R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, “Optical performance of fully and partially compensated adaptive optics systems using least-squares and minimum variance phase reconstruction,” Comp. Elec. Eng., 18, 451–466 (1992).

[CrossRef]

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Cochran, “Phase screen generation,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 1985).

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson, D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 372–383 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), pp. 435–478.

B. J. Herman, L. A. Stugala, “Method for inclusion of low-frequency contributions in numerical representation of atmospheric turbulence,” in Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Earth’s Atmosphere, P. B. Ulrich, L. E. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1221, 183–192 (1990).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson, D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 372–383 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).

[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, “Optical performance of fully and partially compensated adaptive optics systems using least-squares and minimum variance phase reconstruction,” Comp. Elec. Eng., 18, 451–466 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996), pp. 98–103.

J. B. Shellan, “Turbulence phase screen generation using a technique based on FFT-KL-Legendre polynomial analysis,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 2000).

J. B. Shellan, “An examination of the properties of partially corrected target illuminator beam following transmission through a turbulent atmosphere,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 2003).

B. J. Herman, L. A. Stugala, “Method for inclusion of low-frequency contributions in numerical representation of atmospheric turbulence,” in Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Earth’s Atmosphere, P. B. Ulrich, L. E. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1221, 183–192 (1990).

[CrossRef]

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

M. C. Roggemann, B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996), pp. 98–103.

M. C. Roggemann, “Optical performance of fully and partially compensated adaptive optics systems using least-squares and minimum variance phase reconstruction,” Comp. Elec. Eng., 18, 451–466 (1992).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372–1379 (1966).

[CrossRef]

J. Y. Wang, “Optical resolution through a turbulent medium with adaptive phase compensations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 383–391 (1977).

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R. J. Noll, “Zernike polynomials and atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207–211 (1976).

[CrossRef]

E. P. Wallner, “Optimal wavefront correction using slope measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1771–1776 (1983).

[CrossRef]

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).

[CrossRef]

R. G. Lane, A. Glindemann, J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,” Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992).

[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson, D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 372–383 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), pp. 435–478.

M. C. Roggemann, B. Welsh, Imaging Through Turbulence (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996), pp. 98–103.

J. B. Shellan, “Turbulence phase screen generation using a technique based on FFT-KL-Legendre polynomial analysis,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 2000).

G. M. Cochran, “Phase screen generation,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 1985).

B. J. Herman, L. A. Stugala, “Method for inclusion of low-frequency contributions in numerical representation of atmospheric turbulence,” in Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Earth’s Atmosphere, P. B. Ulrich, L. E. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE1221, 183–192 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. B. Shellan, “An examination of the properties of partially corrected target illuminator beam following transmission through a turbulent atmosphere,” (the Optical Sciences Company, Anaheim, Calif., 2003).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

In our computations the mean phase gradient was computed over all SAs that were at least 50% illuminated. For cases where the SA was fully illuminated, this computation is equivalent to taking the difference between the mean phases along opposite SA edges (average G tilt). The matrix inversion needed for the least-squares reconstructor was implemented by Matlab’s pseudoinverse algorithm pinv.

The computer runs described in this paper took approximately two full weeks to complete on a 1.2-GHz machine, so it was impractical to increase significantly the number of phase-screen realizations or the phase grid point resolution.