Abstract

In spite of the recent surge in the popularity of statistical approaches to vision, the joint statistics of coregistered range and light-intensity images have gone relatively unexplored. We investigate statistical correlations between images and the surface shapes that produced them. We determine which linear properties of range images can be best predicted from simple computations on intensity information, and we determine those properties of intensity images that best predict range information. We find that significant (up to ρ=0.45) and potentially exploitable correlations exist between linear properties of range and intensity images, and we explore the structure of these correlations.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. K. P. Horn, “Obtaining shape from shading information,” in The Psychology of Computer Vision, P. H. Winston, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975), pp. 115–155.
  2. W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. R. Lehky, T. J. Sejnowski, “Network model for shape-from-shading: neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields,” Nature 333, 452–454 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. A. Olshausen, D. J. Field, “Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1?” Vision Res. 37, 3311–3325 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Lewicki, B. A. Olshausen, “Probabilistic framework for the adaptation and comparison of image codes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1587–1601 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. van Hateren, A. van der Schaaf, “Independent component filters of natural images compared with simple cells in primary visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 359–366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. O. Hoyer, A. Hyvrinen, “Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images,” Network Comput. Neural Syst. 11, 191–210 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. Ruderman, W. Bialek, “Statistics of natural images: scaling in the woods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 814–817 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Field, “Scale-invariance and self-similar ‘wavelet’ transforms: An analysis of natural scenes and mammalian visual systems,” in Wavelets, Fractals, and Fourier Transforms, M. Farge, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Vassilicos, eds. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1993), pp. 151–193.
  10. J. Huang, D. Mumford, “Statistics of natural images and models,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 541–547.
  11. E. P. Simoncelli, “Modeling the joint statistics of images in the wavelet domain,” in Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing VII, M. A. Unser, A. Aldroubi, A. F. Laine, eds., Proc. SPIE3813, 188–195 (1999).
  12. C. Q. Howe, D. Purves, “Range image statistics can explain the anomalous perception of length,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13184–13188 (2002).
  13. V. S. Ramachandran, “Perception of shape from shading,” Nature 331, 163–166 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Sun, P. Perona, “Preattentive perception of elementary three dimensional shapes,” Vision Res. 36, 2515–2529 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Field, “What is the goal of sensory coding?” Neural Comput. 6, 559–601 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Huang, A. B. Lee, D. Mumford, “Statistics of range images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp. 324–331.
  17. E. MacCurdy, ed., The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Volume II (Reynal & Hitchcock, New York, 1938), p. 332.
  18. C. Wallschlaeger, C. Busic-Snyder, Basic Visual Concepts and Principles for Artists, Architects, and Designers (McGraw Hill, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  19. T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Coules, “Effect of photometric brightness on judgments of distance,” J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 19–25 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Egusa, “Effects of brightness, hue, and saturation on perceived depth between adjacent regions in the visual field,” Perception 12, 167–175 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. L. Taylor, F. C. Sumner, “Actual brightness and distance of individual colors when their apparent distance is held constant,” J. Psychol. 19, 79–85 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. G. Myers, Psychology (Worth, New York, 1995).
  24. J. E. Cutting, P. M. Vishton, “Perceiving layout and knowing distances: the integration, relative potency, and contextual use of different information about depth,” in Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol 5: Perception of Space and Motion, W. Epstein, S. Rogers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 69–117.
  25. M. Farne, “Brightness as an indicator to distance: relative brightness per se or contrast with the background?” Perception 6, 287–293 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. S. Langer, S. W. Zucker, “Shape-from-shading on a cloudy day,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 467–478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Mamassian, M. S. Landy, “Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings,” Vision Res. 38, 2817–2832 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. P. Ryan, Modern Regression Methods (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1997).
  29. A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994).
  30. H. D. Vinod, “Canonical ridge and econometrics of joint production,” J. Econometrics 4, 147–166 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. V. Mardia, J. T. Kent, J. M. Bibby, Multivariate Analysis (Academic, London, 1979).
  32. J. Braun, “Shape-from-shading is independent of visual attention and may be a ‘texton’,” Spatial Vision 7, 311–322 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

C. Q. Howe, D. Purves, “Range image statistics can explain the anomalous perception of length,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13184–13188 (2002).

