Abstract

A new method for absolute polarimetric calibration of large telescopes is presented. The proposed method is highly accurate and is based on the calibration of a small subaperture, which is then extended to the full system by means of actual observations of an astronomical source. The calibration procedure is described in detail along with numerical simulations that explore its robustness and accuracy. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to other possible alternatives are discussed. © 2005 Optical Society of America

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Trujillo Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, Proceedings of XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).
  2. P. Seagraves, “ATST calibration,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.
  3. R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).
  4. C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Socas-Navarro, “Polarimetric calibration of large-aperture telescopes. I. Beam-expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 539–545 (2005)..
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. W. Lites, “Performance characteristics of the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter,” Sol. Phys. 163, 223–230 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Elmore, “ViSP polarimetry,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea, Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. W. Lites, “Performance characteristics of the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter,” Sol. Phys. 163, 223–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berkfeld, T.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Bogdan, T. J.

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, J. Trujillo

J. Trujillo Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, Proceedings of XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).

Cally, P. S.

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elmore, D.

D. Elmore, “ViSP polarimetry,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea, Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.

Hill, F.

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Keil, S.

S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keil, S. L.

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keller, C.

S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, C. U.

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klvana, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Kneer, F.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Lites, B. W.

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Lites, “Performance characteristics of the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter,” Sol. Phys. 163, 223–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martínez Pillet, V.

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Insertis, F.

J. Trujillo Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, Proceedings of XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).

Nicklas, H.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Oschmann, J. M.

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T.

S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T. R.

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, F.

J. Trujillo Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, Proceedings of XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).

Schmidt, W.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Seagraves, P.

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Seagraves, “ATST calibration,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobotka, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Socas-Navarro, H.

Soltau, D.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Staude, J.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Thomas, J. H.

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, R.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

von der Lühe, O.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Wiehr, E.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Wittman, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Astron. Nachr. (2)

C. U. Keller, T. R. Rimmele, F. Hill, S. L. Keil, J. M. Oschmann, and the ATST Team “The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 323, 294–298 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Keil, T. Rimmele, C. Keller, and the ATST Team, “Design and development of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope,” Astron. Nachr. 324, 303–307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Nachr. Suppl. (1)

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, T. Berkfeld, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, H. Nicklas, E. Wiehr, A. Wittman, A. Hofmann, M. Sobotka, M. Klvana, “Current status of the 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR,” Astron. Nachr. Suppl. 324, 112–115 (2003).

Astrophys. J. (1)

B. W. Lites, J. H. Thomas, T. J. Bogdan, P. S. Cally, “Velocity and magnetic field fluctuations in the photosphere of a sunspot,” Astrophys. J. 497, 464–482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. (1)

A. Skumanich, B. W. Lites, V. Martínez Pillet, P. Seagraves, “The calibration of the advanced stokes polarimeter,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 110, 357–368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Sol. Phys. (1)

B. W. Lites, “Performance characteristics of the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter,” Sol. Phys. 163, 223–230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Elmore, “ViSP polarimetry,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea, Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.

J. Trujillo Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, F. Sánchez, Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, Proceedings of XII Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).

P. Seagraves, “ATST calibration,” presented at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope Instrument Workshop, Wailea Hawaii, August 11–13, 2004.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: Continuum-intensity maps. Right: Magnetograms (degree of circular polarization). Upper panels: map A. Lower panels: map B. Scales on horizontal and vertical axes are in arc seconds. The vertical lines mark the three slit positions used in the simulations as representative of the sunspot, plage, and network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elements of the error matrix E as a function of d 0 from numerous Monte Carlo hound-and-hares tests. The various curves represent different sources of polarization. Solid curves, sunspot (slit position 1 in Fig. 1); dashed curves, plage (slit position 2 in Fig. 1); dashed–dotted curves, network element in the quiet Sun (slit position 3 in Fig. 1). The horizontal dotted line represents the ATST polarimetric accuracy requirements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross talk from I to V as a function of the subaperture calibration accuracy ( η t ) . Solid curve, no pointing error ( η x = 0 ) ; dashed curve, η x = 0.75 arc sec ; dashed–dotted curve, η x = 1.5 arc sec . The horizontal dotted line represents the ATST polarimetric accuracy requirement.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S cal out = ( xt ) S cal in .
( xt ) ( xt ) .
S solar , 1 out = ( xt ) S solar , 1 in .
S solar , 2 out = ( XT ) S solar , 2 in .
S solar , 1 in S solar , 1 in = ( xt ) 1 S solar , 1 out .
S solar , 1 in S solar , 2 in .
xt = 1 + 0.05 × σ 1 ,
XT = 1 + 0.05 × σ 2 ,
S solar , 1 out ( λ , y ) = ( xt ) S solar , 1 in ( λ , y ) .
S solar , 2 out ( λ , y ) = ( XT ) S solar , 2 in ( λ , y ) .
( xt ) = ( xt ) + η t σ ,
S solar , 2 out = ( XT ) S solar , 2 in .
E = [ 6.9 × 10 4 1.3 × 10 3 2.4 × 10 2 7.1 × 10 4 6.0 × 10 4 1.4 × 10 3 2.3 × 10 2 7.2 × 10 4 6.2 × 10 4 1.2 × 10 3 2.5 × 10 2 7.3 × 10 4 6.8 × 10 4 1.3 × 10 3 2.3 × 10 2 7.1 × 10 4 ] .

Metrics