With a perfectly matched layer boundary treatment, a semivectorial finite-difference method is used to calculate the eigenmodes of a single-mode (SM) or multimode (MM) bent rib waveguide. A detailed analysis is given for the dependence of the bending losses (including the pure bending loss and the transition loss) on geometrical parameters of the bent rib waveguide such as the rib width, the rib height, and the bending radius. The characteristics of the higher-order modes are analyzed. It is shown that the bending loss of the fundamental mode can be reduced effectively by increasing the width and height of the rib. For an integrated device, undesired effects due to the higher-order modes of a MM bent waveguide can be removed by appropriate choice of the geometrical parameters. An appropriately designed MM bent waveguide is used to reduce effectively the bending loss of the fundamental mode, and a low-loss SM propagation in a MM bent waveguide is realized when the bending losses of the higher-order modes are large enough.
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