Abstract

Using Glass patterns composed of isoluminant dots we have investigated the segregation and integration of chromatic information by the visual system. By measuring pattern detection when the chromaticities of the two elements forming a dot pair are varied (intradipole variation), we characterize integration at an early level of spatial processing. By measuring pattern detection for dot pairs where the within-pair chromaticity is the same but the among-pair chromaticities are varied (interdipole variation) we characterize integration and segregation for a more global, midlevel, spatial processing mechanism. Using isoluminant patterns in which all dots have the same chromaticity, we find that (i) detection thresholds are similar to those for luminance-defined dots, and (ii) an equivalent-contrast metric approximately equates thresholds for various chromaticities, including those along both the cardinal and the intermediate axes of an opponent-color space. When intradipole chromaticity is varied we observe that (i) the ability of visual mechanisms to extract oriented dot pairs decreases with increasing chromaticity differences, and (ii) average bandwidths are similar for cardinal and intermediate directions. For pattern detection with interdipole chromatic variation the visual system does not segregate noise dot pairs from correlated dot pairs on the basis of chromatic differences alone, and appears to integrate oriented dot pairs of differing chromaticities in forming a global percept, even for large color differences. Isoluminant Glass patterns with translational and concentric correlations give similar results. The results are compared with those obtained for contrast variation in luminance-defined Glass Patterns and are discussed in terms of current multistage models of color processing by the visual system.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

D. R. Badcock, C. W. Clifford, S. K. Khuu, “Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection,” Vision Res. 45, 881–889 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Glass pattern studies of local and global processing of contrast variations,” Vision Res. 44, 2629–2641 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Barlow, B. A. Olshausen, “Convergent evidence for the visual analysis of optic flow through anisotropic attenuation of high spatial frequencies,” J. Vision 4, 415–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “Cone inputs in macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 91, 2501–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Solomon, J. W. Peirce, P. Lennie, “The impact of suppressive surrounds on chromatic properties of cortical neurons,” J. Neurosci. 24, 148–160 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Clifford, A. O. Holcombe, J. Pearson, “Rapid global form binding with loss of associated colors,” J. Vision 4, 1090–1101 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

H. S. Friedman, H. Zhou, R. von der Heydt, “The coding of uniform colour figures in monkey visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 548(Pt 2), 593–613 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Wachtler, T. J. Sejnowski, T. D. Albright, “Representation of color stimuli in awake macaque primary visual cortex,” Neuron 37, 681–691 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Kiper, M.-J. Mandelli, K. S. Cardinal, “Chromatic selectivity of the mechanisms underlying object detection and color categorization [abstract],” J. Vision 3, 709a (2003).
[Crossref]

C. W. Clifford, B. Spehar, S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, Q. Zaidi, “Interactions between color and luminance in the perception of orientation,” J. Vision 3, 106–115 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cardinal, D. C. Kiper, “The detection of colored Glass patterns,” J. Vision 3, 199–208, http://journalofvision.org/193/193/192/, doi:. (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

P. U. Tse, M. A. Smith, M. Augath, T. Trinath, N. K. Logothetis, J. A. Movshon, “Using Glass Patterns and fMRI to identify areas that process global form in macaque visual cortex [abstract],” J. Vision 2, 258a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/285/, doi:(2002).
[Crossref]

M. A. Smith, W. Bair, J. A. Movshon, “Signals in macaque striate cortical neurons that support the perception of glass patterns,” J. Neurosci. 22, 8334–8345 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, W. H. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565–575 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Shapley, M. Hawken, “Neural mechanisms for color perception in the primary visual cortex,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12, 426–432 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (8)

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “The spatial transformation of color in the primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 409–416 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Sankeralli, K. T. Mullen, “Bipolar or rectified chromatic detection mechanisms?” Visual Neurosci. 18, 127–135 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. R. Conway, “Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (V-1),” J. Neurosci. 21, 2768–2783 (2001).
[PubMed]

L. E. Mahon, R. L. De Valois, “Cartesian and non-Cartesian responses in LGN, V1, and V2 cells,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 973–981 (2001).

