Abstract

Age-related changes in the spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity function of detection, measured along S and L – M cone axes, were demonstrated in a companion paper [Hardy et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 49 (2005)]. Here senescent changes in chromatic contrast appearance were assessed by contrast-matching functions (CMFs). Luminance and chromatic CMFs (S and L – M axes) were compared for younger (age 18–31 yr) and older (age 65–75 yr) trichromatic subjects by using stimuli that were perceptually anchored to the same physical standard contrasts. Subjects matched the contrast of test gratings of various spatial frequencies (0.5–8 cycles per degree) to the standard stimuli under natural viewing conditions. Because of changes in the visual system with age, the standard stimuli were closer to threshold for older subjects; however, in general, the shapes of the CMFs were similar for both groups. The results suggest that the perception of relative contrasts across spatial frequencies is stable with age.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation, and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vision 2, 438–450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. S. Werner, M. L. Bieber, B. E. Schefrin, “Senescence of foveal and parafoveal cone sensitivities and their relations to macular pigment density,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1918–1932 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Vimal, “Spatial color contrast matching: broad-bandpass functions and the flattening effect,” Vision Res. 40, 3231–3243 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiippana, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, D. Whitaker, P. Makela, “Contrast matching across spatial frequencies for isoluminant chromatic gratings,” Vision Res. 40, 2159–2165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. H. Brainard, “The Psychophysics Toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

A. Chaparro, C. F. I. Stromeyer, E. P. Huang, R. E. Kronauer, R. T. J. Eskew, “Colour is what the eye sees best,” Nature (London) 361, 348–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, O. Luntinen, R. Nasanen, “Modelling the dependence of contrast sensitivity on grating area and spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 33, 2773–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mustonen, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, “The effects of grating area and spatial frequency on contrast sensitivity as a function of light level,” Vision Res. 33, 2065–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Losada, R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, “Relative contributions of optical and neural limitations to human contrast sensitivity at different luminance levels,” Vision Res. 33, 2321–2336 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Spear, “Neural basis of visual deficits during aging,” Vision Res. 33, 2589–2609 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (3)

1987 (2)

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

1985 (1)

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

1983 (2)

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 253, 627–656 (1975).

1974 (1)

R. L. De Valois, H. Morgan, D. M. Snodderly, “Psychophysical studies of monkey vision. III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers,” Vision Res. 14, 75–81 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

J. M. Daitch, D. G. Green, “Contrast sensitivity of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 9, 947–952 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

A. L. Kornzweig, “Physiological effects of age on the visual process,” Sight Sav Rev. 24, 130–138 (1954).

Alvarez, S. L.

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbur, J. L.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, S. A. N.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).

Bieber, M. L.

Bradley, A.

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “The Psychophysics Toolbox,” Spatial Vis. 10, 433–436 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, D. G. Peli, T. Robson, “Display characterization,” in The Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J. Hornak, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002).

D. H. Brainard, “Cone contrast and opponent modulation color spaces,” in Human Color Vision, P. K. Kaiser, R. M. Boynton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Burr, D. C.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, K. B.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaparro, A.

A. Chaparro, C. F. I. Stromeyer, E. P. Huang, R. E. Kronauer, R. T. J. Eskew, “Colour is what the eye sees best,” Nature (London) 361, 348–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cottaris, N. P.

Crognale, M. A.

M. A. Crognale, “Development, maturation, and aging of chromatic visual pathways: VEP results,” J. Vision 2, 438–450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Switkes, M. A. Crognale, “Comparison of color and luminance contrast: apples versus oranges?” Vision Res. 39, 1823–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daitch, J. M.

J. M. Daitch, D. G. Green, “Contrast sensitivity of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 9, 947–952 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, R. L.

R. L. De Valois, H. Morgan, D. M. Snodderly, “Psychophysical studies of monkey vision. III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers,” Vision Res. 14, 75–81 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delahunt, P. B.

Eisner, A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Eskew, R. T. J.

