Abstract

Classical adaptive optics (AO) is now a widespread technique for high-resolution imaging with astronomical ground-based telescopes. It generally uses simple and efficient control algorithms. Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is a more recent and very promising technique that should extend the corrected field of view. This technique has not yet been experimentally validated, but simulations already show its high potential. The importance for MCAO of an optimal reconstruction using turbulence spatial statistics has already been demonstrated through open-loop simulations. We propose an optimal closed-loop control law that accounts for both spatial and temporal statistics. The prior information on the turbulence, as well as on the wave-front sensing noise, is expressed in a state-space model. The optimal phase estimation is then given by a Kalman filter. The equations describing the system are given and the underlying assumptions explained. The control law is then derived. The gain brought by this approach is demonstrated through MCAO numerical simulations representative of astronomical observation on a 8-m-class telescope in the near infrared. We also discuss the application of this control approach to classical AO. Even in classical AO, the technique could be relevant especially for future extreme AO systems.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2001 (2)

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Adaptive wavefront control algorithms for closed loop adaptive optics,” Math. Comput. Model. 33, 145–158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, 53–56 (1999).

R. Ragazzoni, “No laser guide stars for adaptive optics in giant telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 136, 205–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, L. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Efficient phase estimation for large-field-of-view adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1472–1474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347 (1994).

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics II. Experimental results of an optimize modal control,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 153–167 (1994).

B. L. Ellerbroek, “First-order performance evaluation of adaptive-optics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783–805 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

R. Dicke, “Phase-contrast detection of telescope seeing errors and their correction,” Astrophys. J. 198, 605–615 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abé, L.

D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, F. Ménard, C. Moutou, T. Fusco, L. Abé, T. Gillot, R. Soummer, P. Riaud, “VLT planet finder: specifications for a ground-based high contrast imager,” in Scientific Highlights 2002, F. Combes, D. Barret, eds. (EDP Sciences, Société Française d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Les Ulis, France, 2002).

Anderson, B.

B. Anderson, J. Moore, Optimal Control, Linear Quadratic Methods (Prentice Hall, London, 1990).

Anderson, D.

Arcidiacono, C.

E. Diolaiti, C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, E. Fedrigo, “Identification and rejection of waffle modes in layer-oriented adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1001–1010 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Assémat, F.

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, F. Assémat, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4167, 168–179 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J.

J. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 2 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.

Bello, D.

J.-M. Conan, B. Le Roux, D. Bello, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: performance with optimal wavefront reconstruction,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 209–215.

Beuzit, J.-L.

D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, F. Ménard, C. Moutou, T. Fusco, L. Abé, T. Gillot, R. Soummer, P. Riaud, “VLT planet finder: specifications for a ground-based high contrast imager,” in Scientific Highlights 2002, F. Combes, D. Barret, eds. (EDP Sciences, Société Française d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Les Ulis, France, 2002).

D. Mouillet, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, “ ‘Planet finder’ on the VLT: context, goals and critical specifications, for adaptive optics,” in Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, C. Aime, R. Soummer, eds., Vol. 8 of EAS Publications Series (European Astronomical Society, Petit-Lancy 2, Switzerland, 2002), pp. 193–199.

Brase, J.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buat, V.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Burgarella, D.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Butler, D.

N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Carbillet, M.

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carr, E.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, C.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cayatte, V.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Charton, J.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 72–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M.

F. Rigaut, M. Chun, B. Ellerbroek, C. D’Orgeville, “MCAO for Gemini South,” in Conceptual Design Review Documents, MCAO Conceptual Design Documentation, 2000; http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/adaptiveOptics/AOIndex.html .

Conan, J.-M.

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, L. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Efficient phase estimation for large-field-of-view adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1472–1474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, P.-Y. Madec, “Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559–1570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Conan, “Etude de la correction partielle en optique adaptative,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris XI, Paris, 1994).

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Madec, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, “Temporal characterisation of atmospheric wavefront for adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 471–474.

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, F. Assémat, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4167, 168–179 (2001).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, L. Mugnier, “Isoplanatic angle and optimal guide star separation for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1044–1055 (2000).
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J.-M. Conan, B. Le Roux, D. Bello, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: performance with optimal wavefront reconstruction,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 209–215.

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Noise propagation for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems IV, A. Kohnle, J. D. Gonglewski, T. J. Schmugge, eds., Proc. SPIE4538, 144–155 (2002).
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Conan, R.