S. C. Dakin, P. J. Bex, “Local and global visual grouping: tuning for spatial frequency and contrast,” J. Vision 1, 99–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Effects of contrast variations on the perception of glass patterns,” J. Vision 1, 152a (2001).
[Crossref]

A. O. Holcombe, P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, P. Lennie, “Importance of color in the segmentation of variegated surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1240–1251 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

J. A. Garcia, J. L. Nieves, E. Valero, J. Romero, “Stochastic independence of color-vision mechanisms confirmed by a subthreshold summation paradigm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1485–1488 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. T. Mullen, W. H.A. Beaudot, W. H. McIlhagga, “Contour integration in color vision: A common process for the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance mechanisms?” Vision Res. 40, 639–655 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. L. De Valois, N. P. Cottaris, S. D. Elfar, L. E. Mahon, J. A. Wilson, “Some transformations of color information from lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4997–5002 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, L. E. Mahon, “Contribution of S opponent cells to color appearance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 512–517 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

K. T. Mullen, M. J. Sankeralli, “Evidence for the stochastic independence of the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance detection mechanisms revealed by subthreshold summation,” Vision Res. 39, 733–745 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, M. A. Losada, “The spatial tuning of color and luminance peripheral vision measured with notch filtered noise masking,” Vision Res. 39, 721–731 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, “Comparison of color and luminance contrast: apples versus oranges?” Vision Res. 39, 1823–1831 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Form perception across chromaticities in Glass patterns,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S355 (1999).

S. M. Wuerger, M. J. Morgan, “Input of long- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones to orientation discrimination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 436–442 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

R. L.P. Vimal, “Spatial-frequency tuning of sustained nonoriented units of the red–green channel,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. L.P. Vimal, “Color-luminance interaction: data produced by oblique cross masking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1756–1766 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. E. Reisbeck, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of contrast and temporal frequency on orientation discrimination for luminance and isoluminant stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1105–1117 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Wilson, F. Wilkinson, “Detection of global structure in Glass patterns: implications for form vision,” Vision Res. 38, 2933–2947 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (8)

H. R. Wilson, F. Wilkinson, W. Asaad, “Rapid communication: concentric orientation summation in human form vision,” Vision Res. 37, 2325–2330 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Kiper, S. B. Fenstemaker, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Chromatic properties of neurons in macaque area V2,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 1061–1072 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L.P. Vimal, “Orientation tuning of the spatial-frequency-tuned mechanisms of the Red–Green channel,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2622–2632 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Li, P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored textures,” Vision Res. 37, 83–97 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Engel, X. Zhang, B. Wandell, “Colour tuning in human visual cortex measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Nature 388, 68–71 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, D. G. Albrecht, “Visual cortex neurons in monkeys and cats: detection, discrimination, and identification,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 897–919 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

W. H. McIlhagga, K. T. Mullen, “Contour integration with colour and luminance contrast,” Vision Res. 36, 1265–1279 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Gallant, C. E. Connor, S. Rakshit, J. W. Lewis, D. C. Van Essen, “Neural responses to polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in area V4 of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 2718–2739 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. A. Webster, J. A. Wilson, J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation to natural color distributions,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, S648 (1996).

J. Krauskopf, H. J. Wu, B. Farell, “Coherence, cardinal directions and higher-order mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 1235–1245 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation,” Nature 373, 694–698 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

M. A. Webster, J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993–2020 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Losada, K. T. Mullen, “The spatial tuning of chromatic mechanisms identified by simultaneous masking,” Vision Res. 34, 333–341 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vision Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Mullen, M. A. Losada, “Evidence for separate pathways for color and luminance detection mechanisms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3136–3151 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. L. Gallant, J. Braun, D. C. Van Essen, “Selectivity for polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in macaque visual cortex,” Science 259, 100–103 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

F. L. Kooi, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, D. H. Grosof, “Higher-order factors influencing the perception of sliding and coherence of a plaid,” Perception 21, 583–598 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kovacs, B. Julesz, “Depth, motion, and static-flow perception at metaisoluminant color contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 10390–10394 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Scharff, W. S. Geisler, “Stereopsis at isoluminance in the absence of chromatic aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 868–876 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Orientation and spatial-frequency discrimination for luminance and chromatic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1034–1049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jordan, W. S. Geisler, A. C. Bovik, “Color as a source of information in the stereo correspondence process,” Vision Res. 30, 1955–1970 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Flanagan, P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Independent orientation-selective mechanisms for the cardinal directions of colour space,” Vision Res. 30, 769–778 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lennie, J. Krauskopf, G. Sclar, “Chromatic mechanisms in striate cortex of macaque,” J. Neurosci. 10, 649–669 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. S. Geisler, “Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 267–314 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

