Abstract

Deconvolution is a necessary tool for the exploitation of a number of imaging instruments. We describe a deconvolution method developed in a Bayesian framework in the context of imaging through turbulence with adaptive optics. This method uses a noise model that accounts for both photonic and detector noises. It additionally contains a regularization term that is appropriate for objects that are a mix of sharp edges and smooth areas. Finally, it reckons with an imperfect knowledge of the point-spread function (PSF) by estimating the PSF jointly with the object under soft constraints rather than blindly (i.e., without constraints). These constraints are designed to embody our knowledge of the PSF. The implementation of this method is called Mistral. It is validated by simulations, and its effectiveness is illustrated by deconvolution results on experimental data taken on various adaptive optics systems and telescopes. Some of these deconvolutions have already been used to derive published astrophysical interpretations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2003 (4)

A. Blanc, L. M. Mugnier, J. Idier, “Marginal estimation of aberrations and image restoration by use of phase diversity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1035–1045 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373–383 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Chauvin, M. Thomson, C. Dumas, J.-L. Beuzit, P. Lowrance, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, “Adaptive optics imaging survey of the Tucana–Horologium association,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 157–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

D. Hestroffer, F. Marchis, T. Fusco, J. Berthier, “Adaptive optics observations of asteroid (216) Kleopatra,” Research Note, Astron. Astrophys. 394, 339–343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Chauvin, F. Ménard, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, D. Mouillet, J.-C. Augereau, “Adaptive optics imaging of MBM 12 association. Seven binaries and edge-on disk in a quadruple system,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 949–956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Thomson, J.-C. Augereau, F. Marchis, C. Dumas, P. Lowrance, “No disk needed around HD 199143 B,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 219–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Marchis, I. de Pater, A. G. Davies, H. G. Roe, T. Fusco, D. Le Mignant, P. Descamps, B. A. Macintosh, R. Prangé, “High-resolution Keck adaptive optics imaging of violent volcanic activity on Io,” Icarus 160, 124–131 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

2001 (4)

F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, “A survey of Io’s volcanism by adaptive optics observations in the 3.8 micron thermal band (1996–1999),” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33141–33160 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Mugnier, C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, S. Salem, “Myopic deconvolution from wave-front sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 862–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Jayawardhana, A. Brandeker, “Discovery of close companions to the nearby young stars HD 199143 and HD 358623,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 561, L111–L113 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Characterization of adaptive optics point spread function for anisoplanatic imaging. Application to stellar field deconvolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 149–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. M. Mugnier, F. Marchis, “MISTRAL: Myopic Deconvolution Method Applied to ADONIS and simulated VLT-NAOS Images,” ESO Messenger 99, 38–45 (2000).

1999 (1)

T. Fusco, J.-P. Véran, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, “Myopic deconvolution method for adaptive optics images of stellar fields,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J.-M. Conan, L. M. Mugnier, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Myopic deconvolution of adaptive optics images by use of object and point-spread function power spectra,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4614–4622 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, T. Owen, “Neptune cloud structure and activity: ground based monitoring with adaptive optics,” Icarus 136, 168–172 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Magain, F. Courbin, S. Sohy, “Deconvolution with correct sampling,” Astrophys. J. 494, 472–477 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Kaaresen, “Evaluation and applications of the iterated window maximization method for sparse deconvolution,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 46, 609–624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Y.-L. You, M. Kaveh, “A regularization approach to joint blur identification and image restoration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 416–428 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

H. R. Künsch, “Robust priors for smoothing and image restoration,” Ann. Inst. Statist. Math. 46, 1–19 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

C. Bouman, K. Sauer, “A generalized gaussian image model for edge-preserving MAP estimation,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2, 296–310 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nunez, J. Llacer, “A general Bayesian image reconstruction algorithm with entropy prior: preliminary application to HST data,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 105, 1192–1208 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jefferies, J. C. Christou, “Restoration of astronomical images by iterative blind deconvolution,” Astrophys. J. 415, 862–874 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Schulz, “Multiframe blind deconvolution of astronomical images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1064–1073 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

F. Rigaut, G. Rousset, P. Kern, J.-C. Fontanella, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, P. Léna, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-m telescope: results and performance,” Astron. Astrophys. 250, 280–290 (1991).

