Abstract

Characteristics of tissue birefringence provide valuable diagnostic information when optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is performed. We mathematically model single-detector polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT (PS-OCT) for imaging an alternating layered phantom with birefringence. The theoretical analysis and the simulated data all reveal complexities associated with PS-OCT imaging. Various tissue parameters affect the retrieved PS-OCT signal and hence the image features. A better understanding of the mechanisms that control PS-OCT imaging would be useful for interpretation of tissue images and ultimately useful to provide more diagnostic information.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986).

2003

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 780–790 (2001); www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. B.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986).

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breunig, T. M.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Everett, M. J.

Featherstone, J. D. B.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, D.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesser, C.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Le, C.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lodge, M. B.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

Martin, S.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Martin, S. D.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, “Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 934–936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. A.

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plummer, S.

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, M. J.

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, K.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafi, S.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, D.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903–908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Westmore, M. S.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986).

Xie, J.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stamper, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 1003–1006 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Circulation

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy: properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93, 1206–1213 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: high resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1185–1192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200–1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. Orthop.

S. D. Martin, N. A. Patel, S. B. Adams, M. J. Roberts, S. Plummer, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “New technology for assessing microstructural components of tendons and ligaments,” Int. Orthop. 27, 184–189 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, C. Le, “Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618–627 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Rheumatol.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28, 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the essential optical setup for PS-OCT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic configuration of layered birefringent phantom. The incident light beam propagates along the z direction, and its two orthogonal polarization components Ex0 and Ey0 are coincident with the x and y axes, respectively. The three blocks, which are parallel to the xy plane, represent the first, second, and Nth layer of material 1 with d1 thickness and an average group index n1. Material 2 is assumed to fill the gap between each couple of blocks with d2 thickness and an average group index n2. x1 and y1 represent the fast and slow axes of the first layer, which rotate the α1 angle with respect to the incident axes. The axes of the second layer, x2 and y2, rotate the α2 angle with respect to the axes of the first layer. Analogously, the axes the of Nth layer rotate αN with respect to its former layer. The orthogonal components of the output beams, Ey_SN and Ey_SN, exit along the axes of the last layer with retardation Δϕ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated A-scan profiles of an alternating layered phantom with varying differential group index: (a) 0.001, (b) 0.005, (c) 0.01, (d) 0.015, (e) 0.020.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated A-scan profiles of an alternating layered phantom, with relatively varying volume concentration of birefringent material 1. (a) 10%, (b) 20%, (c) 30%, (d) 40%, (e) 50%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated A-scan profiles of an alternating layered phantom with a different intralayer medium. The RIs are (a) 1.34, (b) 1.42, (c) 1.47.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated A-scan profiles of an alternating layered phantom with relative retardations of polarization states in the reference arm. From (a) through (i), the retardation increases with step π/8.

Equations (33)

