Abstract

A new method of spectral characterization for color scanners by the use of adaptive estimation is proposed. It deals with estimation of high-dimensional reflectance vectors from low-dimensional scanner response vectors when the scanner departs from linearity. We first investigate the spectral linearity of the scanner, and then estimate the spectral reflectance adaptively based on the local statistics of a set of neighboring training samples. As the proposed characterization method does not utilize the mathematically recovered spectral responsivity, its inherent inaccuracy is not critical to the spectral characterization. Experimental results showed significant advantage of adaptive estimation when compared with other methods.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. W. MacDonald, M. R. Luo, Color Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1999).
  2. G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Kang, “Color scanner calibration,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 36, 162–170 (1992).
  4. P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration for scanners and media,” in Camera and Input Scanner Systems, W. C. Chang, J. R. Milch, eds., Proc. SPIE1448, 164–174 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration in electronic imaging devices using a look-up-table in interpolations,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 53–61 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Kang, P. G. Anderson, “Neural network applications to the color scanner and printer calibrations,” J. Electron. Imaging 1, 125–134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tominaga, “A neural network approach to color reproduction in color printers,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 173–177.
  8. G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Characterization of scanner sensitivity,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 103–107.
  9. J. E. Farrell, B. A. Wandell, “Scanner linearity,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 225–230 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479–489 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Thomson, S. Westland, “Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 442–449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Shi, G. Healey, “Using reflectance models for color scanner calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 645–656 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Dicarlo, B. A. Wandell, “Spectral estimation theory: beyond linear but before Bayesian,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1261–1270 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, A. Hosoi, Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “System design for accurately estimating the spectral reflectance of art paintings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6621–6632 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280–287 (2000).
  18. G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Digital color imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901–932 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling (Wiley, New York, 1996).
  20. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  21. Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Shi, G. Healey, “Using reflectance models for color scanner calibration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 645–656 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomson, S. Westland, “Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 442–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Haneishi, T. Hasegawa, A. Hosoi, Y. Yokoyama, N. Tsumura, Y. Miyake, “System design for accurately estimating the spectral reflectance of art paintings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6621–6632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280–287 (2000).

1997 (1)

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Digital color imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901–932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479–489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. E. Farrell, B. A. Wandell, “Scanner linearity,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 225–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration in electronic imaging devices using a look-up-table in interpolations,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 53–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

H. R. Kang, P. G. Anderson, “Neural network applications to the color scanner and printer calibrations,” J. Electron. Imaging 1, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Kang, “Color scanner calibration,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 36, 162–170 (1992).

Anderson, P. G.

H. R. Kang, P. G. Anderson, “Neural network applications to the color scanner and printer calibrations,” J. Electron. Imaging 1, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, K.

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280–287 (2000).

Brainard, D. H.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dicarlo, J. M.

Farrell, J. E.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Farrell, B. A. Wandell, “Scanner linearity,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 225–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funt, B.

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haneishi, H.

Hasegawa, T.

Hayes, M. H.

M. H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Healey, G.

Hong, G. W.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hosoi, A.

Hung, P. C.

P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration in electronic imaging devices using a look-up-table in interpolations,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 53–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration for scanners and media,” in Camera and Input Scanner Systems, W. C. Chang, J. R. Milch, eds., Proc. SPIE1448, 164–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280–287 (2000).

Kang, H. R.

H. R. Kang, “Color scanner calibration,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 36, 162–170 (1992).

H. R. Kang, P. G. Anderson, “Neural network applications to the color scanner and printer calibrations,” J. Electron. Imaging 1, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Komiya, Y.

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. W. MacDonald, M. R. Luo, Color Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1999).

MacDonald, L. W.

L. W. MacDonald, M. R. Luo, Color Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1999).

Miyake, Y.

Murakami, Y.

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Obi, T.

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Rhodes, P. A.

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Digital color imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901–932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479–489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Characterization of scanner sensitivity,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 103–107.

Shi, M.

Thomson, M.

M. Thomson, S. Westland, “Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 442–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tietz, J. D.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, S.