M. C. Roggemann, “Limited degree-of-freedom adaptive optics and image reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4227–4233 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

G. Rousset, J.-C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, 29–32 (1990).

P. J. Green, “Bayesian reconstructions from emission tomography data using a modified EM algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 9, 84–93 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. Demoment, “Image reconstruction and restoration: overview of common estimation structures and problems,” 37, 2024–2036 (1989).

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, D. G. Politte, “Noise and edge artifacts in maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228–237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Stetson, “DAOPHOT: a computer program for crowded-field stellar photometry,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 191–222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. M. Titterington, “General structure of regularization procedures in image reconstruction,” Astron. Astrophys. 144, 381–387 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. Commenges, “The deconvolution problem: fast algorithms including the preconditioned conjugate-gradient to compute a MAP estimator,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 29, 229–243 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1974 (1)

J. Högbom, “Aperture synthesis with a non-regular distribution of interferometer baselines,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 15, 417–426 (1974).

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

Y. Biraud, “A new approach for increasing the resolving power by data processing,” Astron. Astrophys. 1, 124–127 (1969).

Acton, D. S.

S. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, I. de Pater, F. Marchis, H. Roe, D. S. Acton, O. Lai, P. Wizinowitch, P. Stomski, E. F. Young, C. P. McKay, “Near-infrared observations of Titan from the W. M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system,” manuscript available from the authors, e.g., fmarchis@astron.berkeley.edu.

Arsenault, R.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Augereau, J.-C.

G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Thomson, J.-C. Augereau, F. Marchis, C. Dumas, P. Lowrance, “No disk needed around HD 199143 B,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 219–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Chauvin, F. Ménard, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, D. Mouillet, J.-C. Augereau, “Adaptive optics imaging of MBM 12 association. Seven binaries and edge-on disk in a quadruple system,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 949–956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berthier, J.

D. Hestroffer, F. Marchis, T. Fusco, J. Berthier, “Adaptive optics observations of asteroid (216) Kleopatra,” Research Note, Astron. Astrophys. 394, 339–343 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bertsekas, D. P.

D. P. Bertsekas, Nonlinear Programming (Athena Scientific, Belmont, Mass., 1995).

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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Characterization of adaptive optics point spread function for anisoplanatic imaging. Application to stellar field deconvolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 149–156 (2000).
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J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, F. Marchis, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Deconvolution of adaptive optics images: from theory to practice,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 913–924 (2000).
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G. Chauvin, M. Thomson, C. Dumas, J.-L. Beuzit, P. Lowrance, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, “Adaptive optics imaging survey of the Tucana–Horologium association,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 157–162 (2003).
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G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Thomson, J.-C. Augereau, F. Marchis, C. Dumas, P. Lowrance, “No disk needed around HD 199143 B,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 219–223 (2002).
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Finger, G.

R. Lenzen, M. Hartung, W. Brandner, G. Finger, N. N. Hubin, F. Lacombe, A.-M. Lagrange, M. D. Lehnert, A. F. M. Moorwood, D. Mouillet, “NAOS-CONICA first on-sky results in a variety of observing modes,” in Instrumental Desigtn and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 944–952 (2002).
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Fusco, T.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
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G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Thomson, J.-C. Augereau, F. Marchis, C. Dumas, P. Lowrance, “No disk needed around HD 199143 B,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 219–223 (2002).
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G. Chauvin, F. Ménard, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, J.-L. Beuzit, D. Mouillet, J.-C. Augereau, “Adaptive optics imaging of MBM 12 association. Seven binaries and edge-on disk in a quadruple system,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 949–956 (2002).
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J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. M. Mugnier, F. Marchis, “MISTRAL: Myopic Deconvolution Method Applied to ADONIS and simulated VLT-NAOS Images,” ESO Messenger 99, 38–45 (2000).

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Characterization of adaptive optics point spread function for anisoplanatic imaging. Application to stellar field deconvolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 149–156 (2000).
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T. Fusco, J.-P. Véran, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, “Myopic deconvolution method for adaptive optics images of stellar fields,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 1–10 (1999).
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J.-M. Conan, L. M. Mugnier, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Myopic deconvolution of adaptive optics images by use of object and point-spread function power spectra,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4614–4622 (1998).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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Gaffard, J.-P.