N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Courbin, F.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

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C. Dessenne, “Commande modale et prédictive en optique adaptative classique,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris VII, Paris, 1998).

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Diolaiti, E.

N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

E. Diolaiti, C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, E. Fedrigo, “Identification and rejection of waffle modes in layer-oriented adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1001–1010 (2003).
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E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
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F. Rigaut, M. Chun, B. Ellerbroek, C. D’Orgeville, “MCAO for Gemini South,” in Conceptual Design Review Documents, MCAO Conceptual Design Documentation, 2000; http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/adaptiveOptics/AOIndex.html .

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R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the gemini-south 8-m telescope,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, W. Bellingham, ed., Vol. 4007 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2000), pp. 1032–1043.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Esposito, S.

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
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N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Fa- lomo, R.

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
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Farinato, J.

E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
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Feautrier, P.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 72–81 (2000).
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Fedrigo, E.

E. Diolaiti, C. Arcidiacono, R. Ragazzoni, E. Fedrigo, “Identification and rejection of waffle modes in layer-oriented adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4839, 1001–1010 (2003).
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E. Vernet-Viard, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Fedrigo, E. Marchetti, R. Fa- lomo, S. Esposito, M. Carbillet, C. Vérinaud, “Layer oriented wavefront sensor for mad: status and progress,” in Adaptive Optical System Technologies II, D. Bonaccini, P. L. Wizinowich, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 344–353 (2003).
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N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Flicker, R.

R. Flicker, F. Rigaut, B. Ellerbroek, “Comparison of multiconjugate adaptive optics configurations and control algorithms for the gemini-south 8-m telescope,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, W. Bellingham, ed., Vol. 4007 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2000), pp. 1032–1043.

F. Rigaut, B. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, “Principles, limitations and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1022–1031 (2000).
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Flores, H.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Foy, R.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-d wavefront sensing and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (M.-H. Ulrich, ed., Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.

Fusco, T.

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, “Optimal wave-front reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527–2538 (2001).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, L. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Efficient phase estimation for large-field-of-view adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1472–1474 (1999).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, F. Assémat, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics: comparison of phase reconstruction approaches for large field of view,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4167, 168–179 (2001).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Noise propagation for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems IV, A. Kohnle, J. D. Gonglewski, T. J. Schmugge, eds., Proc. SPIE4538, 144–155 (2002).
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J.-M. Conan, B. Le Roux, D. Bello, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: performance with optimal wavefront reconstruction,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 209–215.

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, G. Rousset, L. Mugnier, “Isoplanatic angle and optimal guide star separation for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 1044–1055 (2000).
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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

D. Mouillet, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, “ ‘Planet finder’ on the VLT: context, goals and critical specifications, for adaptive optics,” in Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, C. Aime, R. Soummer, eds., Vol. 8 of EAS Publications Series (European Astronomical Society, Petit-Lancy 2, Switzerland, 2002), pp. 193–199.

D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, F. Ménard, C. Moutou, T. Fusco, L. Abé, T. Gillot, R. Soummer, P. Riaud, “VLT planet finder: specifications for a ground-based high contrast imager,” in Scientific Highlights 2002, F. Combes, D. Barret, eds. (EDP Sciences, Société Française d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Les Ulis, France, 2002).

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
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Gavel, D.

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Gavel, D. T.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
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Gendron, E.

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347 (1994).

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics II. Experimental results of an optimize modal control,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 153–167 (1994).

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
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F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 72–81 (2000).
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E. Gendron, “Optimisation de la commande modale en optique adaptative: application à l’astronomie,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Paris VII, Paris, 1995).

Gigan, P.

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Gillot, T.

D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, F. Ménard, C. Moutou, T. Fusco, L. Abé, T. Gillot, R. Soummer, P. Riaud, “VLT planet finder: specifications for a ground-based high contrast imager,” in Scientific Highlights 2002, F. Combes, D. Barret, eds. (EDP Sciences, Société Française d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Les Ulis, France, 2002).

Graves, J.-E.

Guinouard, I.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Hammer, F.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
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Hippler, S.

N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Hubin, N.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 72–81 (2000).
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N. Hubin, E. Marchetti, E. Fedrigo, R. Conan, R. Ragazzoni, E. Diolaiti, M. Tordi, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, P.-Y. Madec, D. Butler, S. Hippler, S. Esposito, “The ESO MCAO demonstrator MAD: a European collaboration,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 27–35.

Jocou,

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Lacombe, F.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, E. Gendron, N. Hubin, G. Zins, E. Stadler, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Feautrier, “Status of the VLT Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS),” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. L. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 72–81 (2000).
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Lagrange, A.-M.

