Abstract

Hue can be described by four separate sensations of red (R), green (G), yellow (Y), and blue (B). These are combined in the spectrally opponent RG and YB mechanisms, whose null points correspond to the unique sensations of Y, G, B. Participants used a form of magnitude estimation to describe color appearance of light flashes that were systematically varied in size, luminance, duration, purity, and retinal eccentricity. Wavelengths of the unique hues were derived from the hue and saturation scaling functions. Only unique Y remained invariant across all the viewing conditions. The shifts in unique hues with test conditions place strong restrictions on models of how the RG and YB mechanisms are assembled. Despite polymorphism of L and M cones and variation of their ratios across participants and across the retina, the frequency distribution of unique Y was very narrow, implying some reweighting of cone inputs to individuals’ RG mechanisms.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

B.-G. Khang, Q. Zaidi, “Illuminant color perception of spectrally filtered spotlights,” J. Math. Imaging Vision 4, 680–692 (2004).

2002 (1)

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

S. A. Hagstrom, J. Neitz, M. Neitz, “Variations in cone populations for red-green color vision examined by analysis of mRNA,” NeuroReport 9, 1963–1967 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

R. L. De Valois, K. K. De Valois, E. Switkes, L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, C. E. Harlow, “The bimodality of unique green revisited,” Vision Res. 37, 407–416 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Costraining color categories: the problem of the baby and the bath water,” Behav. Brain Sci. 20, 179–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (3)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Shevell, “Redness from short-wavelength-sensitive cones does not induce greenness,” Vision Res. 32, 1551–1556 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Stromeyer, J. Lee, R. T. Eskew, “Peripheral chromatic sensitivity for flashes: a post-receptoral red-green asymmetry,” Vision Res. 32, 1865–1873 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (5)

J. Walraven, J. S. Werner, “The invariance of unique white; a possible implication for normalizing cone action spectra,” Vision Res. 31, 2185–2193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kay, B. Berlin, W. Merrifield, “Biocultural implications of systems of color naming,” J. Linguistic Anthrop. 1, 12–25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

B. E. Schefrin, J. S. Werner, “Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305–311 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Neitz, G. H. Jacobs, “Polymorphism in normal human color vision and its mechanism,” Vision Res. 30, 621–636 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

P. C. Quinn, J. L. Rosano, B. R. Wooten, “Evidence that brown is not an elemental color,” Percept. Psychophys. 43, 156–164 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1984 (3)

D. Y. Teller, “Linking propositions,” Vision Res. 24, 1233–1246 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241–265 (1984).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

K. Fuld, J. S. Werner, B. R. Wooten, “The possible elemental nature of brown,” Vision Res. 23, 631–637 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,” J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

1981 (1)

A. Hård, L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Color System: a Swedish standard for color notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. L. Nagy, “Short-flash Bezold-Brücke hue shifts,” Vision Res. 20, 361–368 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Buchsbaum, “Spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. L. Nagy, “Unique hues are not invariant with brief stimulus durations,” Vision Res. 19, 1427–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

P. Kay, C. K. McDaniel, “The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms,” Language 54, 610–645 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

1976 (1)

F. Ratliff, “On the psychophysiological bases of universal color terms,” Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 120, 311–330 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity. II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

1968 (2)

P. K. Kaiser, “Color names of very small fields varying in duration and luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 849–852 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, J. D. Cohen, “The experimental determination of unique green in the spectrum,” Percept. Psychophys. 4, 65–68 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

C. E. Sternheim, R. M. Boynton, “Uniqueness of perceived hues investigated with a continuous judgmental technique,” J. Exp. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

R. L. De Valois, C. J. Smith, A. J. Karoly, S. T. Kitai, “Electrical responses of primate visual system. I. Different layers of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus,” J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 51, 662–668 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

1951 (1)

1945 (1)

E. N. Willmer, W. D. Wright, “Colour sensitivity of the fovea centralis,” Nature 156, 119–121 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

1931 (1)

D. McL. Purdy, “Spectral hue as a function of intensity,” Am. J. Psychol. 43, 541–559 (1931).
[CrossRef]

1919 (1)

C. E. Ferree, G. Rand, “Chromatic thresholds of sensation from center to periphery of the retina and their bearing on color theory,” Psychol. Rev. 26, 16–41 (1919).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Costraining color categories: the problem of the baby and the bath water,” Behav. Brain Sci. 20, 179–180 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Color appearance: on seeing red—or yellow, or green, or blue,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 45, 451–485 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202–207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sirovich, I. Abramov, “Photopigments and pseudopigments,” Vision Res. 17, 5–16 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. De Valois, I. Abramov, G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966–977 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, E. B. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 92–127.

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610–624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, K. Kitahara, D. H. Krantz, “Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia,” J. Physiol. (London) 335, 683–697 (1983).

Ayama, M.

Ayde, C. J.

Berlin, B.

P. Kay, B. Berlin, W. Merrifield, “Biocultural implications of systems of color naming,” J. Linguistic Anthrop. 1, 12–25 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Berlin, P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969).

Boynton, R. M.

C. E. Sternheim, R. M. Boynton, “Uniqueness of perceived hues investigated with a continuous judgmental technique,” J. Exp. Psychol. 72, 770–776 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brainard, D. H.

Buchsbaum, G. A.

G. A. Buchsbaum, “Spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “The Abney effect: chromaticity coordinates of unique and other constant hues,” Vision Res. 24, 479–489 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calderone, J. B.

Carroll, J.

J. Neitz, J. Carroll, Y. Yamauchi, M. Neitz, D. R. Williams, “Color perception is mediated by a plastic neural mechanism that is adjustable in adults,” Neuron 35, 783–792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, H.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance across the retina: effects of a white surround,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 195–202 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, C. M.

J. Larimer, D. H. Krantz, C. M. Cicerone, “Opponent process additivity. II. Yellow/blue equilibria and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 15, 723–731 (1975).
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