Abstract

Little is known about how color signals and cone- and rod-based luminance signals contribute to perceived contrast in the mesopic range. In this study the perceived contrast of colored, mesopic stimuli was matched with that of spatially equivalent achromatic stimuli. The objective was to develop a metric for perceived contrast in the mesopic range in terms of an equivalent achromatic luminance contrast, referred to here as effective contrast. Stimulus photopic luminance contrast, scotopic luminance contrast, and chromatic difference from the background all contributed to effective contrast over the mid-mesopic range, but their contributions were not independent and varied markedly with background luminance. Surprisingly, color made a significant contribution to effective contrast from 10 to approximately 0.003 cd m-2. A model describing this relationship is introduced (R2=0.89) and compared with predictions of mesopic luminance contrast obtained from a number of models proposed as systems of mesopic photometry.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2002

S. Anstis, “The Purkinje rod–cone shift as a function of luminance and retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 42, 2485–2491 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. Nasanen, H. Ojanpaa, I. Kojo, “Effect of stimulus contrast on performance and eye movements in visual search,” Vision Res. 41, 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. A. Parry, “Contrast dependence of reaction times to chromatic gratings,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S161–S164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Itti, C. Koch, “A saliency-based search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention,” Vision Res. 40, 1489–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Palmer, P. Verghese, M. Pavel, “The psychophysics of visual search,” Vision Res. 40, 1227–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, A. Bierman, M. S. Rea, “A system of mesopic photometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 30, 175–181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Vingrys, L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vision Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ayama, M. Ikeda, “Brightness-to-luminance ratio of colored light in the entire chromaticity diagram,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 274–287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Verghese, K. Nakayama, “Stimulus discriminability in visual search,” Vision Res. 34, 2453–2467 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

Y. Nakano, “A model of brightness perception and its application to individual data,” Kogaku (Japanese Journal of Optics) 21, 705–716 (1992).

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “System of mesopic photometry for evaluating lights in terms of comparative brightness relationships,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1240–1246 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. W. Trezona, “A system of mesopic photometry,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 202–216 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D’Zmura, “Color in visual search,” Vision Res. 31, 951–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ikeda, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects of equal Munsell chroma and of equal Munsell value at various illuminances,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 72–80 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. L. Nagy, R. R. Sanchez, “Critical color differences determined with a visual search task,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1209–1217 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. Ikeda, C. C. Huang, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects at illuminances from the scotopic to the photopic,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 198–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, P. K. Kaiser, “Contributions of the opponent mechanisms to brightness and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 28, 799–810 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. L. Barbur, W. D. Thomson, P. M. Forsyth, “A new system for the simultaneous measurement of pupil size and two-dimensional eye movements,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 131–142 (1987).

K. Sagawa, K. Takeichi, “Mesopic spectral luminous efficiency functions: final experimental report,” J. Light Visual Environ. 11, 22–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading—V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1177 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, “A model for brightness perception at mesopic levels,” Kogaku (Japanese Journal of Optics) 15, 295–302 (1986).

1985

T. Ueno, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Reaction times to chromatic stimuli,” Vision Res. 25, 1623–1627 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kokoschka, W. K. Adrian, “Influence of field size on the spectral sensitivity of the eye in the photopic and mesopic range,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 119–126 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Ingling, E. Martinez-Uriegas, “The relationship between spectral sensitivity and spatial sensitivity for the primate r-g X-channel,” Vision Res. 23, 1495–1500 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1981

1980

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. S. Harwerth, D. M. Levi, “Reaction time as a measure of suprathreshold grating detection,” Vision Res. 18, 1579–1586 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

1966

D. A. Palmer, “A system of mesopic photometry,” Nature 209, 276–281 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951

1946

1942

1941

W. D. Wright, “The sensitivity of the eye to small colour differences,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 53, 93–112 (1941).
[CrossRef]

E. Ludvigh, “Effect of reduced contrast on visual acuity as measured with Snellen test letters,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 25, 469–474 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, W. K.

S. Kokoschka, W. K. Adrian, “Influence of field size on the spectral sensitivity of the eye in the photopic and mesopic range,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 119–126 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anstis, S.

S. Anstis, “The Purkinje rod–cone shift as a function of luminance and retinal eccentricity,” Vision Res. 42, 2485–2491 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashizawa, S.

M. Ikeda, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects of equal Munsell chroma and of equal Munsell value at various illuminances,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 72–80 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, C. C. Huang, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects at illuminances from the scotopic to the photopic,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 198–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ayama, M.

M. Ayama, M. Ikeda, “Brightness-to-luminance ratio of colored light in the entire chromaticity diagram,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 274–287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbur, J. L.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Barbur, W. D. Thomson, P. M. Forsyth, “A new system for the simultaneous measurement of pupil size and two-dimensional eye movements,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 131–142 (1987).

