Abstract

We had shown earlier that viewers prefer to look at artworks under illuminants of ∼3600 K. In the latest paper we tested the hypothesis that the preferred illuminant is one that appears neither warm nor cool and repeated the settings at each of four illuminances to test the stability of the findings. Observers looked at a neutral white reflectance standard hung on a matte-gray wall lit by overhead banks of lamps whose combined value could be adjusted continuously between 3000 and 4400 K while illuminance was kept constant. Illuminance ranged from 50 to 2000 lux. Observers adjusted color temperature until they were satisfied that the standard looked neither warm nor cool. The mean for a group of eight observers was approximately 3700, independent of intensity; this corresponds to a dominant wavelength of ∼580 nm. In a separate study four observers scaled the apparent warmth or coolness of flashes of equiluminant monochromatic lights; the warm–cool transition was between 560 and 580 nm; warmness was completely predicted by the perceived redness of each light as derived from hue and saturation scaling functions from the same group.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Thomson, The Museum Environment (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1986).
  2. A. A. Kruithof, “Tubular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).
  3. R. G. Davis, D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. W. Kesner, “Museum exhibition lighting: visitor needs and perceptions of quality,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22, 45–54 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).
  6. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, E. B. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2001), pp. 92–127.
  7. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display II, B. E. Rogowitz, M. H. Brill, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE1453, 381–389 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).
  11. I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.
  12. C. E. Sternheim, B. Drum, “Achromatic and chromatic sensation as a function of color temperature and retinal illuminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 838–843 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
    [Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

C. E. Sternheim, B. Drum, “Achromatic and chromatic sensation as a function of color temperature and retinal illuminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 838–843 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. W. Kesner, “Museum exhibition lighting: visitor needs and perceptions of quality,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22, 45–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. G. Davis, D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

A. A. Kruithof, “Tubular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

Abramov, I.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, E. B. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2001), pp. 92–127.

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display II, B. E. Rogowitz, M. H. Brill, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE1453, 381–389 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chan, H.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display II, B. E. Rogowitz, M. H. Brill, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE1453, 381–389 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chichilnisky, E. J.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
[Crossref]

Davis, R. G.

R. G. Davis, D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
[Crossref]

Drum, B.

Ginthner, D. N.

R. G. Davis, D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J.

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display II, B. E. Rogowitz, M. H. Brill, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE1453, 381–389 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, E. B. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2001), pp. 92–127.

I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.

Kesner, C. W.

C. W. Kesner, “Museum exhibition lighting: visitor needs and perceptions of quality,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22, 45–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kruithof, A. A.

A. A. Kruithof, “Tubular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

Scuello, M.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.

Sternheim, C. E.

Thomson, G.

G. Thomson, The Museum Environment (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1986).

Wandell, B. A.

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
[Crossref]

Weintraub, S.

I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

Winer, B. J.

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Scaling procedures for specifying color appearance,” Color Res. Appl. 13, 146–152 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. (1)

D. H. Brainard, B. A. Wandell, E. J. Chichilnisky, “Color constancy: from physics to appearance,” Cur. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2, 165–170 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (2)

R. G. Davis, D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27–38 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. W. Kesner, “Museum exhibition lighting: visitor needs and perceptions of quality,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 22, 45–54 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

A. A. Kruithof, “Tubular luminescence lamps for general illumination,” Philips Tech. Rev. 6, 65–73 (1941).

Other (6)

G. Thomson, The Museum Environment (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1986).

H. Chan, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, “Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling,” in Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display II, B. E. Rogowitz, M. H. Brill, J. P. Allebach, eds., Proc. SPIE1453, 381–389 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

I. Abramov, M. Scuello, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant” (2003). Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner accessed at www.arvo.org . (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology), Abstract 1916.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. (to be published).

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, “Color vision,” in The Blackwell Handbook of Perception, E. B. Goldstein, ed. (Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2001), pp. 92–127.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral distributions of the illuminators set at each of the end points of the available color temperature range and at the color temperature of the observers’ mean experimental settings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color temperature of illuminant chosen to appear “neither warm nor cool.” Observers viewed a neutral white standard while adjusting the illuminant at each of four illuminances. Mean settings are given for a group of eight observers. Dotted lines are boundaries for ±1 group standard deviation. The horizontal dashed line is the overall mean choice.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Data in Fig. 1 broken down to show effects of starting point on final choice. Trials that started with lights set at 3000, 3600, and 4400 K were averaged separately. Data were analyzed separately for each level of illuminance on the white standard viewed by the observers. The solid line shows the overall mean.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Perceived temperature of flashes of monochromatic lights equated for luminance. Observers rated each flash as warm or cool using percentage scales. Mean ratings are given for a group of four observers. Dotted boundaries on either side of each curve are ±1 group standard error of the mean.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Hue and saturation scaling of flashes of monochromatic lights equated for luminance. Observers rated the percentages of red, yellow, green, and blue in their sensations, as well as saturation. Hue data have been rescaled so that the sum of the hues equals the saturation for each light. Same observers as for Fig. 4. (b) Perceived temperature data from Fig. 4 together with perceived redness data from Fig. 5(a). The “Red+Sat” curve is exactly as in Fig. 5(a); the “Red” curve has been rescaled at each wavelength to remove the saturation function.

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