T. Carney, M. Shadlen, E. Switkes, “Parallel processing of motion and colour information,” Nature 328, 647–649 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Maloney, G. J. Mitchison, H. B. Barlow, “Limit to the detection of Glass patterns in the presence of noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2336–2341 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, M. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

T. M. Caelli, “Some psychophysical determinants of discrete Moire patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 39, 97–103 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

K. A. Stevens, “Computation of Locally Parallel Structure,” Biol. Cybern. 29, 19–28 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

L. Glass, E. Switkes, “Pattern recognition in humans: correlations which cannot be perceived,” Perception 5, 67–72 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

L. Glass, R. Pérez, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1956 (1)

Abramov, I.

Adams, A. J.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vision Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, D. G.

W. S. Geisler, D. G. Albrecht, “Visual cortex neurons in monkeys and cats: detection, discrimination, and identification,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 897–919 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albright, T. D.

T. Wachtler, T. J. Sejnowski, T. D. Albright, “Representation of color stimuli in awake macaque primary visual cortex,” Neuron 37, 681–691 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anstis, S.

S. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, 1983), pp. 155–166.

Asaad, W.

H. R. Wilson, F. Wilkinson, W. Asaad, “Rapid communication: concentric orientation summation in human form vision,” Vision Res. 37, 2325–2330 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augath, M.

P. U. Tse, M. A. Smith, M. Augath, T. Trinath, N. K. Logothetis, J. A. Movshon, “Using Glass Patterns and fMRI to identify areas that process global form in macaque visual cortex [abstract],” J. Vision 2, 258a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/285/, doi:(2002).
[Crossref]

Badcock, D. R.

D. R. Badcock, C. W. Clifford, S. K. Khuu, “Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection,” Vision Res. 45, 881–889 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bair, W.

M. A. Smith, W. Bair, J. A. Movshon, “Signals in macaque striate cortical neurons that support the perception of glass patterns,” J. Neurosci. 22, 8334–8345 (2002).
[PubMed]

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, B. A. Olshausen, “Convergent evidence for the visual analysis of optic flow through anisotropic attenuation of high spatial frequencies,” J. Vision 4, 415–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. K. Maloney, G. J. Mitchison, H. B. Barlow, “Limit to the detection of Glass patterns in the presence of noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2336–2341 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudot, W. H.

K. T. Mullen, W. H. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565–575 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudot, W. H.A.

K. T. Mullen, W. H.A. Beaudot, W. H. McIlhagga, “Contour integration in color vision: A common process for the blue–yellow, red–green and luminance mechanisms?” Vision Res. 40, 639–655 (2000).
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Bex, P. J.

S. C. Dakin, P. J. Bex, “Local and global visual grouping: tuning for spatial frequency and contrast,” J. Vision 1, 99–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bovik, A. C.

J. R. Jordan, W. S. Geisler, A. C. Bovik, “Color as a source of information in the stereo correspondence process,” Vision Res. 30, 1955–1970 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boynton, R. M.

Bradley, A.

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, J.

J. L. Gallant, J. Braun, D. C. Van Essen, “Selectivity for polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in macaque visual cortex,” Science 259, 100–103 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A. M.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, M. B. Mandler, A. M. Brown, “Higher order color mechanisms,” Vision Res. 26, 23–32 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caelli, T. M.

T. M. Caelli, “Some psychophysical determinants of discrete Moire patterns,” Biol. Cybern. 39, 97–103 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, K. S.

D. C. Kiper, M.-J. Mandelli, K. S. Cardinal, “Chromatic selectivity of the mechanisms underlying object detection and color categorization [abstract],” J. Vision 3, 709a (2003).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cardinal, D. C. Kiper, “The detection of colored Glass patterns,” J. Vision 3, 199–208, http://journalofvision.org/193/193/192/, doi:. (2003).
[Crossref]

Carney, T.

T. Carney, M. Shadlen, E. Switkes, “Parallel processing of motion and colour information,” Nature 328, 647–649 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavanagh, P.