F. Rigaut, G. Rousset, P. Kern, J.-C. Fontanella, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, P. Léna, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-m telescope: results and performance,” Astron. Astrophys. 250, 280–290 (1991).

G. Rousset, J.-C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, 29–32 (1990).

Gautier, S.

F. Champagnat, Y. Goussard, S. Gautier, J. Idier, “Déconvolution impulsionnelle,” in Approche bayésienne pour les problémes inverses, J. Idier, ed. (Hermès, Paris, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 115–138.

Gendron, E.

A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, J.-C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, 29–32 (1990).

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

Goussard, Y.

F. Champagnat, Y. Goussard, S. Gautier, J. Idier, “Déconvolution impulsionnelle,” in Approche bayésienne pour les problémes inverses, J. Idier, ed. (Hermès, Paris, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 115–138.

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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

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Hartung, M.

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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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Mugnier, L.

A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Characterization of adaptive optics point spread function for anisoplanatic imaging. Application to stellar field deconvolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 149–156 (2000).
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T. Fusco, J.-P. Véran, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, “Myopic deconvolution method for adaptive optics images of stellar fields,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 1–10 (1999).
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A. D. Storrs, C. Dunne, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, B. P. Weiss, B. Zellner, “A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/PC images,” Icarus (to be published).

J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, F. Marchis, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Deconvolution of adaptive optics images: from theory to practice,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 913–924 (2000).
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M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
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A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373–383 (2003).
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J.-M. Conan, L. M. Mugnier, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Myopic deconvolution of adaptive optics images by use of object and point-spread function power spectra,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4614–4622 (1998).
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A. Blanc, J. Idier, L. M. Mugnier, “Novel estimator for the aberrations of a space telescope by phase diversity,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 728–736 (2000).
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Northcott, M. J.

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Politte, D. G.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, D. G. Politte, “Noise and edge artifacts in maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228–237 (1987).
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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

F. Marchis, I. de Pater, A. G. Davies, H. G. Roe, T. Fusco, D. Le Mignant, P. Descamps, B. A. Macintosh, R. Prangé, “High-resolution Keck adaptive optics imaging of violent volcanic activity on Io,” Icarus 160, 124–131 (2002).
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F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, “A survey of Io’s volcanism by adaptive optics observations in the 3.8 micron thermal band (1996–1999),” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33141–33160 (2001).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

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F. Rigaut, G. Rousset, P. Kern, J.-C. Fontanella, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, P. Léna, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-m telescope: results and performance,” Astron. Astrophys. 250, 280–290 (1991).

G. Rousset, J.-C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, 29–32 (1990).

Robert, C.

Roddier, C.

F. Roddier, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, T. Owen, “Neptune cloud structure and activity: ground based monitoring with adaptive optics,” Icarus 136, 168–172 (1998).
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J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, F. Marchis, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Deconvolution of adaptive optics images: from theory to practice,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 913–924 (2000).
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Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, T. Owen, “Neptune cloud structure and activity: ground based monitoring with adaptive optics,” Icarus 136, 168–172 (1998).
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J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, F. Marchis, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Deconvolution of adaptive optics images: from theory to practice,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 913–924 (2000).
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S. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, I. de Pater, F. Marchis, H. Roe, D. S. Acton, O. Lai, P. Wizinowitch, P. Stomski, E. F. Young, C. P. McKay, “Near-infrared observations of Titan from the W. M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system,” manuscript available from the authors, e.g., fmarchis@astron.berkeley.edu.

Roe, H. G.

F. Marchis, I. de Pater, A. G. Davies, H. G. Roe, T. Fusco, D. Le Mignant, P. Descamps, B. A. Macintosh, R. Prangé, “High-resolution Keck adaptive optics imaging of violent volcanic activity on Io,” Icarus 160, 124–131 (2002).
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Roggemann, M. C.

Rouan, D.