D. Mouillet, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, F. Ménard, C. Moutou, T. Fusco, L. Abé, T. Gillot, R. Soummer, P. Riaud, “VLT planet finder: specifications for a ground-based high contrast imager,” in Scientific Highlights 2002, F. Combes, D. Barret, eds. (EDP Sciences, Société Française d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Les Ulis, France, 2002).

D. Mouillet, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, “ ‘Planet finder’ on the VLT: context, goals and critical specifications, for adaptive optics,” in Astronomy with High Contrast Imaging, C. Aime, R. Soummer, eds., Vol. 8 of EAS Publications Series (European Astronomical Society, Petit-Lancy 2, Switzerland, 2002), pp. 193–199.

Lançon, A.

F. Hammer, F. Sayède, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, D. Burgarella, V. Cayatte, J.-M. Conan, F. Courbin, H. Flores, I. Guinouard, Jocou, A. Lançon, G. Monnet, M. Mouhcine, F. Rigaud, D. Rouan, G. Rousset, V. Buat, F. Zamkotsian, “The FALCON concept: multi-object spectroscopy combined with MCAO in near-IR,” in Scientific Drivers for ESO Future VLT/VLTI, Vol. 42 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2002), p. 139.

Laporte, P.

F. Assémat, F. Hammer, E. Gendron, F. Sayède, P. Laporte, M. Marteaud, M. Puech, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, F. Zamkotsian, “FALCON: a new-generation spectrograph with adaptive optics for the ESO VLT,” in Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems VI, J. D. Gonglewski, K. Stein, eds., Proc. SPIE5237, 211–222 (2004).
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A. Tokovinin, M. Le Louarn, M. Sarazin, “Isoplanatism in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1819–1827 (2000).
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M. Le Louarn, “Étoiles laser pour les grands télescopes: effet de cône et implications astrophysiques,” Ph.D. thesis (Université Lyon I–Claude Bernard, Lyon, France, 2000).

Le Roux, B.

J.-M. Conan, B. Le Roux, D. Bello, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics: performance with optimal wavefront reconstruction,” in Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, S. Esposito, R. Ragazzoni, eds., Vol. 58 of ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 2001), pp. 209–215.

Léna, P.

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics II. Experimental results of an optimize modal control,” Astron. Astrophys. 111, 153–167 (1994).

E. Gendron, P. Léna, “Astronomical adaptive optics I. Modal control optimization,” Astron. Astrophys. 291, 337–347 (1994).

Macintosh, B. A.

B. A. Macintosh, S. Olivier, B. Bauman, J. Brase, E. Carr, C. Carrano, D. T. Gavel, C. E. Max, J. Patience, “Practical high-order adaptive optics systems for extrasolar planet searches,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Technologies II, M. C. Roggeman, R. K. Tyson, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4494, 60–68 (2002).
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Madec, P.-Y.

C. Dessenne, P.-Y. Madec, G. Rousset, “Optimization of a predictive controller for closed-loop adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4623–4633 (1998).
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J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, P.-Y. Madec, “Wave-front temporal spectra in high-resolution imaging through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1559–1570 (1995).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the geometry of an MCAO system. Example with NL=4 layers, NDM=2 DMs, and NGS=3 guide stars.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the concept of unseen modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal diagram showing the different time intervals. φncor, φntur, and Φnres are integrated between n-1 and n, and un-1 is applied in the same time interval.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Enhancement factor of the Kalman filter ρ, in %, versus SNR for two sampling frequencies, 50 Hz (solid curve) and 100 Hz (dashed curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variance of the residual phase (in rad2) with unseen modes for a Kalman estimator (dashed–dotted curve) or the OMGI approach (solid curve) and without unseen modes with the Kalman estimator (dotted curve) or the OMGI approach (dashed curve). The turbulent-phase variance is also plotted for comparison (×’s). As the piston mode is not considered here, the x axis begins with the tilt mode. x=1 stands for the tilt. The values for Z4 and Z7 are underlined on the curves by adding the symbols +, △,  * , and ⋄.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the GSs geometry and of the directions for which the performance is estimated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimized model gains in the MCAO case, in the basis of the eigenmodes of [DMβDMN]T[DMβDMN]. Note that the effective x-axis range is the number of eigenmodes, 482 in this case.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between the Kalman approach (solid curve), the MOMGI approach (dashed–dotted curve), and the classical AO case (dotted curve). The Strehl ratio (in %) is plotted versus the position in the FOV in arc seconds.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Residual phase variance (in rad2) as a function of the Zernike mode for the Kalman approach (dashed–dotted curve) and the MOMGI approach (solid curve) on a GS. As the piston mode is not considered here, the x axis begins with the tilt. x=1 stands for the tilt.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Residual phase variance (in rad2) as a function of the Zernike mode for the Kalman approach (dashed–dotted curve) and the MOMGI approach (solid curve) at the center of the FOV. As the piston mode is not considered here, the x axis begins with the tilt. x=1 stands for the tilt.