A. Chaparro, C. F. I. Stromeyer, E. P. Huang, R. E. Kronauer, R. T. J. Eskew, “Colour is what the eye sees best,” Nature (London) 361, 348–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, A.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, S. A.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Frederick, C. M.

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Georgeson, M. A.

M. A. Georgeson, G. D. Sullivan, “Contrast constancy: deblurring in human vision by spatial frequency channels,” J. Physiol. (London) 253, 627–656 (1975).

Glasser, A.

A. Glasser, M. C. W. Campbell, “Presbyopia and the optical changes in the human crystalline lens with age,” Vision Res. 38, 209–229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, D. G.

J. M. Daitch, D. G. Green, “Contrast sensitivity of the human peripheral retina,” Vision Res. 9, 947–952 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haegerstrom-Portnoy, G.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).

Hardy, J. L.

J. L. Hardy, P. B. Delahunt, K. Okajima, J. S. Werner, “Senescence of spatial chromatic contrast sensitivity. I. Detection under conditions controlling for optical factors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 49–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Hewlett, S. E.

G. Haegerstrom-Portnoy, S. E. Hewlett, S. A. N. Barr, “S cone loss with aging,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies IX, B. Drum, G. Verriest, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).

Hoeve, J. N. V.

Huang, E. P.

A. Chaparro, C. F. I. Stromeyer, E. P. Huang, R. E. Kronauer, R. T. J. Eskew, “Colour is what the eye sees best,” Nature (London) 361, 348–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

J. L. Hardy, C. M. Frederick, P. Kay, J. S. Werner, “Color naming, lens aging, and grue: what the optics of the aging eye can teach us about color language,” Psychol. Sci. (to be published).

Klein, M. L.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Knoblauch, K.

K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornzweig, A. L.

A. L. Kornzweig, “Physiological effects of age on the visual process,” Sight Sav Rev. 24, 130–138 (1954).

Kraft, J. M.

Kronauer, R. E.

A. Chaparro, C. F. I. Stromeyer, E. P. Huang, R. E. Kronauer, R. T. J. Eskew, “Colour is what the eye sees best,” Nature (London) 361, 348–350 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Losada, M. A.

M. A. Losada, R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, “Relative contributions of optical and neural limitations to human contrast sensitivity at different luminance levels,” Vision Res. 33, 2321–2336 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luntinen, O.

J. Rovamo, O. Luntinen, R. Nasanen, “Modelling the dependence of contrast sensitivity on grating area and spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 33, 2773–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutze, M.

Makela, P.

K. Tiippana, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, D. Whitaker, P. Makela, “Contrast matching across spatial frequencies for isoluminant chromatic gratings,” Vision Res. 40, 2159–2165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauldin, W. M.

A. Eisner, S. A. Fleming, M. L. Klein, W. M. Mauldin, “Sensitivities in older eyes with good acuity: cross-sectional norms,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 28, 1824–1831 (1987).

Morgan, H.

R. L. De Valois, H. Morgan, D. M. Snodderly, “Psychophysical studies of monkey vision. III. Spatial luminance contrast sensitivity tests of macaque and human observers,” Vision Res. 14, 75–81 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrone, M. C.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen, “The contrast sensitivity of human colour vision to red–green and blue–yellow chromatic gratings,” J. Physiol. (London) 359, 381–400 (1985).

Mustonen, J.

J. Mustonen, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, “The effects of grating area and spatial frequency on contrast sensitivity as a function of light level,” Vision Res. 33, 2065–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasanen, R.

K. Tiippana, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, D. Whitaker, P. Makela, “Contrast matching across spatial frequencies for isoluminant chromatic gratings,” Vision Res. 40, 2159–2165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mustonen, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, “The effects of grating area and spatial frequency on contrast sensitivity as a function of light level,” Vision Res. 33, 2065–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, O. Luntinen, R. Nasanen, “Modelling the dependence of contrast sensitivity on grating area and spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 33, 2773–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

M. A. Losada, R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, “Relative contributions of optical and neural limitations to human contrast sensitivity at different luminance levels,” Vision Res. 33, 2321–2336 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okajima, K.

