Abstract

Scanning images in illumination-mode, scanning-near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) are numerically studied by the boundary element method based on rigorous vector electromagnetic theory. Computation results of constant-height and constant-distance images for samples with different topographic features are presented. Effects of the polarization of the input light and the optical parameters of samples on the resolution of SNOM are discussed. The artifacts in constant-distance images are also investigated. Numerical results indicate that the constant-height images for TM input light and constant-distance images for both TE and TM input light give only the local changes of the sample topography because of the loss of the low-frequency component of the topography.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Duncan, “Near-field scanning optical microscope for microelectronic materials and devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1914–1918 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Sugiura, T. Okada, Y. Inouye, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Gold-bead scanning near-field optical microscope with laser-force position control,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1663–1665 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: Influence of sample type, tip shape and polarization of light,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1171–1176 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Near-field optical microscope images of a dielectric flat substrate with subwavelength strips,” Opt. Commun. 196, 93–102 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Vector near-field calculation of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1263–1273 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Near-field optical microscope images of a dielectric flat substrate with subwavelength strips,” Opt. Commun. 196, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: Influence of sample type, tip shape and polarization of light,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1171–1176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugiura, T. Okada, Y. Inouye, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Gold-bead scanning near-field optical microscope with laser-force position control,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1663–1665 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. M. Duncan, “Near-field scanning optical microscope for microelectronic materials and devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1914–1918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Antognozzi, M.

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

S. Bozhevolnyi, “Topographical artifacts and optical resolution in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2254–2259 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brereton, L. J.

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S. R.

S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. M.

W. M. Duncan, “Near-field scanning optical microscope for microelectronic materials and devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1914–1918 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durkan, C.

A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: Influence of sample type, tip shape and polarization of light,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1171–1176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Z.

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Vector near-field calculation of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1263–1273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Near-field optical microscope images of a dielectric flat substrate with subwavelength strips,” Opt. Commun. 196, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gademann, A.

A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Parajo, M. F.

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

Greffet, J.-J.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grorgy, E. M.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellman, F.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugiura, T. Okada, Y. Inouye, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Gold-bead scanning near-field optical microscope with laser-force position control,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1663–1665 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Near-field optical microscope images of a dielectric flat substrate with subwavelength strips,” Opt. Commun. 196, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugiura, T. Okada, Y. Inouye, O. Nakamura, S. Kawata, “Gold-bead scanning near-field optical microscope with laser-force position control,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1663–1665 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, E. R.

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miles, M. J.

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okada, T.

Pagani, Y.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, “Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size,” Opt. Lett. 20, 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rishton, S.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, E. J.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalom, S.

S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, I. V.

A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: Influence of sample type, tip shape and polarization of light,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1171–1176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Sugiura, T.

Tang, T. T.

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Vector near-field calculation of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1263–1273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Valle, P. J.

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, J. A.

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. E.

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Vector near-field calculation of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1263–1273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. L.

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Martin, S. Rishton, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Optical data storage read out at 256 Gbits∕in2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1–3 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, C. H. Chang, “Near-field magneto-optics and high density data storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142–144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: Influence of sample type, tip shape and polarization of light,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1171–1176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Trautman, E. Betzig, J. S. Weiner, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. D. Harris, F. Hellman, E. M. Grorgy, “Image contrast in near-field optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4659–4663 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3988–3993 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J.-J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Valle, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, “Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy,” J. Microsc. 194, 477–482 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

W. M. Duncan, “Near-field scanning optical microscope for microelectronic materials and devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1914–1918 (1996).
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Opt. Commun.

H. Furukawa, S. Kawata, “Near-field optical microscope images of a dielectric flat substrate with subwavelength strips,” Opt. Commun. 196, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Méndez, J.-J. Greffet, R. Carminati, “On the equivalence between the illumination and collection modes of the scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 142, 7–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. I. Baida, D. Van Labeke, Y. Pagani, “Body-of-revolution FDTD simulations of improved tip performance for scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 225, 241–252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. E. Wang, Z. Z. Fan, T. T. Tang, “Study on the power transmission and light spot size of optical probes in scanning near-field optical microscopes,” Opt. Commun. 235, 31–40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-resolution near-field Raman microscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Shalom, K. Lieberman, A. Lewis, S. R. Cohen, “A micropipette force probe suitable for near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 4061–4065 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy

R. L. Williamson, L. J. Brereton, M. Antognozzi, M. J. Miles, “Are artefacts in scanning near-field optical microscopy related to the misuse of shear force?” Ultramicroscopy 71, 165–175 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of 2D SNOM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constant-height images of a topographic step with D = λ 0 200 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Constant-distance images of a topographic step with D = λ 0 200 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Difference (solid curve) between the constant-distance and constant-height images as shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 and the topographic signal (dashed curve) for (a) TE, (b) TM input light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Constant-height (solid curve) and constant-distance (dashed curve) images of the groove with depth D = 0.005 λ 0 and width W = 0.5 λ 0 for (a) TE, (b) TM input light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constant-height (solid curve), constant-distance (dashed curve) and topographic (dotted curve) images of the groove with depth D = 0.005 λ 0 and width W = 0.03 λ 0 for (a) TE, (b) TM input light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images same as Fig. 6b except the sample has complex permittivity ε = 4 15 j .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Constant-height images of two equal grooves ( 0.005 λ 0 deep and 0.03 λ 0 wide) separated by 0.1 λ 0 for (a) TE, (b) TM input light.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8 with the two grooves separated by 0.025 λ 0 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Constant-distance images of the same samples as in Fig. 9.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Difference between the constant-height and constant-distance images as shown in Figs. 9, 10.

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