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

P. O. Hoyer, A. Hyvrinen, “Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images,” Network Comput. Neural Syst. 11, 191–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

P. Mamassian, M. S. Landy, “Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings,” Vision Res. 38, 2817–2832 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. van Hateren, A. van der Schaaf, “Independent component filters of natural images compared with simple cells in primary visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. A. Olshausen, D. J. Field, “Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1?” Vision Res. 37, 3311–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Sun, P. Perona, “Preattentive perception of elementary three dimensional shapes,” Vision Res. 36, 2515–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

D. J. Field, “What is the goal of sensory coding?” Neural Comput. 6, 559–601 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Ruderman, W. Bialek, “Statistics of natural images: scaling in the woods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 814–817 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Langer, S. W. Zucker, “Shape-from-shading on a cloudy day,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 467–478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Braun, “Shape-from-shading is independent of visual attention and may be a ‘texton’,” Spatial Vision 7, 311–322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

V. S. Ramachandran, “Perception of shape from shading,” Nature 331, 163–166 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Lehky, T. J. Sejnowski, “Network model for shape-from-shading: neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields,” Nature 333, 452–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

H. Egusa, “Effects of brightness, hue, and saturation on perceived depth between adjacent regions in the visual field,” Perception 12, 167–175 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

M. Farne, “Brightness as an indicator to distance: relative brightness per se or contrast with the background?” Perception 6, 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

H. D. Vinod, “Canonical ridge and econometrics of joint production,” J. Econometrics 4, 147–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1955

J. Coules, “Effect of photometric brightness on judgments of distance,” J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 19–25 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1945

I. L. Taylor, F. C. Sumner, “Actual brightness and distance of individual colors when their apparent distance is held constant,” J. Psychol. 19, 79–85 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Basilevsky, A.

A. Basilevsky, Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994).

Bialek, W.

D. L. Ruderman, W. Bialek, “Statistics of natural images: scaling in the woods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 814–817 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bibby, J. M.

K. V. Mardia, J. T. Kent, J. M. Bibby, Multivariate Analysis (Academic, London, 1979).

Braun, J.

J. Braun, “Shape-from-shading is independent of visual attention and may be a ‘texton’,” Spatial Vision 7, 311–322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Busic-Snyder, C.

C. Wallschlaeger, C. Busic-Snyder, Basic Visual Concepts and Principles for Artists, Architects, and Designers (McGraw Hill, Boston, Mass., 1992).

Carmicheal, O. T.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coules, J.

J. Coules, “Effect of photometric brightness on judgments of distance,” J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 19–25 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cutting, J. E.

J. E. Cutting, P. M. Vishton, “Perceiving layout and knowing distances: the integration, relative potency, and contextual use of different information about depth,” in Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol 5: Perception of Space and Motion, W. Epstein, S. Rogers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 69–117.

Egusa, H.

H. Egusa, “Effects of brightness, hue, and saturation on perceived depth between adjacent regions in the visual field,” Perception 12, 167–175 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farne, M.

M. Farne, “Brightness as an indicator to distance: relative brightness per se or contrast with the background?” Perception 6, 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Field, D. J.

B. A. Olshausen, D. J. Field, “Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1?” Vision Res. 37, 3311–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Field, “What is the goal of sensory coding?” Neural Comput. 6, 559–601 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Field, “Scale-invariance and self-similar ‘wavelet’ transforms: An analysis of natural scenes and mammalian visual systems,” in Wavelets, Fractals, and Fourier Transforms, M. Farge, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Vassilicos, eds. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1993), pp. 151–193.

Freeman, W. T.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, E. L.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horn, B. K. P.

B. K. P. Horn, “Obtaining shape from shading information,” in The Psychology of Computer Vision, P. H. Winston, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975), pp. 115–155.

Howe, C. Q.

C. Q. Howe, D. Purves, “Range image statistics can explain the anomalous perception of length,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13184–13188 (2002).

Hoyer, P. O.