Owsley, C.

K. B. Burton, C. Owsley, M. E. Sloane, “Aging and neural spatial contrast sensitivity: photopic vision,” Vision Res. 33, 939–946 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Sloane, C. Owsley, S. L. Alvarez, “Aging, senile miosis and spatial contrast sensitivity at low luminance,” Vision Res. 28, 1235–1246 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peli, D. G.

D. H. Brainard, D. G. Peli, T. Robson, “Display characterization,” in The Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J. Hornak, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002).

Pelli, D. G.

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spatial Vis. 10, 437–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Watson, D. G. Pelli, “QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method,” Percept. Psychophys. 33, 113–120 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “The design and use of a cone chromaticity space: a tutorial,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 375–383 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, M. Lutze, “Aging of the human lens,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1437–1440 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161–171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porciatti, V.

A. Fiorentini, V. Porciatti, M. C. Morrone, D. C. Burr, “Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour,” Vision Res. 36, 3557–3566 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, T.

D. H. Brainard, D. G. Peli, T. Robson, “Display characterization,” in The Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J. Hornak, ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002).

Rovamo, J.

K. Tiippana, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, D. Whitaker, P. Makela, “Contrast matching across spatial frequencies for isoluminant chromatic gratings,” Vision Res. 40, 2159–2165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rovamo, O. Luntinen, R. Nasanen, “Modelling the dependence of contrast sensitivity on grating area and spatial frequency,” Vision Res. 33, 2773–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mustonen, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, “The effects of grating area and spatial frequency on contrast sensitivity as a function of light level,” Vision Res. 33, 2065–2072 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamaria, J.

M. A. Losada, R. Navarro, J. Santamaria, “Relative contributions of optical and neural limitations to human contrast sensitivity at different luminance levels,” Vision Res. 33, 2321–2336 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schefrin, B. E.

Sekuler, R.

C. Owsley, R. Sekuler, D. Siemsen, “Contrast sensitivity throughout adulthood,” Vision Res. 23, 689–700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemsen, D.

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K. Knoblauch, F. Vital-Durand, J. L. Barbur, “Variation of chromatic sensitivity across the life span,” Vision Res. 41, 23–36 (2001).
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R. L. Vimal, “Spatial color contrast matching: broad-bandpass functions and the flattening effect,” Vision Res. 40, 3231–3243 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tiippana, J. Rovamo, R. Nasanen, D. Whitaker, P. Makela, “Contrast matching across spatial frequencies for isoluminant chromatic gratings,” Vision Res. 40, 2159–2165 (2000).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean S-axis threshold for younger (solid circles) and older (open circles) observers at two luminance levels (5 and 30 cd/m2). Error bars are ±1 standard error of the mean (SEM). The dashed line indicates the level of the lower-contrast S-axis standard.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean standards for the L – M and luminance axes for younger (solid circles) and older (open circles) observers. These standards were perceptually matched to the two S-axis standards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonnormalized CMFs for younger (solid circles, solid lines) and older (open circles, dashed lines) observers. The arrows point to curves obtained for the older group by using only five observers (the standards were above threshold for the other five observers). Error bars are ±1 SEM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized CMFs for younger (solid circles, solid lines) and older (open circles, dashed lines) observers. The curves were normalized at 2 c/deg. Note that the lower-contrast curves for the older group in the left panels were obtained by using only five observers (the standards were above threshold for the other five observers). Error bars are ±1 SEM.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical density of the crystalline lens for a standard observer33 and estimates based on the mean ages for the two age groups used in our study.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Estimated Cone Contrasts Compared with Those of a Standard Observera

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Table 2 Estimated Retinal Illuminance Values (Photopic Trolands)

Equations (1)

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c¯=[(cL2+cM2+cS2)/3]1/2,

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