J.-P. Véran, F. Rigaut, H. Maître, D. Rouan, “Estimation of the adaptive optics long-exposure point-spread function using control loop data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3057–3069 (1997).
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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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D. Gratadour, L. M. Mugnier, D. Rouan, “Image centering with a maximum likelihood estimator: application to infrared astronomical imaging,” in ADASS XIII, F. Ochsenbein, M. Allen, D. Egret, eds., Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series 30 (Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2004); manuscript available from the authors, Damien.Gratadour@onera.fr.

Rousset, G.

M. Hartung, A. Blanc, T. Fusco, F. Lacombe, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, R. Lenzen, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Experimental results,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 385–394 (2003).
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A. Blanc, T. Fusco, M. Hartung, L. M. Mugnier, G. Rousset, “Calibration of NAOS and CONICA static aberrations. Application of the phase diversity technique,” Astron. Astrophys. 399, 373–383 (2003).
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T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Characterization of adaptive optics point spread function for anisoplanatic imaging. Application to stellar field deconvolution,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 149–156 (2000).
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J.-M. Conan, L. M. Mugnier, T. Fusco, V. Michau, G. Rousset, “Myopic deconvolution of adaptive optics images by use of object and point-spread function power spectra,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4614–4622 (1998).
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F. Rigaut, G. Rousset, P. Kern, J.-C. Fontanella, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, P. Léna, “Adaptive optics on a 3.6-m telescope: results and performance,” Astron. Astrophys. 250, 280–290 (1991).

G. Rousset, J.-C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J.-P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, 29–32 (1990).

J. M. Conan, P. Y. Madec, G. Rousset, “Image formation in adaptive optics partial correction,” in Active and Adaptive Optics, F. Merkle, ed., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (Garching bei München, Germany, 1994), pp. 181–186.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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Snyder, D. L.

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Spyromilio, J.

A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

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S. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, I. de Pater, F. Marchis, H. Roe, D. S. Acton, O. Lai, P. Wizinowitch, P. Stomski, E. F. Young, C. P. McKay, “Near-infrared observations of Titan from the W. M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system,” manuscript available from the authors, e.g., fmarchis@astron.berkeley.edu.

Storrs, A. D.

A. D. Storrs, C. Dunne, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, B. P. Weiss, B. Zellner, “A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/PC images,” Icarus (to be published).

Thiébaut, E.

Thomas, L. J.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, D. G. Politte, “Noise and edge artifacts in maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228–237 (1987).
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Thomson, M.

G. Chauvin, M. Thomson, C. Dumas, J.-L. Beuzit, P. Lowrance, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, B. Zuckerman, D. Mouillet, “Adaptive optics imaging survey of the Tucana–Horologium association,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 157–162 (2003).
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G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, A.-M. Lagrange, D. Mouillet, J.-L. Beuzit, M. Thomson, J.-C. Augereau, F. Marchis, C. Dumas, P. Lowrance, “No disk needed around HD 199143 B,” Astron. Astrophys. 394, 219–223 (2002).
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A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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R. R. Howell, J. R. Spencer, J. D. Goguen, F. Marchis, R. Prangé, T. Fusco, B. D. L., G. J. Veeder, J. A. Rathbun, G. S. Orton, A. J. Groeholski, J. A. Stansberry, “Ground-based observations of volcanism on Io in 1999 and early 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33–129 (2002).

Véran, J.-P.

A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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T. Fusco, J.-P. Véran, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, “Myopic deconvolution method for adaptive optics images of stellar fields,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 1–10 (1999).
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J.-P. Véran, F. Rigaut, H. Maître, D. Rouan, “Estimation of the adaptive optics long-exposure point-spread function using control loop data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3057–3069 (1997).
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Walker, J. G.

Weiss, B. P.

A. D. Storrs, C. Dunne, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, B. P. Weiss, B. Zellner, “A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/PC images,” Icarus (to be published).

Wizinowitch, P.

S. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, I. de Pater, F. Marchis, H. Roe, D. S. Acton, O. Lai, P. Wizinowitch, P. Stomski, E. F. Young, C. P. McKay, “Near-infrared observations of Titan from the W. M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system,” manuscript available from the authors, e.g., fmarchis@astron.berkeley.edu.

Woillez, J.