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E0(t)=Ex0(t)Ey0(t)=Ax0(t)exp{j[ϕx0(t)-2πω0t]}Ay0(t)exp{j[ϕy0(t)-2πω0t]}.
Ex0(t)=22 0a(ω)exp[ϕ0(ω)-j2πωt]dω,
Ey0(t)=22 0a(ω)exp[ϕ0(ω)-j2πωt]dω.
I0=E0(t)E0*(t)=Ix0+Iy0=2-G(ω)dω.
ER(t)=Ex_R(t)Ey_R(t)=022cos θRsin θR-sin θRcos θR×2νx_R(ω)exp(-j2πωt)2νy_R(ω)exp(-j2πωt)dω,
νx_R(ω)=14a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕR(ω, zR)]+δ},ω0,
νy_R(ω)=14a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕR(ω, zR)]},ω0.
IR=ER(t)ER*(t)=12 -G(ω)dω=I04.
ES1i(t)=Ex_S1i(t)Ey_S1i(t)=12 cos α1sin α1-sin α1cos α1 Ex0(t)Ey0(t).
ES1o(t)=Ex_S1o(t)Ey_S1o(t)=Ex_S1i(t, ϕ0+ϕx_S)Ey_S1i(t, ϕ0+ϕy_S)=122(cos α1+sin α1) 0νx_S(ω)exp(-j2πωt)dω2(cos α1-sin α1) 0νy_S(ω)exp(-j2πωt)dω ,
νx_S(ω)=14pS(z)a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕx_S(ω, z)]},ω0,
νy_S(ω)=14pS(z)a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕy_S(ω, z)]},ω0,
ES2i(t)=Ex_S2i(t)Ey_S2i(t)=cos α2sin α2-sin α2cos α2ES1o(t),
ES2o(t)=Ex_S2o(t)Ey_S2o(t)=Ex_S2i(t, ϕ0+ϕx_S)Ey_S2i(t, ϕ0+ϕy_S),
ESNi(t)=Ex_SNi(t)Ey_SNi(t)=cos αNsin αN-sin αNcos αNES(N-1)o(t),
ESNo(t)=Ex_SNo(t)Ey_SNo(t)=Ex_SNi(t, ϕ0+ϕx_S)Ey_SNi(t, ϕ0+ϕy_S).
ES(t)=Ex_S(t)Ey_S(t)=22 cos θSsin θS-sin θScos θSESNo(t),=22 cos θSsin θS-sin θScos θS×20νx_S(ω)exp(-j2πωt)dω20νy_S(ω)exp(-j2πωt)dω .
νx_S(ω)=14Mx_S(z)a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕx_S(ω, z)]},ω0,
νy_S(ω)=14My_S(z)a(ω)exp{j[ϕ0(ω)+ϕy_S(ω, z)]},ω0.
ES(t)=0zEx_S(t, z)Ey_S(t, z)dz.
IS=I08 0z[Mx_S2(z)+My_S2(z)]dz.
ED(t)=Ex_D(t)Ey_D(t)=ES(t)+ER(t)=0zEx_S(t)+Ex_R(t)Ey_S(t)+Ey_R(t)dz.
ID=ED(t)ED*(t)=Ex_D(t)Ex_D*(t)+Ey_D(t)Ey_D*(t).
ID=IR+IS+0zψdz,
ψ=12cos(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)×Re0G(ω)exp[j(ϕx_S-ϕx_R)]dω+12cos(θS-θR)My_S(z)×Re0G(ω)exp[j(ϕy_S-ϕy_R)]dω-12sin(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)×Re0G(ω)exp[j(ϕx_S-ϕy_R)]dω+12sin(θS-θR)My_S(z)×Re0G(ω)exp[j(ϕy_S-ϕx_R)]dω.
G(ω)=I041σω2πexp-(ω-ω0)22σω2+exp-(ω+ω0)22σω2.
ψI08exp-4 ln 2[nS(ω0)z-zR]2Δl2×cos(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)cos δ×cos4πk0nS(ω0)z-zR+ΔnS(ω0)2z+cos(θS-θR)My_S(z)×cos4πk0nS(ω0)z-zR-ΔnS(ω0)2z-sin(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)×cos4πk0nS(ω0)z-zR+ΔnS(ω0)2z+sin(θS-θR)My_S(z)cos δ×cos4πk0nS(ω0)z-zR-ΔnS(ω0)2z,
Δl=2 ln 2λ02πΔλ.
Mx(z)=12[cos δ cos(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)-sin(θS-θR)Mx_S(z)],
My(z)=12[cos(θS-θR)My_S(z)+cos δ sin(θS-θR)My_S(z)].
ID(zR)=IR+IS+I04 2 cos[2πk0ΔnS(ω0)zR]MyzRnS(k0)+MxzRnS(k0)-MyzRnS(k0) cos(4πk0zR)exp-4 ln 2zR2Δl2.
h(zR)=cos(4πk0zR)exp-4 ln 2zR2Δl2.
iD(t)=αIR+IS+I042 cos[2πk0ΔnS(ω0)VRt]MyVRtnS(k0)+MxVRtnS(k0)-MyVRtnS(k0)cos(4πk0VRt)exp-4 ln 2(VRt)2Δl2,

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