P. O. Hoyer, A. Hyvrinen, “Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images,” Network Comput. Neural Syst. 11, 191–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, D. Mumford, “Statistics of natural images and models,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 541–547.

J. Huang, A. B. Lee, D. Mumford, “Statistics of range images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp. 324–331.

Hyvrinen, A.

P. O. Hoyer, A. Hyvrinen, “Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images,” Network Comput. Neural Syst. 11, 191–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, G.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kent, J. T.

K. V. Mardia, J. T. Kent, J. M. Bibby, Multivariate Analysis (Academic, London, 1979).

Landy, M. S.

P. Mamassian, M. S. Landy, “Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings,” Vision Res. 38, 2817–2832 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langer, M. S.

Lee, A. B.

J. Huang, A. B. Lee, D. Mumford, “Statistics of range images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp. 324–331.

Lee, T. S.

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lees, J.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lehky, S. R.

S. R. Lehky, T. J. Sejnowski, “Network model for shape-from-shading: neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields,” Nature 333, 452–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewicki, M. S.

Mamassian, P.

P. Mamassian, M. S. Landy, “Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings,” Vision Res. 38, 2817–2832 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mardia, K. V.

K. V. Mardia, J. T. Kent, J. M. Bibby, Multivariate Analysis (Academic, London, 1979).

Meyer, D.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mumford, D.

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, D. Mumford, “Statistics of natural images and models,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 541–547.

J. Huang, A. B. Lee, D. Mumford, “Statistics of range images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp. 324–331.

Myers, D. G.

D. G. Myers, Psychology (Worth, New York, 1995).

Olshausen, B. A.

M. S. Lewicki, B. A. Olshausen, “Probabilistic framework for the adaptation and comparison of image codes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1587–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Olshausen, D. J. Field, “Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1?” Vision Res. 37, 3311–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pasztor, E. C.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Payne, B.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perona, P.

J. Sun, P. Perona, “Preattentive perception of elementary three dimensional shapes,” Vision Res. 36, 2515–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purves, D.

C. Q. Howe, D. Purves, “Range image statistics can explain the anomalous perception of length,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13184–13188 (2002).

Ramachandran, V. S.

V. S. Ramachandran, “Perception of shape from shading,” Nature 331, 163–166 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, R. D.

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, D. L.

D. L. Ruderman, W. Bialek, “Statistics of natural images: scaling in the woods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 814–817 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, T. P.

T. P. Ryan, Modern Regression Methods (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1997).

Sejnowski, T. J.

S. R. Lehky, T. J. Sejnowski, “Network model for shape-from-shading: neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields,” Nature 333, 452–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheffield, T. M.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simoncelli, E. P.

E. P. Simoncelli, “Modeling the joint statistics of images in the wavelet domain,” in Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing VII, M. A. Unser, A. Aldroubi, A. F. Laine, eds., Proc. SPIE3813, 188–195 (1999).

Sumner, F. C.

I. L. Taylor, F. C. Sumner, “Actual brightness and distance of individual colors when their apparent distance is held constant,” J. Psychol. 19, 79–85 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, P. Perona, “Preattentive perception of elementary three dimensional shapes,” Vision Res. 36, 2515–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, I. L.

I. L. Taylor, F. C. Sumner, “Actual brightness and distance of individual colors when their apparent distance is held constant,” J. Psychol. 19, 79–85 (1945).
[CrossRef]

van der Schaaf, A.

J. H. van Hateren, A. van der Schaaf, “Independent component filters of natural images compared with simple cells in primary visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hateren, J. H.

J. H. van Hateren, A. van der Schaaf, “Independent component filters of natural images compared with simple cells in primary visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinod, H. D.

H. D. Vinod, “Canonical ridge and econometrics of joint production,” J. Econometrics 4, 147–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vishton, P. M.

J. E. Cutting, P. M. Vishton, “Perceiving layout and knowing distances: the integration, relative potency, and contextual use of different information about depth,” in Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol 5: Perception of Space and Motion, W. Epstein, S. Rogers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 69–117.

Wallschlaeger, C.

C. Wallschlaeger, C. Busic-Snyder, Basic Visual Concepts and Principles for Artists, Architects, and Designers (McGraw Hill, Boston, Mass., 1992).

