Abstract

We describe high-efficiency, high-dispersion reflection gratings fabricated in bulk fused silica illuminated by incident lights in the C+L bands as (de)multiplexers for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) application. Based on the phenomenon of total internal reflection, gratings with optimized profile parameters exhibit diffraction efficiencies of more than 90% under TM- and TE-polarized incident lights for 101-nm spectral bandwidths (1520–1620 nm) and can reach an efficiency of greater than 97% for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Without loss of metal absorption, without coating of dielectric film layers, and independent of tooth shape, this new kind of grating should be of great interest for DWDM application.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House Optoelectronics Library, Norwood, Mass., 2002).
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2004

2002

2001

A. Sappey, P. Huang, “Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing,” WDM Solutions R&D Rev. 3, 39–41 (2001).

1995

Chen, R. T.

Gaylord, T. K.

Grann, E. B.

Hirsh, J.

Horwitz, J. W.

Huang, P.

A. Sappey, P. Huang, “Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing,” WDM Solutions R&D Rev. 3, 39–41 (2001).

Laude, J.-P.

J.-P. Laude, DWDM Fundamentals, Components, and Applications (Artech House Optoelectronics Library, Norwood, Mass., 2002).

Li, L.

Marciante, J. R.

Moharam, M. G.

Morey, W. W.

Pommet, D. A.

Qiao, J.

Raguin, D. H.

Sappey, A.

A. Sappey, “Not all multiplexing technologies are on the same wavelength,” Photonics Spectra 36, 78–84 (2002).

A. Sappey, P. Huang, “Free-space diffraction gratings allow denser channel spacing,” WDM Solutions R&D Rev. 3, 39–41 (2001).

Zhao, F.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a TIR grating. θi is the incident angle, K is the grating vector, and ni (i=1, 2) is the refractive index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rigorous calculated first-order reflected diffraction efficiency of a surface-relief rectangular TIR grating with 50% duty cycle in fused silica (the refractive index is 1.44462 at a wavelength of 1550 nm) as a function of the profile parameters. (a) TM polarization; efficiency of more than 99.99% occurs with a period of 685 nm and a depth of 720 nm. (b) TE polarization; peak efficiency of more than 99.99% occurs with a period of 675 nm and a depth of 600 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First-order reflected diffraction efficiency as a function of incident wavelength for angles of incidence (a) 51.55° (TIR) and (b) 52.63° (TIR) and at the Littrow condition for each grating. (a) Grating period Λ=685 nm and depth d=720 nm for TM-polarized incident light. (b) Grating period Λ=675 nm and depth d=600 nm for TE-polarized incident light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

First-order reflected diffraction efficiency as a function of incident wavelength for angle of incidence 58.38° (TIR) and at the Littrow condition for each grating. Grating period Λ=630 nm and depth d=800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First-order reflected diffraction efficiency as a function of incident angle with a wavelength of 1550 nm. Grating period Λ=630 nm and depth d=800 nm.

Equations (2)

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n1>λ2Λ>n2,
D=mΛ cos(θm),

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