A. Coustenis, E. Gendron, O. Lai, J.-P. Véran, J. Woillez, M. Combes, L. Vapillon, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, P. Rannou, “Images of Titan at 1.3 and 1.6 micron with adaptive optics at the CFHT,” Icarus 154, 501–515 (2001).
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S. Gibbard, B. A. Macintosh, C. E. Max, I. de Pater, F. Marchis, H. Roe, D. S. Acton, O. Lai, P. Wizinowitch, P. Stomski, E. F. Young, C. P. McKay, “Near-infrared observations of Titan from the W. M. Keck Telescope adaptive optics system,” manuscript available from the authors, e.g., fmarchis@astron.berkeley.edu.

Zellner, B.

A. D. Storrs, C. Dunne, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, B. P. Weiss, B. Zellner, “A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/PC images,” Icarus (to be published).

Zins, G.

G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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Zuckerman, B.

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A.-M. Lagrange, G. Chauvin, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, D. Rouan, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Mouillet, G. Rousset, P. Drossart, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, W. Brandner, N. Hubin, Y. Clenet, A. Stolte, R. Schoedel, G. Zins, J. Spyromilio, “First diffraction limited images at VLT with NAOS and CONICA,” in Instrumental Design and Performance for Optical/Infrared Ground-Based Telescopes, M. Iye, A. F. M. Moorwood, eds., Proc. SPIE4841, 860–868 (2002).
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F. Champagnat, Y. Goussard, S. Gautier, J. Idier, “Déconvolution impulsionnelle,” in Approche bayésienne pour les problémes inverses, J. Idier, ed. (Hermès, Paris, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 115–138.

A. D. Storrs, C. Dunne, J.-M. Conan, L. Mugnier, B. P. Weiss, B. Zellner, “A closer look at main belt asteroids 1: WF/PC images,” Icarus (to be published).

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J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, L. Mugnier, F. Marchis, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Deconvolution of adaptive optics images: from theory to practice,” in Adaptive Optical Systems Technology, P. Wizinowich, ed., Proc. SPIE4007, 913–924 (2000).
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G. Rousset, F. Lacombe, P. Puget, N. Hubin, E. Gendron, T. Fusco, R. Arsenault, J. Charton, P. Gigan, P. Kern, A.-M. Lagrange, P.-Y. Madec, D. Mouillet, D. Rabaud, P. Rabou, E. Stadler, G. Zins, “NAOS, the first AO system of the VLT: on sky performance,” in Adaptive Optical System Technology II, P. L. Wizinowich, D. Bonaccini, eds., Proc. SPIE4839, 140–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Five experimental Vlt-Naos-Conica images of an unresolved bright star recorded on Sep. 29, 2002, at 20:58 UT in the Brγ narrow band and used in the simulations (wavelength λ=2.166 μm, exposure time 2 s). The fourth one is used as the true PSF. The estimated Strehl ratios are 57%, 52%, 64%, 66%, and 58%. The corresponding Fried parameters are r0=17.5, 15.6, 20.7, 21.0 and 17.0 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

