Abstract

A procedure is described for modeling the behavior of astronomical bolometric interferometers. The scheme is based on the notion of eigenfields. The input and output eigenfields are those field distributions on the sky and at the detector to which the individual telescopes of an interferometer can couple. Eigenfields are more fundamental than eigenmodes and provide, regardless of optical configuration, an orthogonal basis for propagating the second-order statistical properties of a field from a source through the telescopes, through the beam combiners, and onto the detectors. With our scheme, it is possible to calculate the power coupled into coherent, partially coherent, and incoherent imaging arrays and to include the spatially distributed noise sources of the telescopes themselves.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  2. J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, “The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 969–986 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Quirrenbach, “Optical interferometry,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39, 353–401 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Beichman, “Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 719–723 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.
  9. S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. F. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1998).
  11. D. H. Martin, J. W. Bowen, “Long-wave optics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1676–1690 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, “Modal analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave quasi-optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1651–1659 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, A. Egan, “Mode conversion at diffracting apertures in millimeter and submillimeter wave optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1700–1702 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, K. G. Isaak, “Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase-transforming surfaces,” Infrared Phys. 36, 723–734 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Withington, M. P. Hobson, R. H. Berry, “Representing the behavior of partially coherent optical systems by using overcomplete basis sets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 207–217 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Berry, M. P. Hobson, S. Withington, “General approach for representing and propagating partially coherent terahertz fields with application to Gabor basis sets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 786–796 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, S. J. Bence, Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), Chap. 8.
  19. S. Withington, C. Y. Tham, G. Yassin, “Theoretical analysis of planar bolometric imaging arrays for THz imaging systems,” in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation: Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips, J. Zmuidzinas, eds., Proc. SPIE4855, 49–62 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Power coupled between partially coherent vector fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3061–3071 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Analyzing the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1376–1382 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, “The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 969–986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Analyzing the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1376–1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, “Modal analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave quasi-optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1651–1659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, K. G. Isaak, “Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase-transforming surfaces,” Infrared Phys. 36, 723–734 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, A. Egan, “Mode conversion at diffracting apertures in millimeter and submillimeter wave optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1700–1702 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Martin, J. W. Bowen, “Long-wave optics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1676–1690 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Ali, S.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Baldwin, J. E.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, “The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 969–986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beichman, C. A.

C. A. Beichman, “Terrestrial Planet Finder: the search for life-bearing planets around other stars,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 719–723 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bence, S. J.

K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, S. J. Bence, Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), Chap. 8.

Berry, R.

Berry, R. H.

Bowen, J. W.

D. H. Martin, J. W. Bowen, “Long-wave optics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1676–1690 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E.

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Danchi, W.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DiPirro, M. J.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dragovan, M.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Egan, A.

J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, A. Egan, “Mode conversion at diffracting apertures in millimeter and submillimeter wave optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1700–1702 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, L. D.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gear, W. K.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Goldsmith, P. F.

P. F. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1998).

Hagopian, M.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haniff, C. A.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, “The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 969–986 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, V.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Hobson, M. P.

Isaak, K. G.

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, K. G. Isaak, “Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase-transforming surfaces,” Infrared Phys. 36, 723–734 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, K.

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Langer, W. D.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C. R.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leisawitz, D.

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leisawitz, D. T.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D. H.

D. H. Martin, J. W. Bowen, “Long-wave optics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1676–1690 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. C.

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mauskopf, P.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Monnier, J. D.

J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moran, J. M.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Moseley, S. H.

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, J. A.

N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, “Modal analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave quasi-optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1651–1659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, K. G. Isaak, “Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase-transforming surfaces,” Infrared Phys. 36, 723–734 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, A. Egan, “Mode conversion at diffracting apertures in millimeter and submillimeter wave optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1700–1702 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, L.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Quirrenbach, A.

A. Quirrenbach, “Optical interferometry,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39, 353–401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riley, K. F.

K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, S. J. Bence, Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), Chap. 8.

Rossinot, P.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Shao, M.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swain, M. R.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, G. W.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Tham, C. Y.

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, C. Y. Tham, G. Yassin, “Theoretical analysis of planar bolometric imaging arrays for THz imaging systems,” in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation: Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips, J. Zmuidzinas, eds., Proc. SPIE4855, 49–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A. R.

A. R. Thompson, J. M. Moran, G. W. Swenson, Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Timbie, P.

S. Ali, P. Rossinot, L. Piccirillo, W. K. Gear, P. Mauskopf, P. Ade, V. Haynes, P. Timbie, “MBI: millimeter-wave bolometric interferometer,” in Proceedings of Experimental Cosmology at Millimeter Wavelengths (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2002), Vol. 616, pp. 126–128.

Trappe, N.

N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withington, S.