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, P. Smith, A. Hurden, “Visual performance in the mesopic range,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 140–143.

J. L. Barbur, P. M. Forsyth, “The effective contrast of coloured targets and its relation to visual search,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Visual Search, D. Brogan, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990), pp. 319–328.

Bierman, A.

Y. He, A. Bierman, M. S. Rea, “A system of mesopic photometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 30, 175–181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, H. R.

Bodmann, H. W.

S. Kokoschka, H. W. Bodmann, “A consistent system for the photometric evaluation of radiation over the whole range of adaptation,” in Proceedings of the CIE 18th Session, CIE Publication No. 36 (Central Bureau of the CIE, Paris, 1975), pp. 217–225.

Boynton, R. M.

F. S. Frome, S. L. Buck, R. M. Boynton, “Visibility of borders: separate and combined effects of color differences, luminance contrast, and luminance level,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 145–150 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. R. J.

Buck, S. L.

Burns, S. A.

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, “The staircase method in psychophysics,” Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485–491 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

M. D’Zmura, “Color in visual search,” Vision Res. 31, 951–966 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Forsyth, P. M.

J. L. Barbur, W. D. Thomson, P. M. Forsyth, “A new system for the simultaneous measurement of pupil size and two-dimensional eye movements,” Clin. Vision Sci. 2, 131–142 (1987).

J. L. Barbur, P. M. Forsyth, “The effective contrast of coloured targets and its relation to visual search,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Visual Search, D. Brogan, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1990), pp. 319–328.

Frome, F. S.

Harlow, A. J.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, P. Smith, A. Hurden, “Visual performance in the mesopic range,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 140–143.

Harlow, J. A.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harwerth, R. S.

R. S. Harwerth, D. M. Levi, “Reaction time as a measure of suprathreshold grating detection,” Vision Res. 18, 1579–1586 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Y. He, A. Bierman, M. S. Rea, “A system of mesopic photometry,” Light. Res. Technol. 30, 175–181 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. C.

M. Ikeda, C. C. Huang, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects at illuminances from the scotopic to the photopic,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 198–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hurden, A.

J. L. Barbur, A. J. Harlow, P. Smith, A. Hurden, “Visual performance in the mesopic range,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 140–143.

Ikeda, M.

M. Ayama, M. Ikeda, “Brightness-to-luminance ratio of colored light in the entire chromaticity diagram,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 274–287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects of equal Munsell chroma and of equal Munsell value at various illuminances,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 72–80 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikeda, C. C. Huang, S. Ashizawa, “Equivalent lightness of colored objects at illuminances from the scotopic to the photopic,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 198–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, P. K. Kaiser, “Contributions of the opponent mechanisms to brightness and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 28, 799–810 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, “A model for brightness perception at mesopic levels,” Kogaku (Japanese Journal of Optics) 15, 295–302 (1986).

H. Yaguchi, M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res. 23, 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingling, C. R.

C. R. Ingling, E. Martinez-Uriegas, “The relationship between spectral sensitivity and spatial sensitivity for the primate r-g X-channel,” Vision Res. 23, 1495–1500 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itti, L.

L. Itti, C. Koch, “A saliency-based search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention,” Vision Res. 40, 1489–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, P. K.

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, P. K. Kaiser, “Contributions of the opponent mechanisms to brightness and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 28, 799–810 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497–523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambe, N.

R. M. Boynton, N. Kambe, “Chromatic difference steps of moderate size measured along theoretically critical axes,” Color Res. Appl. 5, 13–23 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, A.

Koch, C.

L. Itti, C. Koch, “A saliency-based search mechanism for overt and covert shifts of visual attention,” Vision Res. 40, 1489–1506 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojo, I.

R. Nasanen, H. Ojanpaa, I. Kojo, “Effect of stimulus contrast on performance and eye movements in visual search,” Vision Res. 41, 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kokoschka, S.

S. Kokoschka, W. K. Adrian, “Influence of field size on the spectral sensitivity of the eye in the photopic and mesopic range,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 119–126 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kokoschka, H. W. Bodmann, “A consistent system for the photometric evaluation of radiation over the whole range of adaptation,” in Proceedings of the CIE 18th Session, CIE Publication No. 36 (Central Bureau of the CIE, Paris, 1975), pp. 217–225.

Legge, G. E.

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading—V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1177 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lennie, P.

J. L. Barbur, J. Wolf, P. Lennie, “Visual processing levels revealed by response latencies to changes in different visual attributes,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 265, 2321–2325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levi, D. M.