A. O. Holcombe, P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Flanagan, P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Independent orientation-selective mechanisms for the cardinal directions of colour space,” Vision Res. 30, 769–778 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Anstis, P. Cavanagh, “A minimum motion technique for judging equiluminance,” in Color Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, J. D. Mollon and L. T. Sharpe, eds. (Academic, 1983), pp. 155–166.

Clifford, C. W.

D. R. Badcock, C. W. Clifford, S. K. Khuu, “Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection,” Vision Res. 45, 881–889 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Clifford, A. O. Holcombe, J. Pearson, “Rapid global form binding with loss of associated colors,” J. Vision 4, 1090–1101 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. W. Clifford, B. Spehar, S. G. Solomon, P. R. Martin, Q. Zaidi, “Interactions between color and luminance in the perception of orientation,” J. Vision 3, 106–115 (2003).
[Crossref]

Connor, C. E.

J. L. Gallant, C. E. Connor, S. Rakshit, J. W. Lewis, D. C. Van Essen, “Neural responses to polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in area V4 of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 2718–2739 (1996).
[PubMed]

Conway, B. R.

B. R. Conway, “Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (V-1),” J. Neurosci. 21, 2768–2783 (2001).
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Cottaris, N. P.

R. L. De Valois, N. P. Cottaris, S. D. Elfar, L. E. Mahon, J. A. Wilson, “Some transformations of color information from lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4997–5002 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crognale, M.

J. Rabin, E. Switkes, M. Crognale, M. E. Schneck, A. J. Adams, “Visual evoked potentials in three-dimensional color space: correlates of spatio-chromatic processing,” Vision Res. 34, 2657–2671 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crognale, M. A.

E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, “Comparison of color and luminance contrast: apples versus oranges?” Vision Res. 39, 1823–1831 (1999).
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Cropper, S. J.

K. T. Mullen, S. J. Cropper, M. A. Losada, “Absence of linear subthreshold summation between red–green and luminance mechanisms over a wide range of spatio-temporal conditions,” Vision Res. 37, 1157–1165 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

P. Lennie, M. D’Zmura, “Mechanisms of color vision,” Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 3, 333–400 (1988).
[PubMed]

Dakin, S. C.

S. C. Dakin, P. J. Bex, “Local and global visual grouping: tuning for spatial frequency and contrast,” J. Vision 1, 99–111 (2001).
[Crossref]

De Valois, K. K.

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, L. E. Mahon, “Contribution of S opponent cells to color appearance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 512–517 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. L. Kooi, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, D. H. Grosof, “Higher-order factors influencing the perception of sliding and coherence of a plaid,” Perception 21, 583–598 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Orientation and spatial-frequency discrimination for luminance and chromatic gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1034–1049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Switkes, A. Bradley, K. K. De Valois, “Contrast dependence and mechanisms of masking interactions among chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1149–1162 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradley, E. Switkes, K. K. De Valois, “Orientation and spatial frequency selectivity of adaptation to color and luminance gratings,” Vision Res. 28, 841–856 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, “Simultaneous masking interactions between chromatic and luminance gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 11–18 (1983).
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R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, Spatial Vision, Oxford Psychology Series (Oxford U. Press, 1988).

De Valois, R. L.

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Glass pattern studies of local and global processing of contrast variations,” Vision Res. 44, 2629–2641 (2004).
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L. E. Mahon, R. L. De Valois, “Cartesian and non-Cartesian responses in LGN, V1, and V2 cells,” Visual Neurosci. 18, 973–981 (2001).

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Effects of contrast variations on the perception of glass patterns,” J. Vision 1, 152a (2001).
[Crossref]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, L. E. Mahon, “Contribution of S opponent cells to color appearance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 512–517 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, N. P. Cottaris, S. D. Elfar, L. E. Mahon, J. A. Wilson, “Some transformations of color information from lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4997–5002 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Wilson, E. Switkes, R. L. De Valois, “Form perception across chromaticities in Glass patterns,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, S355 (1999).

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, “A multi-stage color model,” Vision Res. 33, 1053–1065 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Thorell, R. L. De Valois, D. G. Albrecht, “Spatial mapping of monkey V1 cells with pure color and luminance stimuli,” Vision Res. 24, 751–769 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, Spatial Vision, Oxford Psychology Series (Oxford U. Press, 1988).

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

Elfar, S. D.

