Abstract

We derive an algorithm for maximum-likelihood image estimation on the basis of the expectation-maximization (EM) formalism by using a new approximate model for depth-varying image formation for optical sectioning microscopy. This new strata-based model incorporates spherical aberration that worsens as the microscope is focused deeper under the cover slip and is the result of the refractive-index mismatch between the immersion medium and the mounting medium of the specimen. Images of a specimen with known geometry and refractive index show that the model captures the main features of the image. We analyze the performance of the depth-variant EM algorithm with simulations, which show that the algorithm can compensate for image degradation changing with depth.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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