R. S. Harwerth, D. M. Levi, “Reaction time as a measure of suprathreshold grating detection,” Vision Res. 18, 1579–1586 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh, “Effect of reduced contrast on visual acuity as measured with Snellen test letters,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 25, 469–474 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Luebker, A.

G. E. Legge, G. S. Rubin, A. Luebker, “Psychophysics of reading—V. The role of contrast in normal vision,” Vision Res. 27, 1165–1177 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

Mahon, L. E.

A. J. Vingrys, L. E. Mahon, “Color and luminance detection and discrimination asymmetries and interactions,” Vision Res. 38, 1085–1095 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makous, W.

H. C. Walkey, J. L. Barbur, J. A. Harlow, W. Makous, “Measurements of chromatic sensitivity in the mesopic range,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S36–S42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Uriegas, E.

C. R. Ingling, E. Martinez-Uriegas, “The relationship between spectral sensitivity and spatial sensitivity for the primate r-g X-channel,” Vision Res. 23, 1495–1500 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

Nagy, A. L.

Nakano, Y.

Y. Nakano, “A model of brightness perception and its application to individual data,” Kogaku (Japanese Journal of Optics) 21, 705–716 (1992).

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, P. K. Kaiser, “Contributions of the opponent mechanisms to brightness and nonlinear models,” Vision Res. 28, 799–810 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano, M. Ikeda, “A model for brightness perception at mesopic levels,” Kogaku (Japanese Journal of Optics) 15, 295–302 (1986).

Nakayama, K.

P. Verghese, K. Nakayama, “Stimulus discriminability in visual search,” Vision Res. 34, 2453–2467 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nasanen, R.

R. Nasanen, H. Ojanpaa, I. Kojo, “Effect of stimulus contrast on performance and eye movements in visual search,” Vision Res. 41, 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ojanpaa, H.

R. Nasanen, H. Ojanpaa, I. Kojo, “Effect of stimulus contrast on performance and eye movements in visual search,” Vision Res. 41, 1817–1824 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, D. A.

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J. Palmer, P. Verghese, M. Pavel, “The psychophysics of visual search,” Vision Res. 40, 1227–1268 (2000).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram of the stimulus used in the matching experiments to obtain measurements of effective contrast, Cmes, for a colored test target. Angles in roman type refer to angles subtended at the eye, and angles in italic type refer to angles in the plane of the display. (b) The pair of rings (test and reference) was presented in one of four positions on an arc at 7° eccentricity to reduce the effects of local adaptation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship of Cmes with Cp and Cs at each background luminance. Values of Cmes are the mean results of the five observers, for intermediate values of CD (see text). Data points corresponding to (Cp, Cs) pairs that were eliminated from the design because they were below threshold have been represented by interpolated values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between Cmes and CD at two background luminances. Effects of CD are shown (a) and (c) combined with the effects of Cp and Cs and (b) and (d) in isolation. Error bars indicate ±2 standard deviations from the mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cmes model predictions for all (Cp, Cs) pairs in the experimental design, for CD=0.1, at each background luminance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Between-subject and within-subject variability in Cmes, as a function of background luminance. For an explanation of how between-subject variability, Bvar, and within-subject variability, Wvar, was calculated, see text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measures of luminance contrast obtained from six mesopic, photometric models, as predictors of effective contrast. Rms error indicates how well each model predicted matches in contrast between the test and the reference stimuli in the effective contrast data set. Details of the models are given in the text. Rms errors for V(λ), V10(λ), and V(λ) and the Cmes model are shown for comparison.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Statistical Significance of the Effects of the Test Stimulus Parameters and Their Interactions on Cmes at Each Individual Light Levela

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of the Coefficients in the Cmes Model

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C=ΔLL=kαE(λ)Vλdλ-kE(λ)VλdλkE(λ)Vλdλ=α-1.
C=Ls-LbLb.
CD=[(as-ab)2+(bs-bb)2]1/2,
a=4x10-2x10+12y10+3,
b=9y10-2x10+12y10+3.
Erms=1N iN(Csystem,test,i-Csystem,ref,i)21/2.
sign-C=1ifC>00ifC=0-1ifC<0.
Cs+=CsifCs>00otherwise,
Cs-=CsifCs<00otherwise.
Cmes=exp[k1+f(main effects)+f(interactions)].
f(main effects)=k2|Cp|+k3sCp+k4Cs++k5Cs-+k6CD+k7(log10 Lb+3),
f(interactions)=k8|Cp|Cs++k9|Cp|Cs-+k10|Cp|CD+k11|Cp|(log10Lb+3)+k12sCpCs++k13sCpCs-+k14sCpCD+k15Cs+CD+k16Cs+(log10Lb+3)+k17Cs-(log10Lb+3)+k18CD(log10Lb+3).
Xn=XifCmes=Cmes,n0otherwise.

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