From left to right: original object used for the simulation, noiseless image by a perfect diffraction-limited telescope (for comparison), and simulated image obtained by adding noise to the convolution of the object by the PSF (the fourth of the PSFs shown in Fig. 1). Top, asteroid; bottom, galaxy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Best restorations of the asteroid obtained with quadratic regularization for the two noise models, without a positivity constraint. Left, stationary model; right, nonstationary model, which accounts for both photon noise and detector noise. Restoration errors are 2115 and 2052 ph/pix, respectively. These restored images are zoomed by a factor of two for better visualization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Restorations of the asteroid obtained with quadratic regularization and the nonstationary noise model, without (left) and with (right) the positivity constraint. Restoration errors are 2052 and 1764 ph/pix, respectively. These restored images are zoomed by a factor of 2 for better visualization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Restorations obtained with the edge-preserving prior, the nonstationary noise model, and the positivity constraint for the best values of the hyperparameters. Restoration errors are 1201 ph/pix for the asteroid (left) and 985 ph/pix for the galaxy (right). These restored images are zoomed by a factor of 2 for better visualization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Classical deconvolution using the mean PSF as the true one (left); myopic deconvolution (right). Restoration errors are 5139 and 2333 ph/pix, respectively, for the asteroid (top) and 1671 and 1365 ph/pix for the galaxy (bottom).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) image of Ganymede with ONERA’s AO bench at the 1.52-m telescope of Observatoire de Haute Provence on 1997/09/28, 20:18 UT. (b) Mistral deconvolution. (c) Synthesized image obtained by mapping broadband probe images of NASA’s data base into a view of Ganymede seen from Earth at the time (a) was taken (courtesy NASA/JPL/Caltech, see http://space.jpl.nasa.gov/). (d) Same synthesized image convolved with the Airy disk of a 1.52-m telescope, for comparison with the deconvolved image.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io observed with the Keck AO system in J, H, and K band (from left to right). The basic preprocessed images from February 20, 2001, are displayed on the first row. The second row corresponds to the same images after deconvolution. Albedo features, comparable with the 20-km resolution reconstructed Galileo/SSI image (right column) are easily detected. The last row shows the February 22, 2001, images, which are dominated by the presence of the Surt outburst.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Io observed by the Keck from February 19, 2001, and deconvolved with Mistral. Two hot spots, corresponding to Tvashtar (north) and Amirani, are clearly detected in the H and K bands. The bad seeing conditions of this observation induced very poor AO correction in the J band, which explains the poor restitution quality in the J band.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Left: Io observed with Naos–Conica on December 5th, 2001 (7:14:59 UTC), in the Brγ band (2.166 μm); north is up and east is left. The object itself is used for the wave-front sensing. The camera pixel scale is 13.25 mas. The seeing was 0.9 arcsec, and the estimated Strehl ratio is 35%. Right, deconvolution using Mistral. The two images are given in the same linear color scale. The white square represents the telescope diffraction limit at the observing wavelength.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

False-color images of Neptune obtain at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope with the Hokupa'a AO system on July 6, 1998, in a methane absorption band (1.72 μm) and deconvolved by Mistral. The object itself is used for the wave-front sensing. The top three images are individual 600-s exposures taken at 11:54:10, 12:29:38, and 13:03:29 UT time. The left and right images have been numerically rotated about Neptune’s rotation axis to match the central image and co-added to it to form the bottom images, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The color scale in the bottom right image shows the fainter details.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Logarithmic display of the images restored by Mistral; north is up and east is left. The chosen color scale saturates the high levels so as to make visible the faint details. Innermost rings and faintest satellites, first observed with Voyager in 1986, are also detected.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Top row, raw images of the circumstellar disk surrounding LkHα 263 C in J, H, and Ks (from left to right). Bottom row, corresponding deconvolved images. On all images the field of view is 2.2 arcsec, with north up and east to the left.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Left, Adonis image in the J band of HD 199143 A and B. The object itself is used for the wave-front sensing. Right, resulting image obtained with Mistral.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Naos–Conica image of the double star GJ 263; the angular distance between the two components is 0.040 arcsec. The raw image, as directly recorded by Conica, is shown in the middle, with a Mistral deconvolved version to the right. The recorded PSF is shown to the left. The object itself was used for the wave-front sensing. The C50S camera (0.01325 arcsec/pixel) was used with an FeII filter at the near-infrared wavelength 1.257 μm. The exposure time was 10 s. (See http://www.eso.org/outreach/press-rel/pr-2001/pr-25-01.html for more details).

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i=[h * o]n,
i=(h * o)n,
oˆ=argmaxo p(o|i)=argmaxo p(i|o)×p(o).
J(o)=Ji(o)+Jo(o),
JiP(o)=l,m(h * o)(l, m)-i(l, m)ln[(h * o)(l, m)],
Jimix(o)=l,m12σ2(l, m) [i(l, m)-(o * h)(l, m)]2,
σdet2=π2 [i(l, m)((l,m);i(l,m)0)]2.
σph2(l, m)=max[i(l, m), 0].
Jo(o)=μδ2l,mϕ(o(l, m)/δ),
ϕ(x)= |x|-ln(1+|x|)
[oˆ, hˆ]=argmaxo,h p(o, h|i)=argmaxo,h p(i|o, h)×p(o)×p(h)=argmino,h[Ji(o, h)+Jo(o)+Jh(h)].
Jh(h)=12f|h˜(f)-h˜m(f)|2Sh(f),

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