Yang, C.

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitlin, M. J.

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, S. W.

Int. J. Comput. Vision

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, O. T. Carmicheal, “Learning low-level vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 40, 24–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Econometrics

H. D. Vinod, “Canonical ridge and econometrics of joint production,” J. Econometrics 4, 147–166 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol.

J. Coules, “Effect of photometric brightness on judgments of distance,” J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 19–25 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Psychol.

I. L. Taylor, F. C. Sumner, “Actual brightness and distance of individual colors when their apparent distance is held constant,” J. Psychol. 19, 79–85 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Leading Edge

T. M. Sheffield, D. Meyer, J. Lees, B. Payne, E. L. Harvey, M. J. Zeitlin, G. Kahle, “Geovolume visualization interpretation: a lexicon of basic techniques,” Leading Edge 19, 518–525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Neurosci.

T. S. Lee, C. Yang, R. D. Romero, D. Mumford, “Neural activity in early visual cortex reflects behavioral experience and higher order perceptual saliency,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 589–597 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

S. R. Lehky, T. J. Sejnowski, “Network model for shape-from-shading: neural function arises from both receptive and projective fields,” Nature 333, 452–454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ramachandran, “Perception of shape from shading,” Nature 331, 163–166 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Network Comput. Neural Syst.

P. O. Hoyer, A. Hyvrinen, “Independent component analysis applied to feature extraction from colour and stereo images,” Network Comput. Neural Syst. 11, 191–210 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neural Comput.

D. J. Field, “What is the goal of sensory coding?” Neural Comput. 6, 559–601 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perception

H. Egusa, “Effects of brightness, hue, and saturation on perceived depth between adjacent regions in the visual field,” Perception 12, 167–175 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farne, “Brightness as an indicator to distance: relative brightness per se or contrast with the background?” Perception 6, 287–293 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. L. Ruderman, W. Bialek, “Statistics of natural images: scaling in the woods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 814–817 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. Q. Howe, D. Purves, “Range image statistics can explain the anomalous perception of length,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13184–13188 (2002).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B

J. H. van Hateren, A. van der Schaaf, “Independent component filters of natural images compared with simple cells in primary visual cortex,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265, 359–366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spatial Vision

J. Braun, “Shape-from-shading is independent of visual attention and may be a ‘texton’,” Spatial Vision 7, 311–322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

B. A. Olshausen, D. J. Field, “Sparse coding with an overcomplete basis set: a strategy employed by V1?” Vision Res. 37, 3311–3325 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Mamassian, M. S. Landy, “Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings,” Vision Res. 38, 2817–2832 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, P. Perona, “Preattentive perception of elementary three dimensional shapes,” Vision Res. 36, 2515–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. J. Field, “Scale-invariance and self-similar ‘wavelet’ transforms: An analysis of natural scenes and mammalian visual systems,” in Wavelets, Fractals, and Fourier Transforms, M. Farge, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Vassilicos, eds. (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1993), pp. 151–193.

J. Huang, D. Mumford, “Statistics of natural images and models,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999), pp. 541–547.

E. P. Simoncelli, “Modeling the joint statistics of images in the wavelet domain,” in Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing VII, M. A. Unser, A. Aldroubi, A. F. Laine, eds., Proc. SPIE3813, 188–195 (1999).

D. G. Myers, Psychology (Worth, New York, 1995).

J. E. Cutting, P. M. Vishton, “Perceiving layout and knowing distances: the integration, relative potency, and contextual use of different information about depth,” in Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Vol 5: Perception of Space and Motion, W. Epstein, S. Rogers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995), pp. 69–117.

J. Huang, A. B. Lee, D. Mumford, “Statistics of range images,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000), pp. 324–331.

E. MacCurdy, ed., The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Volume II (Reynal & Hitchcock, New York, 1938), p. 332.

C. Wallschlaeger, C. Busic-Snyder, Basic Visual Concepts and Principles for Artists, Architects, and Designers (McGraw Hill, Boston, Mass., 1992).

T. P. Ryan, Modern Regression Methods (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1997).

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