Abstract

CIELAB-based color-difference formulas are used to improve the prediction of visually perceived color differences through the introduction of various corrections to CIELAB. In our study we analyze the relative importance of these corrections. From the combined dataset employed for the development of CIEDE2000, we found that the improvement of CIE94 over CIELAB was considerably greater than that of CIEDE2000 over CIE94. Chroma-difference correction was the most important correction in both CIE94 and CIEDE2000. With an arbitrary value of 100 assigned to this correction, the score of the hue-difference correction in CIE94 was 21, and the scores of the four remaining corrections in CIEDE2000 were as follows: hue difference, 29; rotation term, 8; lightness difference, 8; and gray correction, 6. At 95% confidence level each of the corrections introduced in CIEDE2000 or CIE94 was statistically significant for the whole combined dataset, in agreement with the results reported by CIE TC 1-47 and 1-29. For the combined dataset, the differences between CMC and CIEDE2000 were found to be statistically significant at 95% confidence level, but the differences between CMC and CIE94 were not. From subsets of the combined dataset it was concluded that further analyses of the lightness-difference and gray corrections proposed by CIEDE2000 would be desirable, using new experimental data.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. , “Industrial colour-difference evaluation” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 1995).
  2. , “Improvement to industrial colour-difference evaluation” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2001).
  3. R. S. Berns, “The mathemathical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 93, Budapest, 1993, Vol. B, pp. 189–192; http://www.aic-colour.org .
  4. L. D. Griffin, A. Sepehri, “Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 108–115 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. M. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 425–435 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126–127 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Oleari, “Color opponencies in the system of the uniform color scales of the Optical Society of America,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677–682 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Kim, J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97, Kyoto, 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 446–449; http://www.aic-colour.org .
  13. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. S. Berns, “Derivation of a hue-angle dependent, hue-difference weighting function for CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings AIC Color 01, Rochester N.Y., 2001, pp. 638–641; http://www.aic-colour.org .
  17. S. S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching. Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Satzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), Chap. 4.
  23. R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Schultze, “The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances,” in Proceedings AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972, pp. 254–265; http://www.aic-colour.org .

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

G. M. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Griffin, A. Sepehri, “Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 108–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching. Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Alman, D. H.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Satzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), Chap. 4.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coates, E.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, M. D.

G. M. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. Y.

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, L. D.

L. D. Griffin, A. Sepehri, “Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 108–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. M.

G. M. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mann, H. B.

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching. Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Montag, E.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oleari, C.

Pérez, M. M.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poza, A. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Y.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reniff, L.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sepehri, A.

L. D. Griffin, A. Sepehri, “Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 108–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, D. R.

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Math. Stat. (1)

H. B. Mann, D. R. Whitney, “On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other,” Ann. Math. Stat. 18, 50–60 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (12)

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302–313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Griffin, A. Sepehri, “Performance of CIE94 for nonreference conditions,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 108–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126–127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “Further comments on CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 127–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan, M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, M. M. Pérez, “The weighting function for lightness in the CIE94 color-difference model,” Color Res. Appl. 21, 347–352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Dyers Colour. (5)

R. McDonald, “Industrial pass/fail colour matching. Part 3: colour-matching formulas,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 96, 486–497 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1—development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86–94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Coates, K. Y. Fong, B. Rigg, “Uniform lightness scales,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 97, 179–183 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128–132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189–198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

W. Schultze, “The usefulness of colour-difference formulas for fixing colour tolerances,” in Proceedings AIC/Holland, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 1972, pp. 254–265; http://www.aic-colour.org .

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Satzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000), Chap. 4.

R. S. Berns, “Derivation of a hue-angle dependent, hue-difference weighting function for CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings AIC Color 01, Rochester N.Y., 2001, pp. 638–641; http://www.aic-colour.org .

D. H. Kim, J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97, Kyoto, 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 446–449; http://www.aic-colour.org .

, “Industrial colour-difference evaluation” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 1995).

, “Improvement to industrial colour-difference evaluation” (CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, 2001).

R. S. Berns, “The mathemathical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 93, Budapest, 1993, Vol. B, pp. 189–192; http://www.aic-colour.org .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PF/3 computed by us for the weighted COM dataset (11273 color pairs), using the last three CIE-recommended formulas.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PF/3 increase when each of the five corrections of CIEDE2000 are removed one at a time. The PF/3 value obtained with the complete formula is 33.7. Results corresponding to the weighted COM dataset (11273 color pairs).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PF/3 increase when each of the two corrections of CIE94 are removed one at a time. The PF/3 value obtained with the complete formula is 38.3. Results correspond to the weighted COM dataset (11273 color pairs).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Color Pairs and Relative Weights (See Text) in the Geographical and Zonal Subsets Constituting the COM Dataset a

Tables Icon

Table 2 PF/3 Values for the COM Dataset (Weighted a and Unweighted) and Each of the Four Geographical Subsets, Obtained by Using Different Color-Difference Formulas b

Tables Icon

Table 3 PF/3 Values for the COM Dataset and Each of Its Five Zonal Subsets, Obtained by Using Different Color-Difference Formulas a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Average Values of Parameter VAB,i for CIEDE2000 and CIE94 Complete and Modified Formulas, Obtained by Using the COM Dataset and the Corresponding Zonal Subsets a

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔE00=ΔLkLSL2+ΔCkCSC2+ΔHkHSH2+RTΔCkCSCΔHkHSH0.5,
VAB,i=(ΔEi-FΔVi)2ΔEiFΔVi1/2,
F=ΔEiΔVi/ΔViΔEi1/2,
PF/3=100[(γ-1)+VAB+CV/100]3,
log10(γ)=1Nlog10ΔEiΔVi-log10ΔEiΔVi¯21/2,
VAB=1N(ΔEi-FΔVi)2ΔEiFΔVi1/2,
F=ΔEi/ΔViΔVi/ΔEi1/2,
CV=100 1N(ΔEi-fΔVi)21/2ΔE¯,
f=ΔEiΔViΔVi2.

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