S. Tominaga, “A neural network approach to color reproduction in color printers,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 173–177.

Trussell, H. J.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Digital color imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901–932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479–489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Characterization of scanner sensitivity,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 103–107.

Tsumura, N.

Vora, P. L.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wandell, B. A.

Westland, S.

M. Thomson, S. Westland, “Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 442–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Color Res. Appl. (3)

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomson, S. Westland, “Colour-imager characterization by parametric fitting of sensor responses,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 442–449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (2)

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Digital color imaging,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6, 901–932 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electron. Imaging (4)

J. E. Farrell, B. A. Wandell, “Scanner linearity,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 225–230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Set theoretic estimation in color scanner characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 5, 479–489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration in electronic imaging devices using a look-up-table in interpolations,” J. Electron. Imaging 2, 53–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Kang, P. G. Anderson, “Neural network applications to the color scanner and printer calibrations,” J. Electron. Imaging 1, 125–134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (2)

H. R. Kang, “Color scanner calibration,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 36, 162–170 (1992).

F. H. Imai, R. S. Berns, “A comparative analysis of spectral reflectance estimation in various spaces using a trichromatic camera system,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 44, 280–287 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Murakami, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyama, Y. Komiya, “Spectral reflectance estimation from multi-band image using color chart,” Opt. Commun. 188, 47–54 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. W. MacDonald, M. R. Luo, Color Imaging: Vision and Technology (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1999).

M. H. Hayes, Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling (Wiley, New York, 1996).

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1991).

P. C. Hung, “Colorimetric calibration for scanners and media,” in Camera and Input Scanner Systems, W. C. Chang, J. R. Milch, eds., Proc. SPIE1448, 164–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Tominaga, “A neural network approach to color reproduction in color printers,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 173–177.

G. Sharma, H. J. Trussell, “Characterization of scanner sensitivity,” Proceedings of First IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Transforms and Transportability of Color (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 1993), pp. 103–107.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reverse nonlinear functions between the sensor response and the mean reflectance of the blue channel for color targets MCC, CDC, and Q14. The relationships of the red and green channels are similar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recovered spectral responsivity of the scanner using colors on MCC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the training sample number L and mean (top), standard deviation (middle), and maximum (bottom) of color difference ΔE94* of CDC.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Actual Linear Responses νk and Predicted Ones ν^k by Use of Mathematically Recovered Spectral Responsivity a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean, Standard Deviation (Std.), and Maximum (Max.) of Color Difference ΔE94* and Rms Error for the LRM Method in Candidate Included (In.) Case and Candidate Excluded (Ex.) Case, NAE, and the Proposed AE for Target CDC

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean, Standard Deviation (Std.), and Maximum (Max.) of Color Difference ΔE94* and Rms Error for the LRM Method in Candidate Included (In.) Case and Candidate Excluded (Ex.) Case, NAE, and the Proposed AE for Target IT8

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

νk=λLλHfk(λ)d(λ)r(λ)ls(λ)dλ+nk=λLλHmk(λ)r(λ)dλ+nk,
v=Mr+n,
ρ=Fk(v)=Fk(Mr+n),
|2Mk(i)-Mk(i-1)-Mk(i+1)|,
Mk0,
|νk-Mkr|δ,
u=Mr.
rˆ=Wu.
J=E{rˆ-r2},
W=RruRr-1,
Rru=E{ruT},
Rr=E{rrT},
W=KrMT(MKrMT)-1,
rmserror=(r-rˆ)T(r-rˆ)N1/2,
r=i=1Kaibi=Ba,
u=Mr=MBa=MB1a1+MB2a2,
B1=[b1, b1,  , bK-3],B2=[bK-2, bK-1, bK],
a1=[a1, a2,  , aK-3]T,a2=[aK-2, aK-1, aK]T.
a2=(MB2)-1(u-MB1a1).
r=B1a1+B2(MB2)-1(u-MB1a1).
ri*=B1a1*+B2(MB2)-1(u-MB1a1*),
a1*=[B1-B2(MB2)-1MB1]+[ri-B2(MB2)-1u],
Di*=ri*-ri.

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