R. L. De Valois, N. P. Cottaris, S. D. Elfar, L. E. Mahon, J. A. Wilson, “Some transformations of color information from lateral geniculate nucleus to striate cortex,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 4997–5002 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engel, S.

S. Engel, X. Zhang, B. Wandell, “Colour tuning in human visual cortex measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging,” Nature 388, 68–71 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farell, B.

J. Krauskopf, H. J. Wu, B. Farell, “Coherence, cardinal directions and higher-order mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 1235–1245 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favreau, O. E.

P. Flanagan, P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Independent orientation-selective mechanisms for the cardinal directions of colour space,” Vision Res. 30, 769–778 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fenstemaker, S. B.

D. C. Kiper, S. B. Fenstemaker, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Chromatic properties of neurons in macaque area V2,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 1061–1072 (1997).
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Finney, D. J.

D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1971).

Flanagan, P.

P. Flanagan, P. Cavanagh, O. E. Favreau, “Independent orientation-selective mechanisms for the cardinal directions of colour space,” Vision Res. 30, 769–778 (1990).
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Friedman, H. S.

H. S. Friedman, H. Zhou, R. von der Heydt, “The coding of uniform colour figures in monkey visual cortex,” J. Physiol. (London) 548(Pt 2), 593–613 (2003).
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Gallant, J. L.

J. L. Gallant, C. E. Connor, S. Rakshit, J. W. Lewis, D. C. Van Essen, “Neural responses to polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in area V4 of the macaque monkey,” J. Neurophysiol. 76, 2718–2739 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. L. Gallant, J. Braun, D. C. Van Essen, “Selectivity for polar, hyperbolic, and Cartesian gratings in macaque visual cortex,” Science 259, 100–103 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, J. A.

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

T. E. Reisbeck, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Effects of contrast and temporal frequency on orientation discrimination for luminance and isoluminant stimuli,” Vision Res. 38, 1105–1117 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Kiper, S. B. Fenstemaker, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Chromatic properties of neurons in macaque area V2,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 1061–1072 (1997).
[Crossref]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, D. G. Albrecht, “Visual cortex neurons in monkeys and cats: detection, discrimination, and identification,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 897–919 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. V. Scharff, W. S. Geisler, “Stereopsis at isoluminance in the absence of chromatic aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 868–876 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Jordan, W. S. Geisler, A. C. Bovik, “Color as a source of information in the stereo correspondence process,” Vision Res. 30, 1955–1970 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Geisler, “Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 267–314 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glass, L.

L. Glass, E. Switkes, “Pattern recognition in humans: correlations which cannot be perceived,” Perception 5, 67–72 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Glass, R. Pérez, “Perception of random dot interference patterns,” Nature 246, 360–362 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Glass, “Moiré effect from random dots,” Nature 223, 578–580 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosof, D. H.

F. L. Kooi, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, D. H. Grosof, “Higher-order factors influencing the perception of sliding and coherence of a plaid,” Perception 21, 583–598 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Shapley, M. Hawken, “Neural mechanisms for color perception in the primary visual cortex,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12, 426–432 (2002).
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E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “Cone inputs in macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 91, 2501–2514 (2004).
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E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “The spatial transformation of color in the primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 409–416 (2001).
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E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, 1964).

Holcombe, A. O.

C. W. Clifford, A. O. Holcombe, J. Pearson, “Rapid global form binding with loss of associated colors,” J. Vision 4, 1090–1101 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. O. Holcombe, P. Cavanagh, “Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 127–128 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubel, D. H.

M. S. Livingstone, D. H. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416–3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

Jacobs, G. H.

Jameson, D.

Johnson, E. N.

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “Cone inputs in macaque primary visual cortex,” J. Neurophysiol. 91, 2501–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Johnson, M. J. Hawken, R. Shapley, “The spatial transformation of color in the primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey,” Nat. Neurosci. 4, 409–416 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, J. R.

J. R. Jordan, W. S. Geisler, A. C. Bovik, “Color as a source of information in the stereo correspondence process,” Vision Res. 30, 1955–1970 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Julesz, B.

I. Kovacs, B. Julesz, “Depth, motion, and static-flow perception at metaisoluminant color contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 10390–10394 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khuu, S. K.

D. R. Badcock, C. W. Clifford, S. K. Khuu, “Interactions between luminance and contrast signals in global form detection,” Vision Res. 45, 881–889 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiper, D. C.