S. Withington, M. P. Hobson, R. H. Berry, “Representing the behavior of partially coherent optical systems by using overcomplete basis sets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 207–217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Berry, M. P. Hobson, S. Withington, “General approach for representing and propagating partially coherent terahertz fields with application to Gabor basis sets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 786–796 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Analyzing the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1376–1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Power coupled between partially coherent vector fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3061–3071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, “Modal analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave quasi-optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1651–1659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, K. G. Isaak, “Representation of mirrors in beam waveguides as inclined phase-transforming surfaces,” Infrared Phys. 36, 723–734 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, A. Egan, “Mode conversion at diffracting apertures in millimeter and submillimeter wave optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 1700–1702 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, C. Y. Tham, G. Yassin, “Theoretical analysis of planar bolometric imaging arrays for THz imaging systems,” in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation: Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips, J. Zmuidzinas, eds., Proc. SPIE4855, 49–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, S.

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yassin, G.

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Analyzing the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1376–1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, G. Yassin, “Power coupled between partially coherent vector fields in different states of coherence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3061–3071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Withington, C. Y. Tham, G. Yassin, “Theoretical analysis of planar bolometric imaging arrays for THz imaging systems,” in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation: Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips, J. Zmuidzinas, eds., Proc. SPIE4855, 49–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yorke, H. W.

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Quirrenbach, “Optical interferometry,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 39, 353–401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

D. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, X. Zhang, “The submillimeter probe of the evolution of cosmic structure (SPECS),” Astrophys. Space Sci. 269, 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Withington, E. Campbell, G. Yassin, C. Y. Tham, S. Wolfe, K. Jacobs, “Beam-combining superconducting detector for submillimetre-wave astronomical interferometry,” Electron. Lett. 39, 605–606 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

N. Trappe, J. A. Murphy, S. Withington, “The Gaussian beam mode analysis of classical phase aberrations in diffraction-limited optical systems,” Eur. J. Phys. 24, 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

S. Withington, J. A. Murphy, “Modal analysis of partially coherent submillimeter-wave quasi-optical systems,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 1651–1659 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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Infrared Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, “The application of interferometry to optical astronomical imaging,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 360, 969–986 (2002).
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J. D. Monnier, “Optical interferometry in astronomy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 789–857 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

M. Shao, W. Danchi, M. J. DiPirro, M. Dragovan, L. D. Feinberg, M. Hagopian, W. D. Langer, C. R. Lawrence, P. R. Lawson, D. T. Leisawitz, J. C. Mather, S. H. Moseley, M. R. Swain, H. W. Yorke, X. Zhang, “Space-based interferometric telescopes for the far infrared,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, P. J. Lena, A. Quirrenbach, eds., Proc. SPIE4006, 772–781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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K. F. Riley, M. P. Hobson, S. J. Bence, Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002), Chap. 8.

S. Withington, C. Y. Tham, G. Yassin, “Theoretical analysis of planar bolometric imaging arrays for THz imaging systems,” in Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation: Millimeter and Submillimeter Detectors for Astronomy, T. G. Phillips, J. Zmuidzinas, eds., Proc. SPIE4855, 49–62 (2002).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bolometric interferometer. The beams from two telescopes, T1 and T2, are superposed in a free-space beam combiner, W, before being fed into a total-power detector, D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One telescope of a bolometric interferometer. B is the input reference plane of the optical system T, and C is the output reference plane. In addition, A and D have been added, which are used when the telescope forms part of an interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-telescope bolometric interferometer. A is a far-field plane of the sky where a source is located, B is the aperture plane of the telescopes, C is the output of the telescopes, and D is the position of the detectors. The individual telescopes that make up the interferometer are denoted T1 and T2. Also shown between C and D is a pictorial representation of a beam combiner, although, in reality, any kind of beam combiner can be modeled.

Equations (46)

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x=[xα(1), xβ(1),, xα(N/2), xβ(N/2)]T,
w=Eaa,
x=Ebb,
y=Ecc,
z=Edd
c=Tb.
b=Tc.
Γ=bb=cc,
T=UΣV.
T=VΣU.
UU=VV=I,
R=TT
S=TT
TT=TT=I.
R=VΣΣV,
S=UΣΣU.
Ψ=EbV,Φ=EcU.
U=PU,
UU=UPPU=I
Ψ1=Eb1V1,
Ψ2=Eb2V2
Φ1=Ec1U1,
Φ2=Ec2U2
Φ1Φ1=Φ2Φ2=I,
Ψ1Ψ1=Ψ2Ψ2=I.
[Φ1 Φ2]=[Ec1 Ec2]U100U2,
Φ=EcU.
ΦΦ=UEcEcU,
W=ww,
y=Γw,
Γ=ΦΣΨ.
Y=yy.
Y=ΓWΓ.
Pc=Tr[ZD].
z1z2=12IIIIy1y2
z=Ky.
Z=KYK,
Pc=Tr[Z1 D1],
be=Ψx,ce=Φy,
ce=Σbe
Ce=ΣBeΣ,
Be=TI,
TI=ΣTIΣ+N,
N=T[I-ΣΣ].
N=N100N2.
Y=ΓWΓ+ΦNΦ.

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