Equations (56)

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ϕβitur(r)=j=1NLφtur,j(r+hjβi),
ϕβicor(r)=j=1NDMφcor,j(r+hjβi).
ϕαitur=MαiLφtur,
ϕαicor=MαiDMφcor.
Φαtur={ϕαitur}=MαLφtur.
φcor=Nu.
(φtur, u)=iϕαitur-ϕαicor2=iMαiLφtur-MαiDMNu2.
=φtur-φ^tur2φ,noise
u=P[α;DM]φ^tur
P[α;DM]=i[MαiDMN]TMαiDMN+i[MαiDMN]TMαiL,
ϕβimeas=ϕβitur.
yβi=Dϕβimeas+wi,
φ^tur=Wtomo Y,
Wtomo=Cφ[DMβL]T[DMβLCφ[DMβL]T+Cw]-1,
u=[[DMβDMN]T[DMβDMN]]+[DMβDMN]TY.
[DMβDMN]T[DMβDMN]
fn=1T(n-1)TnTf(t)dt.
{ϕβires}n=Φnres=MβLφntur-MβDMφncor,
φncor=Nun-1.
n+1=φn+1tur-φ^n+1tur2φ,noise.
Yn=DΦn-1res+wn,
Yn=D(MβLφn-1tur-MβDMNun-2)+wn.
φn+1tur=F{φntur, φn-1tur, φntur,}+νn,
φn+1tur=Aφntur+νn.
Cν=Cφ-ATCφA,
Xn+1=AXn+Bun+Vn,
Yn=CXn+wn,
Xn=φn+1turφnturφn-1turun-1un-2
Xn+1=A0000Id00000Id00000000000Id0Xn+000Id0un+νn0000,
Yn=D[00MβL0-MβDM N]Xn+wn.
X^n/n=X^n/n-1+Hn(Ynmeas-CX^n/n-1),
X^n+1/n=AX^n/n-1+Bun+AHn(Ynmeas-CX^n/n-1),
Hn=Cn/n-1CT(CCn/n-1CT+Cw)-1,
Cn+1/n=ACn/n-1AT+CV-ACn/n-1CT(CCn/n-1CT+Cw)-1CCn/n-1AT.
un=P[α;DM]φ^n+1/ntur,
σi2=|Ei(jω)|2|ϕ˜tur,i(jω)|2dω+|Hi(jω)|2|w˜i(jω)|2dω,
φ^n/ntur=φ^n/n-1tur+Hn1(Ynmeas-Dφ^n/n-1tur),
Hn1=Cν(DMβL)T[DMβLCν(DMβL)T+Cw]-1,
C(z)=i=0q-1aiz-i1+i=1p-1biz-i,
φn+1tur,m=i=1p-1biφn-itur,m+νn.
un=un-1+McomYnmeas,
φ^n+2/nφ^n+1/nφ^n/n=M1φ^n+1/n-1φ^n/n-1φ^n-1/n-1+M2(Ynmeas-M3un-2).
un=M4φ^n+1/n,
φn+1tot=φn+1cst+φn+1tur,
φn+1tur=F[φntur, φn-1tur, φn-2tur,]+νn,
φn+1cst=φncst.
Xn=φn+1cstφn+1turφntotφn-1totun-1un-2.
Xn+1=Id000000A0000IdId000000Id0000000000000Id0Xn+0000Id0un+0νn0000,
Yn=D[000MβL0-MβDMN]Xn+wn.
σres2=σres2(n=1:nmax)+n=nmax+1σres2(n),
σres2(n=1:nmax)+0.458(nmax+1)(-5/3)(D/r0)(5/3),
ρ=σres2(OMGI)-σres2(Kalman)σres2(OMGI).
y4=z4+z172,
y17=z4+z172,
yi=zi fori4andi17
σres,OMGI,z42σres,OMGI,z172σturb,z424+σturb,z1724σturb,z424.

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