D. C. Kiper, M.-J. Mandelli, K. S. Cardinal, “Chromatic selectivity of the mechanisms underlying object detection and color categorization [abstract],” J. Vision 3, 709a (2003).
[Crossref]

K. S. Cardinal, D. C. Kiper, “The detection of colored Glass patterns,” J. Vision 3, 199–208, http://journalofvision.org/193/193/192/, doi:. (2003).
[Crossref]

D. C. Kiper, S. B. Fenstemaker, K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Chromatic properties of neurons in macaque area V2,” Visual Neurosci. 14, 1061–1072 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kooi, F. L.

F. L. Kooi, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, D. H. Grosof, “Higher-order factors influencing the perception of sliding and coherence of a plaid,” Perception 21, 583–598 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kovacs, I.

I. Kovacs, B. Julesz, “Depth, motion, and static-flow perception at metaisoluminant color contrast,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 10390–10394 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krauskopf, J.

J. Krauskopf, H. J. Wu, B. Farell, “Coherence, cardinal directions and higher-order mechanisms,” Vision Res. 36, 1235–1245 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromatic Glass patterns. (a) Concentric pattern in “green” ( ϕ 180 ° ) . (b) Translational pattern in “red” ( ϕ 0 ° ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pattern detection as a function of dot chromaticity (experiment 1). Thresholds ( ± 1 standard deviation) for (a) concentric patterns (open circles) and (b) translational patterns (open squares). The dotted curves are least-squares fits of ellipses to the data. Each observer’s average detection threshold for luminance increments and decrements ( ± 1 standard deviation) is indicated by the grey circular area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of concentric Glass patterns with intradipole and interdipole chromatic variations. (a) Intradipole variation with “violet” ( ϕ r 90 ° ) and “green” ( ϕ t 180 ° ) paired dots having 1.0 correlation (all dot pairs in concentric orientations); (b) interdipole variation with “red” signal ( ϕ r 0 ° , 1.0 correlation) and “green” noise ( ϕ t 180 ° ; 0.0 correlation); (c) interdipole variation with “red” signal ( ϕ r 0 ° , 1.0 correlation) and “green” signal ( ϕ t 180 ° ; 1.0 correlation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pattern detection thresholds for intradipole color variations in translational Glass patterns (experiment 2). (a) Thresholds for observer CT at four reference angles along canonical color axes: red circles, ϕ r = 0 ° ; blue squares, ϕ r = 90 ° ; green triangles, ϕ r = 180 ° ; and yellow diamonds, ϕ r = 270 ° . (b) Thresholds for observer CT at four reference angles for chromaticities along intermediate color axes: red circles, ϕ r = 45 ° ; blue squares, ϕ r = 135 ° ; green triangles, ϕ r = 225 ° ; and yellow diamonds, ϕ r = 315 ° . The solid lines show least-squares fit of an [ A cos ( ϕ 0 ϕ ) ] n function to the data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pattern detection thresholds for intradipole color variations in concentric Glass patterns (experiment 2). Thresholds for observer (a) CT and (b) JK at four reference angles along canonical color axes. (c) Thresholds for observer JK at two reference angles for chromaticities along intermediate color axes ϕ r = 45 ° and 315°. Symbols and colors as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pattern detection thresholds for interdipole chromatic variations (experiment 3). (a) Concentric Glass patterns: The symbol star-in-circle is the threshold for the ϕ r = 0 ° reference “signal” subpattern in the absence of a second subpattern; this subpattern was a component of all stimuli employed in experiment 3. To facilitate comparison with other data, the gray annular region also indicates this threshold ( ± 1 standard deviation). Filled circles indicate the thresholds when “noise” subpatterns of various chromaticities ( ϕ t ) were added to the reference subpattern. Open circles indicate the threshold when “signal” subpatterns of various chromaticities ( ϕ t ) were added to the reference subpattern. Error bars give ± 1 standard deviation. (b) Translational Glass patterns: The symbols star-in-square, filled squares, and open squares refer to thresholds for the reference “signal” subpattern alone, the “ signal + noise ” condition, and the “ signal + signal ” condition [as in (a)]. In all cases the thresholds correspond to the fraction of correlated dot pairs in the reference “signal” subpattern required for pattern detection.

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