and cardiac pulse wave,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 93, 155–160 (1989).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (5)

A. S. Eadie, J. R. Pugh, B. Winn, “The use of coherence functions in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 15, 311–317 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Winn, B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 12, 252–256 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. R. Stark, D. A. Atchison, “Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17, 316–323 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Miege, P. Denieul, “Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 8, 165–171 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Pugh, A. S. Eadie, B. Winn, G. Heron, “Power spectrum analysis in the study of ocular mechanisms,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 7, 321–324 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

L. F. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 34, 711–716 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Vision Res. (2)

M. Collins, B. Davis, J. Wood, “Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system,” Vision Res. 35, 2491–2502 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Daum, G. A. Fry, “Pupillary micro movements apparently related to pulse frequency,” Vision Res. 22, 173–177 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. S. Bendat, A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures (Wiley, New York, 2000).

M. Malik, A. J. Camm, Heart Rate Variability (Futura, New York, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for aberration measurements. PM, plane mirror, CM, cold mirror; BS, beam splitter; L, lens (focal length is in millimeters), SF, spatial filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry for spherocylindrical correction. Two rotating cylinders in contact provide variable cylindrical power. Sphere is adjusted by changing the position of the focus spot relative to the spherical lens, using the motorized stage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PSD of rms wave-front error for an artificial eye and each subject.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSD of pulse for the noise signal and subjects KH and GK.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reverse-arrangements test results for subject GK.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

All pulse data for subject GK. A, time evolution of the pulse pressure wave; B, derived HRV time course; C, pulse PSD; D, HRV PSD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coherence function for the pulse pressure wave and rms wave-front error for two subjects.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coherence function for the HRV and rms wave-front error for two subjects.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coherence function for the pulse pressure wave and each of the first 12 Zarmike aberration mode coefficients for one subject.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

PSD of the pulse pressure wave, HRV, and rms wave-front error for subject JC.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the PSD for defocus noise and a theoretical 1 - Hz sinusoidal signal with an amplitude of 0.006 μ m .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

PSD of the pulse and defocus for each data segment for subject KH.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P cres = 2 P c cos ( θ 2 θ 1 ) ,
ϕ = θ 2 + θ 1 2 ,
P sres = z F s 2 + 2 P c sin 2 ( θ 2 θ 1 2 ) ,
a = P cres cos 2 ϕ ,
b = P cres sin 2 ϕ .
x i + 1 = g C s + x i ,
θ 1 + θ 2 = arctan b a ,
θ 1 θ 2 = arccos P cres 2 P c .
G x x ( f ) = 2 N F s X ( f , T ) 2 ,
[ n G x x χ n ; 0.005 2 G x x n G x x χ n ; 0.995 2 ] ,
A = i = 1 N 1 A i ,
A i = j = i + 1 N h i j ,
h i j = { 1 if x i > x j 0 otherwise } .
γ x y 2 ( f ) = G x y ( f ) 2 G x x ( f ) G y y ( f ) ,

Metrics